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The Sacred class presents crosses, vases, leaden seals, paintings, and inscriptions.
The Asiatic class has many curious monuments, idols, and coins.
Of the Cufic class the cardinal was the first great collector in Europe. The Cufic coins have been published by Adler at Rome, 1782, being the first numismatic work of that nature. Professor Affemani expresses his surprize at the long neglect in which the Cufic monuments have lain, though they be the remains of the Saracens or Arabs, a people who overturned the Persian empire, and contributed to the fall of the Grecian; and who, after spreading their conquests from the Indus to the Pgrenees, cultivated most arts and sciences with distinguished success. He adds, that Nani, a Venetian senator, has a great collection of Cufic coins, which have been illustrated by Affemani himself in the Museo Cufico Noviano, &c. Padova, 1787. Besides the 100 coins of this class published by Adler, there are 500 more in the Borgian Museum unexplained. To this division also belong a patera, on which the noted temple of the Caaba appears engraven, an idol of the Druses, a seal, and four gems, all published by Adler in the work above-mentioned; besides twenty other pateræ, some vases with various figures and Cufic inscriptions, and eighty gems, inscribed plates of lead and other metals, a monumental marble with Cusic letters, a complete astrolabe in fine preservation, and the globe now illustrated. Add Cufic manuscripts, and it will appear that the Borgian Museum is not a little opulent in this uncommon class.
The learned author then proceeds to mention that the globe, about to be described, was constructed by an astronomer named Caissar, or Cæsar, the son of Abi Alcasem Alabraki, at the command of Muhammed Alkamel VI. king of Egypt, in the year of the Hegira 622, or of the Christian æra 1225, as appears from an inscription on it.
Our learned professor then gives us a Differtation on the Astronomy of the Arabs, a people addicted to this science from very early times. Golius has observed that the Arabian names of Itars are mostly derived from pastoral life, and from the cate tle and flocks ever before the eyes of the first inventors. Some names of constellations are given in the book of Job, who, ac. cording to our author, and many other writers, was an Arab. But concerning the Arabian astronomy, prior to the age of Mohammed their prophet, no authentic intelligence remains.
When the Abbaslides ascended the throne of the east, Arabian science began to flourish. Most of the Greek works in philosophy, mathematics, and medicine, were translated into
verytonomy of profetion on if the chiking of
the Arabic language. In a short time, every city under the power of the Arabs begani not only to boast of schools, colleges, and academies, but of men eminently skilled in the sciences. The calif who contributed most to the cultivation of astronomy was Almamon, who began to reign A. D. 813: during his reign several astronomical tables were published, and those of Ptolemy were reduced into a more exact order. We shall not follow our author in his anecdotes of Arabian astronomy and astronomers, but must not omit to mention his defence of the Arabs against Brucker, who, in his Critical Hiftory of Philosophy, asserts that this nation added nothing to the astronomical observations of the Greeks, but, on the contrary, much depraved them; an opinion before confuted by Andres, in his book De Origine & Progrefu omnis Literature, Pariz, 1782, p. 146, &c. Professor Affemani remarks, that Albatani, or Albategni, alone added considerably to astronomy: i. he established that the fixed stars move towards the east on the poles of the ecliptic, one degree in seventy years; whereas Ptolemy allowed one hundred, and his estimation is far nearer the truth than that of Ptolemy; 2. he discovered the motion of the sun's apogee, which was before thought immoveable; 3. he corrected the errors of Ptolemy concerning the motion of the planets; 4. as he perceived that Ptolemy's canons differed from the real state of the heavens in his time, he composed new tables. This astronomer flourished A. D. 920. Halley terms him a wonderful author for the time, in the Phil. Traní. 1693, n. 204. The inventions of the Arabs in the mathematics, and their astronomical observations and instruments, are afterwards illustrated.
But we haiten to give the description of the remarkable celestial globe, which forms the subject of this treatise, as drawn up by the cardinal Borgia himself.
This globe is composed of a yellow metal, and so divided that one half may be put into the other. It is supported by four feet, of which two, opposite to each other, are quadrants of a vertical circie. The whole height of the machine is nineteen Roman inches and three quarters: the diameter of the globe about a Roman palm. The breadth of the two circles of the horizon and meridian is exactly given in the first plate, which also presents a smaller view of the whole machine.
The figures of the contellations are engraven in double lines, between which is drawn a vein of smalto rollo, red cement, or enamel. The stars are indented silver, as are the names of the chief ítars and constellations, and two Cufic inscriptions. Of the smaller stars the names also appear, but without ornament: nor has the horizontal circle, the meridian, or the other circles, any decoration. Yet the whole machine is so skilfully fa
bricated, bricated, and with such minute art, that it is worthy of the royal use for which it was designed.
The several constellations are afterwards described, and compared with those of Ptolemy: many of the names are Greek.
This curious work is illustrated with three good plates, presenting a minute and complete view of the several parts of this uncommon globe.
Ditionnaire, Grammaires, & Dialogues Tartares Mantchoux
François, redigés, & publiés avec des Additions considerables, par L. Langles, Auteur de l' Alphabet Tartare-Mantchou.
4 Vols. 410. Didot. Paris. 1791. THIS work, which at first appears to be of a very confined
nature, and only adapted to the curiosity of a few literati, acquires a general importance from the information that the last and the present emperors of China, themselves Mantchous, have ordered all the best books in the Chinese language to be translated into the Mantchou-Tartaric: and as the latter speech is not written with hieroglyphic characters, like the Chinese, but with an alphabet on the common model, the study of this dialect will afford a complete key to the Chinese literature.
In giving some account of this publication we shall chiefly follow the Proipectus of M. Langles. 'The Mantchou, he ob serves, is now the most learned and perfect of the Tartaric tongues, not excepting the sacred dialect of Tibet, or Tangut: for the latter he regards as a Tartaric speech, as he does the Sanskrit or ancient language of Hindoftan. The Tibetan dialect is celebrated as comprising the sacred books of Boudh, or Beddha, founder of Sabeism or Schamanism ; the Sanskrit presents those of Brahma, who only altered the dogmas, and appropriated to himself the ideas of the former : in a word, according to Mr. Langles, Brahma was only a Sabean heretic, and consequently posterior to Boudh, whose facred impostures may be regarded as the most ancient of all those which now exercise human credulity. But when Mr. L. proceeds to say that Boudh is the Fo of the Chinese, &c. he shews a strong propensity to that common error of antiquaries and etymologists, the reference of all objects to one favourite notion: and when he adds that Boudh is the Woden of the Goths, and the Torus of the Laplanders, he seems ignorant that the latter is only the Thor of the Gothic nations, a very different personage from Woden, and borrowed by the Laplanders from their Norwegian neighbours.
Alike unfortunate, their fate is such,
They prove too little, or they prove too much. Pope. To return from this digression : the formation of the Mantchou dialect is not very ancient, and it pofTeffed no appropriated letters till the time of the fifth ancestor of the present reigning dynasty in China. This prince, who reigned over the Mantchous about the year 1600, ordered some learned men to design characters after those of the Monguls: they only rectified the form of the latter, and added certain signs to express peculiar sounds. The Mongul letters are nearly the same with those of the Ouighours, which are clearly derived from the Stranghels, or ancient S iac. The successor of this prince ordered, in 1634, a translation of some Chinese works, and the composition of a code of laws for all the people subject to the Mantchou government. In 1641, a man of learning and genius, called Tahai, retouched the letters, and gave them a degree of perfection of which one would not have believed them capable.
Chun-tche, the first Chinese emperor of the Mantchou race, caused continue the translation of Chinese books, and compose dictionaries of both languages.
The celebrated Kan-hi established a tribunal of literati, equally versed in the Chinese, and in the Tartaric: fome laboured particularly in the translation of classical or historical works; others were occupied in a general dictionary, which was entitled The Mirror of the Mantchou-Tartaric Language, and in which no labour nor expence was fpared. Old men were interrogated concerning doubtful words; and rewards were proposed to any one who discovered an obsolete expreffion, worthy of a place in the dictionary, which is difpofed in the order of subjects. This work forms twenty-five volumes : and several copies of it are in the library of the French king.
Kien-long, who has reigned in China for these fifty-six years, has not shewn less regard than his predecessors to the useful labours of the tribunal of translators; and, by the indefatigable cares of many learned men, pensioned more than a century by the above-mentioned sovereigns, there is hardly at present one good work in the Chinese language which has not been translated, with the utmosft skill and attention, into the Mantchou. There numerous and excellent translations form a collection the more valuable, as it is very difficult even for natives, and almoít impossible for foreigners, to peruse the originals, written in a hieroglyhic character, the knowledge of which is hardly attainable in a life-time, whereas the Manta chou, which partikes of our European languages, has its me"hod and rules, and, in a word, is of clear intelligence. A Ntudious person may in five or fix years be in a condition to read with ease all the books written in this language. Since the end of last century, the French missionaries hare, of courie; devoted a particular attention to the Mantchou, which furnishes a long wished-for key to the whole treasure of Chinese
The fathers Gerbillon and Domenge long since invited different French literati to study the Mantchou, and fent them the necessary guides; but of which no use was then made. The former composed in Latin, an excellent grammar, intituled Elementa Linguæ Tartaricæ, printed, but without Tartaric characters, in Thevenot's Collection of Voyages : the latter composed for the use of M. de Fourmont an Eflay upon the Method of learning the Language of the Mantchous, which Mr. L. procured from a gentleman in whose hands the manuscript was But a Mantchou and Latin dictionary by father Verbieit, has as yet escaped his researches.
M. Amyot, who is so well known by his learned labours on the sciences and literature of the Chinese, has not been disheartened by the failure of the attempts of his predecessors. He sent to the minister, charged with the Chinese correspondence, a fyllabary, a grammar, and a dictionary of the Mant. chou language. M. Langlés was desired to examine these manuscripts, in order to form a judgment concerning their utility, The desire of contributing to the progress of learning, and the glory of introducing a learned language into Europe, induced him to an enterprise which might have appeared rash, and he dared to attempt to learn alone the Mantchou, by the assistance of the elementary works which had been entrusted to him.
Upon opening the grammar, instead of an alphabet, he beheld with surprise a syllabary of 1500 groups; but, reflecting that these groups could only be composed of letters, he endeavoured to analise them: and from this operation, riot yer undertaken by the Mantchous themselves, there resulted a complete alphabet of twenty-nine letters, most of which have three forms, accordingly as they are placed at the beginning, middle, or end of a word.
These letters, thus fimplified, facilitated the perusal of the Tartaric speech, and it became easy to cause engrave puncheons, which were reducible to a very sınáll number. This enterprise appeared the more useful, as the miniiter of the royal houshold had just put in order the superb founts of oriental characters belonging to the king's press, which had been bu ried in dust for a century: an event which happened in th: year 1787, and which was announced to the public by M. d:
Crit. Rey. N. AR. (IV.) Jan, 1792. H Guignea.