Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in South Africa and El Salvador
Cambridge University Press, 2000 M10 30 - 247 páginas
The recent replacement of authoritarian rule by democracy in both South Africa and El Salvador poses a puzzle: why did the powerful, anti-democratic elites of these countries abandon death squads, apartheid, and the other tools of political repression and take a chance on democracy? Forging Democracy From Below shows how popular mobilization--in El Salvador an effective guerilla army supported by peasant collaboration and in South Africa a powerful alliance of labor unions and poor urban dwellers--forced the elite to the bargaining table, and why a durable settlement and democratic government were the result.
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FROM CIVIL WAR TO DEMOCRACY
FROM CONSERVATIVE MODERNIZATION TO CIVIL WAR
THE STRUCTURAL FOUNDATION OF A PACT THE TRANSFORMATION OF ELITE INTERESTS
NEGOTIATING A DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION TO END CIVIL WAR
APARTHEID CONSERVATIVE MODERNIZATION AND MOBILIZATION
THE CHALLENGE TO ECONOMIC ELITE INTERESTS
FROM RECALCITRANCE TO COMPROMISE
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actors African Afrikaner agrarian reform agriculture agro-export alliance ANC's apartheid areas ARENA argue bantustan bargaining business organizations campesino capital civil conflicts civilian coffee compromise constitution COSATU costs countries death squads decline demobilization despite economic elites El Salvador elections electoral elite interests emergence employers export F. W. de Klerk FMLN guerrilla hardliners implementation increased influx control initial insurgent counter-elite interviews investment issues labor market labor-repressive institutions land landlords leaders leadership liberal Lipton militant military National Party neoliberal nomic O'Meara officers oligarchic societies ongoing ONUSAL P. W. Botha party's peace agreement peasant percent political mobilization political party profit rate racial reformist regime elites repression result role rural SACP Salvadoran sector security forces significant social South Africa Soweto uprising Stanley strike structure sustained Tenancingo tion transfer transition to democracy unions unrest urban Usulután violence wages workers