Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important?
Cambridge University Press, 1984 M07 27 - 241 páginas
This book is about the importance of animal size. We tend to think of animal function in chemical terms and talk of water, salts, proteins, enzymes, oxygen, energy, and so on. We should not forget, however, that physical laws are equally important, for they determine rates of diffusion and heat transfer, transfer of force and momentum, the strength of structures, the dynamics of locomotion, and other aspects of the functioning of animal bodies. Physical laws provide possibilities and opportunities for an organism, yet they also impose constraints, setting limits to what is physically possible. This book aims to give an understanding of these rules because of their profound implications when we deal with animals of widely different size and scale. The reader will find that the book raises many questions. Remarkable and puzzling information makes it read a little like a detective story, but the last chapter, instead of giving the final solution, neither answers all questions nor provides one great unifying principle.
Problems of size and scale
How to scale eggs
The strength of bones and skeletons
Blood and gas transport
Heart and circulation
The meaning of time
Animal activity and metabolic scope
running and jumping
Swimming and flying
Body temperature and temperature regulation
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allometric equations birds and mammals body mass body surface body temperature body weight Boidae bones brain calculated capillaries cardiac output colubrid confidence limits constant decreases diameter diffusing capacity dissociation curve elastic similarity elephant eutherian eutherian mammals exoskeleton factor factorial scope Figure fish flight fraction function gill groups heart heartbeat frequency heat production hemoglobin hemoglobin concentration higher hummingbirds increasing body independent of body kcal Kleiber large animal large mammals linear dimensions load lower lung volume mammalian mammals marsupials mass exponent maximal maximum measured metabolic power mitochondria ml O2 mouse muscle organs oxygen affinity oxygen consumption partial pressure passerine Pmet pressure range rate of oxygen red cells regression line related to body relationship relative respiration respiratory resting metabolic rate scaling shrews skeleton slope small animal species specific metabolic rate speed surface area Table tidal volume tion tissue unit variables vertebrates viscosity warm-blooded whales