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and the effects of it were aggravated in proportion to his former security.

Next follows the history of Themistocles, the Athenian. who after rising to great eminence by his military atchieve. ments, was banished from his country, and ended his days by poison, in the city of Magnelia.

The tenth instance, adduced is Cais Marius, in whom the mutability of fortune was singular and extreme. The author, had he pleased, might have concluded his account of this extraordinary personage with the following beautiful lines from the poet Lucar :

Ille fuit vitæ Mario modus, omnia passo
Quæ pejor fortuna habet, atque omnibus uso

Quæ melior, mensoque homini quid fata pararent. Belisarius affords the author the next instance ; though there is reason for thinking that the fate of this distinguished character has been misrepresented by historians; and to this Mr. Bicknell has attended.

Afterwards follow Mahomet, Alfred, cardinal Wolsey, and pope Sixtus the Fifth. For the amusement of our readers, and, at the same time, as a specimen of the work, we shall insert an extract from the history of this extraordinary person, who had been originally a ragged boy, attending hogs in the field.

. The method by which the heads of the Romith church is chosen, is either by scrutiny, by access, or by adoration. The first is done, by every cardinal's writing upon a long narrow Nip of paper, “ I give my vote to his eminence cardinal A. B. ;" and after this paper is folded in a particular form, he further infcribes on one of the folds, a motto of his own chusing ; as faith, hope, charity, peace, religion, jufiice, or such other word or words as he pleases. These tickets are put into a golden chalice that stands upon the altar in the chapel, where the scrutiny is made, and being afterwards poured out upon a table, if it happens that twothisds of the votes fall upon one perfun, he is immediately declared pope. But this very rarely comes to pass.

• If the election cannot be decided by a scrutiny, they proceed to access, or approach ; in which, a person being proposed by one of the cardinals, the rest accede, by saying, “ I accede to cardie nal D. and have a right to do so, as appears from my ticket, subscribed peace, justice, religion," or whatever the word might

be.

"The third is by adoration, and is thus performed : that car. dinal who is the candidate's chief friend, goes up to bim, and

making making a low reverence, cries out, A Pope! A Pope! When it happens that two thirds of the electors do the same, the adored cardinal is then acknowledged as pope ; but if there wants only one of that number, the election is void. Both access and ado. ration are usually confirmed, for formi's fake, by a scrutiny, which is feldom unfavourable to the election which has taken place.

• Through the asliduity and interest of his friends, cardinal Alexandrino and D’Este, after much cavilling and opposition, Montalto was chosen pope by adoration. While the cardinals were crowding towards him to congratulate him, he sat coughing, and weeping as if some great misfortune had befallen him. But when the cardinal Dean commanded them to retire to their respec. tive places, in order to proceed to a regular fcrutiny, he drew near to one of his friends, and whispered in his ear, “ Pray take care that the scrutiny is no prejudice to the adoration,” which was the first discovery he made of his ambition.

• It was observed, that while the scrutiny was carrying on, he walked backwards and forwards, and seemed to be in great agitation ; but the moment he perceived there was a sufficient number of votes to secure his election, he threw the staff, with which he used to support himself, into the middle of the chapel, stretched himself up, and appeared taller by almost a foot than he had done for several years.

• The cardinals, astonished at so sudden an alteration, looked at him with amazement; and one of them cried out, “ Stay a Little ! - softly!- there is a mistake in the scrutiny.” But Montalto, with a stern look, boldly answered, “ There is no mifake; the scrutiny is good, and in due form ;" and immedialely thundered out the Te Deum himself, in a voice that made the chapel thake.

• What will not fortitude and presence of mind do! Had Mon. talto noi acted with this firmness, there is not the least doubt buc that fo fudden a change of behaviour, and the cry of “ there being a mistake in the scrutiny," would have put a stop to the election, had the cardinals seconded the assertion. But they all Itood dumb and motionless, looking at each other, and biting the's lips. Or, had the dean, whose office it was to fing the Te Deum, commanded Montalto to defift, the other cardinals would have supported him in it, and he had been for ever excluded. They were, however, as before observed, so fascinated by the fingulasity of the circumstance, that they were unable to take the neceffary steps for retrieving the error they had committed.'

The remaining instances exhibited are Oliver Cromwell, Richard Cromwell, and Masaniello. The following anecdote, of Richard, is scarcely less memorable than the reverse of fortune which he experienced.

"By the death of his only fon, who was called, after his grandfather, Oliver, and who died in the year 1705, without issue, Richard became entitled to a life estate in the manor of Hurlley. It being necessary that he should take posession of it, he sent his youngest daughter into Hampshire for that purpose. But instead of taking possession of it in the name of her father, she and her filters, notwithstanding he had been the fondet of parents to them, forgetting their duty, and even humanity, refused to deliver it up to him. The reason they gave for doing this was, that they considered him as superannuated, and therefore proposed only to allow him a small sum yearly. This, Richard refused to accept, and commenced a suit against them, to obtain poffeffion. As the venerable old man was obliged upon this occasion to appear personally in court, his fifter, lady Fauconberg, sent her coach and equipage to conduct him thither.

" When he arrived at Westminster-hall, the judge, who is supposed to have been fir John Holt, (ftruck with the sad reverse of his fortune, and the ungrateful behaviour of his daughters), in a manner that did honour to him both as a magistrate and a gentleman, not only had him conducted into an apartment, where his. lordship had provided refreshments for him, and where he remained until the cause came on, but ordered a chair to be brought into court for him, and insisted, upon account of his very advanced age, that he should fit covered. One of the counsel on the other side being about to object to the indulgence of the chair, the judge immediately replied, “ I will allow of no reflections to be made, but that you go to the merits of the cause :" and when the arguments on both fides bad been heard, after speaking with a becoming severity of the shameful treatment of his daughters, he made an order in Richard's favour, observing, that they might have permitted an agent parent to enjoy his rights in peace for the small remains of life. When this conduct of the judge was reported to queen Anne, the bestowed some handsome commendarions on him for the proper attention thewn to one who had been a sovereign.'

The instances of the mutability of fortune, which this author has selected, are doubtless correspondent to his design; but the work might have afforded much greater variety, had he related the several histories with more conciseness, and ad. mitted a larger number of examples.

OCCA

OCCASIONAL RETROSPECT

ог

FOREIGN LITERATU R E.

FRANCE.

AT HE eleventh and twelfth volumes of the Bibliotheque de

l'Humme public have an peared at Paris. The works analifed in these volumes are chieily general Lloyd's Memoirs ; a Dil. course on the State of Europe, pronounced at the assembly of the friends of the conltiction, hy M. de Peysonnel, on the soch of March 1790, being the latt production of that useful writer; Wicqucfort on the Office of an Ambasador; an hifiorical Analysis concerning the Corn Laws of France. In the Memoirs of general Lloyd there are some important disquisitions concerning the exteni and nature of the French frontiers.

Thele volumes have been fullowed by volumes I. and II. of the second year of this publication. A memoir of M. Condorcet, one of the editors, on public education, appears in the first rolume. NI. de C. obferves, thai fociciv owes to the people a public edua Cation, 1. As a mean of rindering the equality of rights real; this ool gain conlls in allowing no juequality to sublift which may occafion dependence, and inequaliiy of instruction is one of the principal sources of tyranny. 2. To diminish the inequality which arises-from the difference of incral sentiments. 3. To increase the fund of uicful knowledge in society. The following opinion, applicable to the Sorbonne, we shall translate. - "The government ought above all to fun the error of confiding instruction to public bodies which recruit themselves. Their history is that of the cfforts they have made to perpetuate vain opinions, which enlightened men have long before arranged in the class of errors : li is that of their attempes to impose on the mind a yoke, by the aid of which they hope to prolong their credit, or enlarge their wealth. Whether shefe bodies be orders of monks, congregations of demi-moines, universities, simple corporations, the danger is equal. The initruction which they will give will always tend, not to increase the progress of knowledge, but to extend their power; not to teach the truth, but to perpetuate prejudices useful to their ambition, and opinions which serve their vanity,' &c. The remainder of this volume is occupied with extracts from the work of

Pastores

Pastoret on penal laws, and from Xenophon's work on the finaria ces of Attica; after which is subjoined an account of new political works. The second volume of the second year contains another memoir by M. de Condorcet, on public education, an analysis of Bielfeld's Political Institutions, and an account of new political works.

The "Memoires de la Vie privée de Benjamin Franklin, Pa. ris, 1791, 8vo. are a translation from the English; but the French translator is of very different political prirciples from the English editor. In vindicating Franklin from the charges of the editor, he observes, that the greatest part of the reproaches against Franklin, in the work of the English writer, originate in the absurd idea that the American revolution is the work of one man, or of a few men termed factious, a mistake common in all countries to the agents of a government which has fallen. Accustomed often to see the influence of one man in the former government, they persuade themselves that the succeeding changes are also the work of a few men, and not developing the multitude of causes which prepare and occasion a revolution, they fix their eyes and hatred on a small number of persons whom talents, place, or reputation, or even a chance of circumstances, expose to the chief notice. To is not considered that these men have no sirength, no power, except as the mere organs of a cominon interest, and of a general Deed.'

Baudin's La France Regenerée, a civic poem, is more remarkable for its patriotism than for any other merito

The Effais sur l'Art de l'Indigotier, or Essays on the Management of Indigo, by M. le Blond, may be interesting at a period when this culture attracts much notice in the East Indies.

M. de Liancour's Plan du Travail du Comité pour l'Extinction de la Mendicité; or design of the means to be followed by the committee for the extincion of beggary, deserves the applause of every benevolent mind. It is est.blished as a fundamental principle, that every person in a state bas a right to subsistence. In consea quence, society ought to provide for that of all the members who are in want : and labour is the proper mean of subsistence for those poor who are in a condition to work. The healthy poor, whom vice prevents from working, have only a right to mere subfift. ence, that the society may not reproach itself with their destruction : the infirm have a claim to complete assistance. If it be an indispensable duty for persons in a society to contribute to the subfiftence of those who cannot gain their bread, yet every contribution exacted for that end, above the amount absolutely necessary, is a violation of property and an injustice. Upon such principles does the committee proceed. The causes of beggary in France are then examined, and chiefly imputed to the now progress of agriC. R.. N. AR. (IV). Marcb, 1792, A 2

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