US 1328230 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. S. JOHNSTON.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 13, 1915.
1,328,23@ Patented Jan. 13, 1920.
3 SHEET$SHEEI I.
WITNESSES INVENTOR JAMES S. JOH/VSTO/V BY mzm ATTORNEY L S. JOHNSTON.
APPLICAUON FILED MAR. 13. 1915. l gg Patented Jan. 13, 1920.
INVENTOR dA MES 5 JOHNSTON ATTORN EY J. S. JOHNSTON.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. :3 m5
Patented Jan. 13, 1920.
WITNESSES: I INVENTOR 2m4/M/4 /M JAM56 SJ/017N670 ATTORNEY JAMES S. OHNS TON, 0F ETICA, NEW YORK.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 13, 1920.
Application filed March is, 1915. Serial No. 14,226.
To all whom it may concemt:
Be it known that I, JAMES S. JOHNSTON,
a citizen of the United States, residing at Utica, in the county of Oneida and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Machine- Guns, of.
which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawing. a
My invention relates to a machine gun and I declare the following to-be a full, clear,
concise, and exact-description thereof suflicient to enable any one skilled in the art to which it appertains to. make and use the same reference being bad to the accompanying drawings in which like reference charv acters refer to like parts throughout the specification. I
The object of the invention is to provide a simple, eficient machine gun adapted for both small arms and heavy artillery use,
' that can be fired very rapidly without foulshowing a vertical ing or over heating. Furthermore, the gun is provided with a plurality of revoluble barrels and with revoluble feeding drums which feed the cartridges into position to beexploded by the firing pins and thence projected through the barrels, as the same come into 'alinement with the cartridge receiving chambers of the revoluble feeding drums.
This object will be understood-by referring to the drawings in which perspective view of the gun;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the gun, showing the same with the barrels disposed at an angle;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view of the gun, A section of the forward casing or muflier;
Fig. 4: is a plan view of the-gun, showing parts in section;
crank handle employe Fig. 5 is a perspective detail view of a cylindrical feedirig drum somewhat enlarged; 4
Fig. 6 is an enlarged perspective detail view of a ratchet employed;
.Fig. 7 is a; fragmentary view of a cartridge belt, showing cartridges disposed therein;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged perspective view' of a firing pin employedt Fig. 9 is an enlargd side elevation of a cartridge used;
Fig. 10, is a detail perspective view of a Figure 1 is a A Fig. 11 is an enlarged perspective view of' a feeding drum, arbor and fragment of the V ings, the barrels of the gun are represented.
by -1- and are rigidly attached at their outer ends to the disk 2, shouldered at 3 for the mounting of a hollow cylindrical casing or muflier 4. The opposite ends of the barrels l are attachedin a secure manner to the flange portion 5 of the feeding drum 7 so as to turn therewith. The flange 5 has the apertures 6 which are the continuation of the bores of the barrels l and aline with the cartridge receiving chambers 22, adapted to conform to the shape of an ordinary cartridge, formed in the peripheral surface of the feeding drum 7. The flange 5 is revolubly mounted in the bearing 8 having the balls 9 disposed 'in the racewa 90 of the-plate 10, fixed to the easing 11 y the bolts 12. The casing 11 is pro vided with a wall 13 having bearings for the enlarged portion 14 of the flange 5 and for the outer ends of the arbors l5 and 16. The
formed therein the cartridge chambers 20. A
The chambers 20 of the auxiliary feeding drums 17 and 18 furnish the complementary part to the correspondingly shaped ehamers 22 of the center cylindrical feeding drum 7, which has a central orifice for mounting the same in a rigid manner upon the arbor 2 f. so as to turn therewith.
The center cylindrical feeding drum 7 and the auxiliary cylindrical feeding drums 17 and 18 are revolved in unison whereby the chambers 20 of the auxiliary feeding drums 17 and 18 and those 22 of the, central feeding drum 7 will be brought in 1pairs successively into complementary re ation' for the completehousing of-the cartridges 21 by the spur gears 31, 32 and 33 keyed or otherwise fixed to the outer ends of the ar- '0 the hot'air from the barrels land the bors 15, 24 and 16, respectively. The spur gears 31, 32 and 33 are in mesh with each other in train and are actuated by a smaller spur gear 35 rigidly mounted upon a shaft 36, secured in a loose bearing in the casing 37. The smallerspur gear 35 meshes wit the spur gear 32 and is driven inturn by the pinion spur gear 38 mounted to revolve with the shaft 39 of the electric motor 40.
The casing 37 furnishes bearings for the inner ends of the arbors 15, 16 and 24.
' There are mounted upon the arbors 15 and 16, the ratchets 41 and 42, respectively, which turn with the said arbors and when assembled lie partially within the recesses 43 formed in the ends of the auxiliary cylindrical feeding drums 17 and 18, so that the teeth 44 project a little beyond the recesses and outer edge of the said feeding drums 17 and 18. The teeth 44 of the ratchets 41 and 42 are engaged by the detents 45, de-
pending from the ends 46 of the firing pins 47, urged normally toward the cartridge receiving chambers 20 and 22, as the same come into complementary relation,- by the coiled spring 50 bearing at one end against the heads 46 of the firing pins 47 and at the the detents 45 behind the elevations of the.
other against the walls of the casing 37; The points 48 of the firing pins 47 will strike, when permitted to do so by the dropping of teeth 44 of the ratchets 41 and 42, the primers 49 of the cartridges 21 to explode the same. The inner bores of the barrels 1- are provided with spiral grooves or turns,
whereby to cause the projected bullets to revolvein their flight, as is yvell known in the art; 1
The arbor 24 is provided with a central cylindricalcrecess, which is continuous thro h the ieeding drum '7 and flange 5,
and a apted for the reception of a long bar other.
or shaft havin a loose bearing in said arbor-24 at one en and in the disk 3 at the The end of the shaft 60 adjacent the y muzzle ofthe gun supports, a fan 61, which is disposed within the casing or muffler .4
and clears the range of the barrels 1--.
The fan'61 is revolved, whereby to draw feeding drums 7, 17 and 18 for cooling urably held to the casing 37, which is shouldered at 76 for the reception of the adjacent edge of the casing 11, by the bolts 12.
aeaaaae The casing 37 is provided with the trunnions 50, having loose bearings in the upper ends of the standards 51, secured at their lower portions by bolts or other suitable means to the dial 52, mounted upon the base 53 having a shoulder 54 and raceways 55 and 56 for the balls 57. This mounting of the gun permits the same to be moved to any degree in a horizontal or perpendicular plane, whereby the muzzle may be directed toward an object in any position with reference to the gun.
zle of the same in any given direction.
The operation of the firearm is effected by first loading the cartridges 21 into the metallic belts 66 which are provided with the slits 67, 68 and 69 for the purpose. The rear edges of the belts 66 are turned down slightly at 91, whereby to engage the grooves 70 formed in the cartridges 21 adjacent the primers 49 .thereof, so as to prevent said cartridges from bein jarred loose from the belts 66. One of t e 'belts 66 is then fed upward from below between the feeding drums l8 and 7 and the other from above downward between the feedin drums 17 and 7. The gunis positioned or shooting. The front sight 100 and the rear sight 101 being used to secure the proper range. The
inotor 40 is started, or if a manual operation is preferred, the pinion 38 can be pushed clear of the spur gear 35, which may be re- 1 volved by a crank .75 having a socket for detachably engaging the squared end 92 of the shaft 36, whereby to revolve the spur gear 35 and, therefore, the gears 31, 32 and 33. The revolution of the gears 31, 32 and 33 will cause the feeding drums 7, 17 and 18 to turn and thereby automatically draw the cartridge belts 66 and the cartridges 21 A handle 58 is mounted I to the side of the gun for holding the muztherein along to the firing, position, which occurs as the chambers 22 of the center feeding drum 7 and the corresponding chambers 20 of the auxiliary feeding drums 17 and 18 come into complementary relation oppo site or in prolongation" of the corresponding bores ofthe barrels the revolution of the feeding drums 7, 17 and 18, the primers o the two cartridges 21 will be struck simultaneously by the heads 46 of the two firlng' pins 47, which are urged forward normall by the coiled springs 50,
as the detents 4 drop into the depressions 80 of the ratchets 41. Hence the bullets.
from'the cartridges 21 will be discharged through two of the barrels 1, located diametrically opposite each other, synchronously, while the other six barrels l are allowed to cool. As the barrels -1, feeding drums 7, 17 and 18', revolve continuously, the bullets will be pfojected through the said barrels --1 in pairs successively.
The base 53 is adapted for mounting'upon any suitable foundation, if desired-to use At this point inmaaaso the invention as a stationary gun, however, it can be attached to the chassis of an automobile for use in military field service.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a machine gun, barrels for the projection of bullets, cylindrical feeding drums having cha-nibers for the reception of cartridges, holes in said drums for cooling purposes, gears for revolving said barrels and feeding drums, firing ,pins actuated by ratchets and springs for discharging said cartridges, whereby the bullets thereof will be projected through certain of said barrels simultaneously, mechanical means for cooling said-gun, and a revoluble dial for mount ing'the same;
In a machine gun, a plurality of barrels adapted for the projection of bullets, cylindrical feeding drums having chambers for the reception of cartridges, arbors for mounting said feeding drums, gears attached to revolve with said arbors, means for actuating said gears, whereby to bring the cartridges into firing position, firing pins for exploding said cartridges, ratchets and springs for actuating said firing pins, a shaft disposed in a recess within one of said arbors, a fan attached to the end of said shaft, and an electric motor for revolving said shaft and fan to cool the gun.
In testimony whereof I have aifixed my signature in the presence of two witnesses. c JAMES'S. JOHNSTON.
T. L. WILDnR, SAMUEL SLOAN.