The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception
Psychology Press, 1986 - 332 pages
This is a book about how we see: the environment around us (its surfaces, their layout, and their colors and textures); where we are in the environment; whether or not we are moving and, if we are, where we are going; what things are good for; how to do things (to thread a needle or drive an automobile); or why things look as they do.
The basic assumption is that vision depends on the eye which is connected to the brain. The author suggests that natural vision depends on the eyes in the head on a body supported by the ground, the brain being only the central organ of a complete visual system. When no constraints are put on the visual system, people look around, walk up to something interesting and move around it so as to see it from all sides, and go from one vista to another. That is natural vision -- and what this book is about.
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PART ONE THE ENVIRONMENT TO BE PERCEIVED
Permanence and Change of the Layout
The Qualities of Substantial Surfaces
The Environment of One Observer and the Environment of All Observers
FOUR THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STIMULATION
Do We Ever See Light as Such?
A Demonstration That the Retinal Image Is Not Necessary for Vision
What Is Seen at This Moment from This Position Does Not Comprise What
The Puzzle of Egocentric Awareness
TWELVE LOOKING WITH THE HEAD AND EYES
How Does the EyeHead System Work? Outline of a New Theory
The Fallacy of the Stimulus Sequence Theory
The Control of Locomotion and Manipulation
Rules for the Visual Control of Locomotion
FOURTEEN THE THEORY OF INFORMATION PICKUP
The Intercept Angle
How Is Ambient Light Structured? A Theory
A Special Case
The Optical Information for Perceiving Events
The Causation of Events
The Specifying of Limb Movements
EIGHT THE THEORY OF AFFORDANCES
A Recent History
Is There Evidence Against the Direct Perception of Surface Layout?
The Coperception of Ones Own Movement
ELEVEN THE DISCOVERY OF THE OCCLUDING EDGE
A New Approach to Knowing
FIFTEEN PICTURES AND VISUAL AWARENESS
A Theory of Drawing and Its Development in the Child
What About the Illusion of Reality? The Duality of Picture Perception
The Consciousness of the Visual Field
A Theory of Filming and FilmEditing
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affords ambient array ambient light ambient optic array behavior body brain called camera Chapter color concept considered contour DEPICTION depth perception described detached object direct perception display distance distinguished drawing earth ecological optics environment experimental experiments fact field of view film fixation flow geometry Gibson ground haptic hidden horizon illumination INFORMATION FOR VISUAL information pickup inputs invariant structure J. J. Gibson kind layout of surfaces locomotion looking magnification means medium motion picture movement moving nested occluding edge optical information optical structure optical texture perceive perceptual system persistence perspective structure photoreceptors physical plane point of observation projected proprioception psychology psychophysical receptors relative retinal image rigid rotation screen seen sensations sense sensory shadow sight space stimulus information substances surface layout surface of support terrestrial animals things transformation unhidden vision visual angle visual kinesthesis VISUAL PERCEPTION visual solid angle visual system visual world