Social Income and Insecurity: A Study in Gujarat

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Routledge, 2010 - 232 pages
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Social and economic insecurity takes several forms and affects the various groups that make up society in different ways. The problem is that development, so rapid in India in recent years, is altering the pattern of socio-economic insecurity, leaving some groups extremely vulnerable to personal disaster at the slightest mishap. This book develops an innovative concept of social income, a measure of all forms of income and income and income support that individuals, families and communities can receive. It demonstrates how people survive by calling on support from themselves, their families, communities, and the state, as also how many forms of such support have become unreliable and unequally distributed, leaving more people vulnerable to shocks and hazards.

Among the questions it addresses is whether the structure of social income is being changed by the commercialisation of economic development, and whether the changes are making people economically more insecure. It also considers whether income inequality is more or less unequal when account is taken of non-earned forms of income support. In doing so, the book argues that existing state policies are ineffectual; indeed, they have been contributing to an increase in income inequality.

The book will be of interest to students and scholars of economics, sociology and anthropology, and to NGOs, activists as well as administrators engaging with questions of poverty, income distribution and social protection policies

Social income is a novel way of looking at the various forms of income that individuals, families and communities obtain---some earned, some in money form, some non-monetary, and some as support available in times of need. Everybody has some form of social income, or they would not be able to survive. But few people in India have more than one or two forms of social income or enough of any one form as to ensure they can have a life of sufficient income security.

This book sets out to map the level and pattern of social income, drawing on a detailed survey conducted in the state of Gujarat in 2007-8. The data was experimental, providing proxy measures of the several components of social income, and showed how some forms of income are distributed heavily in favour of those with high money incomes, and certain other forms are less unequally distributed. The policy conclusions are stark, indicating clearly that government agencies need to redesign policy and restruture social income in favour of lower-income groups

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Contents

Social Income Globalisation and a World
1
Gujarat A Distinctive Development Model?
17
Money Incomes in Gujarat
34
Copyright

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About the author (2010)

Guy Standing is Professor of Economic Security at the University of Bath, UK
Jeemol Unni is RBI Chair Professor in Rural Economics at the Institute of Rural Management, Anand (IRMA), Gujarat
Renana Jhabvala is Chair of Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) Bharat, the National Federation of SEWA organisations, Delhi
Uma Rani is Senior Development Economist at the International Institute of Labour Studies, ILO, Geneva
Guy Standing is Professor of Economic Security at the University of Bath, UK. His research interests include labour economics, labour market policy, unemployment, labour market flexibility, structural adjustment policies, and social protection policy
Jeemol Unni is RBI Chair Professor in Rural Economics at the Institute of Rural Management, Anand (IRMA), Gujarat. Her research areas are rural and urban labour markets in developing countries, the informal sector, education, and social policies
Renana Jhabvala is Chair of Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) Bharat, the National Federation of SEWA organisations, Delhi. She is also the Chair of the Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) Board, an international network of activists, researchers and policymakers
Uma Rani is Senior Development Economist at the International Institute of Labour Studies, ILO, Geneva. Her research interests include development economics, the informal sector, social policies, and gender

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