Social Income and Insecurity: A Study in Gujarat
Social and economic insecurity takes several forms and affects the various groups that make up society in different ways. The problem is that development, so rapid in India in recent years, is altering the pattern of socio-economic insecurity, leaving some groups extremely vulnerable to personal disaster at the slightest mishap. This book develops an innovative concept of social income, a measure of all forms of income and income and income support that individuals, families and communities can receive. It demonstrates how people survive by calling on support from themselves, their families, communities, and the state, as also how many forms of such support have become unreliable and unequally distributed, leaving more people vulnerable to shocks and hazards.
Among the questions it addresses is whether the structure of social income is being changed by the commercialisation of economic development, and whether the changes are making people economically more insecure. It also considers whether income inequality is more or less unequal when account is taken of non-earned forms of income support. In doing so, the book argues that existing state policies are ineffectual; indeed, they have been contributing to an increase in income inequality.
The book will be of interest to students and scholars of economics, sociology and anthropology, and to NGOs, activists as well as administrators engaging with questions of poverty, income distribution and social protection policies
Social income is a novel way of looking at the various forms of income that individuals, families and communities obtain---some earned, some in money form, some non-monetary, and some as support available in times of need. Everybody has some form of social income, or they would not be able to survive. But few people in India have more than one or two forms of social income or enough of any one form as to ensure they can have a life of sufficient income security.
This book sets out to map the level and pattern of social income, drawing on a detailed survey conducted in the state of Gujarat in 2007-8. The data was experimental, providing proxy measures of the several components of social income, and showed how some forms of income are distributed heavily in favour of those with high money incomes, and certain other forms are less unequally distributed. The policy conclusions are stark, indicating clearly that government agencies need to redesign policy and restruture social income in favour of lower-income groups
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Social Income Globalisation and a World
Gujarat A Distinctive Development Model?
Money Incomes in Gujarat
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agricultural Ahmedabad Annual Household Earnings assets average Beneﬁts Index Beta coefficient borrowing BPL card caste panchayats casual labour cent Chapter community beneﬁts components of social conditional cash transfers daily earnings deﬁned distribution Earned Income employment enterprise beneﬁts entitlement extended family Female ﬁnancial crisis ﬁnancial products ﬁndings ﬁrst ﬁve forms Gender groups growth GSIS Gujarat healthcare HelpAge International home-based household income identity organisations income inequality income insecurity India indicators investment labour market less lndia lower castes money income Neighbourhood network non-agricultural non-SEWA obtain paid leave piece-rate workers poor poverty poverty line private beneﬁts propensity to save ration card reﬂection relatively respondents rural and urban rural areas salaried employees sample scheduled castes schemes schooling secondary sector self-employed SEWA members signiﬁcant social income structure of social subsidised food Surendranagar district survey Table Total urban areas villages wage women