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we find

export fifty tons of ale called Beer. Such, Mr. Editor, is all the informaWhether we are to underland, by this tion I can at present afford your corre fingular expression, that ale and beer were' ipondent: unless a remark or two upon then distinguished as at present, on ac- the price of beer at different periods, be count of the larger portion of hops with added. which the latter is supplied, seems doubt.

At a dinner of the Salters' Company, ful.

in 1506, a kilderkin of ale coft 25. 3d. In the Domesday Survey, beer, brew- Among the dilbursements of the Priory ers, malt and brewing, frequently occur; of St. Mary Huntingdon toward the close aud in one of the inquisitions it is stated of Henry the 8th's reign we have braziabat cujuscunque uxor, 44. that is, "Item, for a doz, and a half of good $. d. that, “from every man whole wife brew- ale, agenst the comyog of the 3 ed, the superior lord received ten pence : visitors of our religion but I have found no mention of any thing « Item, for 10 doz. and of good which an antiquary could interpret hops, ale, agenit the visitation of my IS I have seen many books of receipts and

Lord of Lyncoln." payments, belonging to the religious of At a dinner of the Stationers' Company the middle ages, but do not recollect a July 5, 1558, a barrel of beer had got lingle instance of their use. The Northum- up to 45. ed. ; and in an inventory of the berland Houthold book, however, from Stock in Trade belonging to the Mouth 1512 to 1525 bas a particular mention Tavern, Bihopfgate, 1612, of bops for breuing, which seems to con- “ Two duflen and 8 bottles of ale recktradict the old received account, that oned at no less than 5s. 8d. hops and heresy came into England in I wish your correspondent success in the same reign: fee Baker's Chronicle, his researches, and am, Mr. Editor, his among the casualties of Henry the 8th's and your obedient Servant, Teign, viz.

A PORTER-DRINXER. ** About the 15th of Henry viii. it hapo pened that diverse things were brought into

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. England, where upon this rhime was made:

SIR, Turkies, Carps, Hopps, Piccarell and Beers,

T is rather surprising, considering the Came into England all in one Year.”

This perhaps may relate only to the paid to the productions of Nature, that cultivation of hops, when they were first our knowledge on this subject fhould itill planted in England, though the produce be in many instances very superficial and might be imported before from Flan. imperfect. A thorough acquaintance

wiih the structure or composition of naThe brewing of beer, however, is the tural bodies requires much laborious insubject of an entire section in the book I vestigation, and must long, perhaps to have just mentioned, an extract from the end of the world, continue defeative; which, as a few copies of the work were but the history of the more fensible qualiprinted only by the duke of Northumber- ties of animals, vegetables, or minerals, land, may be acceptable.

and of the various cifcumstances atiend“ A Brewing at Wrefill

ing them, which requires only attentive Fyrfe, paide at Wrefill for vi. quarters of observation, it might have been presumed multe affir vs. the quartir xxxS.

would have rapidly improved, and readily Item paide for vilb. of Hopps for the faide disentangled ittelf from any errors whici brewynge aftir 1d ob. the lb ixd.

might have beeu adopted in its infancy. bien paide for v score Fagsites for the saide That this has been the case in a great brewynge aftir v Faggotts id, ande after iis. degree, cannot be denied; some of the the C.-XX

many falli:ies respecting different subjects Summa, -xxxijs. vd.

of natural history which formerly passed Whereof is made xii hoggeskedes of beyr; current, have appeared too extravagant every hogerhede contenyrx, xlviii gallons for modern credulity, such as the ancient which is in all cccciiii xxxvj gall, aftir ob.

accounts of the Dragon, Phenix, Unia qu, the gall. Save iiis, viiu. les at all xxxiis, vd,"

corn, Mermaid, and other fiftitious ani.

mals, whose existence, had it been real, Wrefill was one of the duke of Northe must have been long since ascertained; umberland's castles, fituated in Yorkshire, the Lynx and the Salamander have been which left its splendar in the civil found wholly devoid of the wonderti



qualities ascribed to them, and the sto ry




respecting the Pelican may be pronounced been obtained, except an account which
a wilful misrepresentation. But if these appeared in the newspapers of August
accounts have at length been discarded, '1786, the authenticity of which is very
we are not without modern wonders of doubtful.
a very similar nature; it is not many In some instances, the love of wonder
years since astonishment was excited by has engrafted on real peculiarities much
the descriptions given of the Barnacle imaginary fingularity, as in the accounts
Goose, the Agnus Scythicus,or Plant-animal, which have been given of the Camelion,
and of that enormous mass of animal the Cookoo, the Elephant, and the fafcin-
materials the Kraken. The Barnacle ating power ascribed to Serpents. We
Goofe is a large fea-fowl, which it was are by no means to discard such accounts
afferted, was produced, not from the egg as unworthy of examination because they
of its own species, like all other birds, contain a large portion of the marvellous ;
but from a finall shell-fish of the multi for though an 'apparent departure froin
valve kind. Da Coita in his Natural Hif- the usual ceconomny of nature should ex-
tory of British Shells, noticing this strange cite our caution, it will by no means
conceit, believed not only by the com- warrant a hafty conclusion that it cannot
monality, but even by learned naturalists, be true; so far as competent testimony or
gives an instance in our countryman fair realoning leads us we ought willingly
Gerard : be firmly believed it, by facts to go, but the moment thele guides for-
which he says came within his own know. sake us, we should stop, and consider
ledge, and after reciting the story in a whether it is not better to suspend our
circumstantial manner, gravely ends his judgment than to risk adopting an error,
narrative in the following words, “ for Had these principles been adhered
the truth hereof, if any doubt, may it the animals jaft mentioned would proba-
please them to repair unto me, and I bly not have acquired so much' celebrity.--
ihall satisfie them by the testimonie of Let us examine their pretensions' to it.
good witnesses;” but though firmly be- The Camelion was said to live on ar; but
lieved by great numbers, the story is on dissection of loine of them, their fio-
now well known to be totally unfounded. machs have been found full of small
The Agnus Scythicus, or Plant-animal

, insects. Another quality ascribed to this was said to grow in Tartary. It was creature was that of changing at pleaproduced from a seed resembling that of sure the colour of its coat instantaneously : the melon, and grew to about the height this, however, is only true in a very liof three feet, having feet, hoofs, ears, mited degree; they certainly have the and the whole head excepting horns, power of dilating and contracting their resembling a Lamb. When wounded, a ikin, which may cause some alteration in liquor oozed out like blood, and it lived its hue, as may also removal from funas long as there was grass or herbage shine to shade ; it may likewise asume a around it; but when these were consumed, different appearance when the creature is it wasted and died. The wolves were irritated or frighted, as we see in the very fond of it, &c. Two or three flesy appendage of a Turkeys neck, and naturalists have written seriously on this even in fome degree in the human coun subject; the creature has been shown in tenance, but beyond this it appears no different museuins; and á figure of it is to polless any peculiar qualities. Of th: given in one of the early volumes of the Cookoo we are told, that when the breed Philosophical Transactions. It is scarcely ing reason arrives, it seeks for the nel s:eceffary to add, that the inquiries of of a Yellow Hamıner, a Hedge Sparrow travellers concerning it have been fruit- or other small bird, and taking a proper lels.

The Kraken has been described opportunity of the absence of the leg 4 as an animal of a crab-like form ; its proprietor, it devours or destroys the back or upper part, when it rises in the eggs it finds, and lays one of its own in water, being at least a mile and a half in their room, which is hatched by the bird circumference, and its horns sometimes to whom ihe nest belonged, who rears the appearing as high and large as the malts young Cookoo as its own offspring : othe of middle-sized vessels. It has been sup- accounts include more extraordinary cir posed that if it were to take the largest cumstances, but they are so contrary ! man of war in its arms or claws, it would all that is known of o her species of the pull it down to the bottom. The sup- feathered tribe, that, notwithitanding the poled existence of this creature rests on have of late been attested by some reipec the authority of Bishop Pontoppidon, as, table authorities, I cannot avoid surpedi since his time, no further particulars have ing that when we are in possession o

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nuore full and decisive evidence on the in form, and of which many more might fubject, some of the particulars will be have been readily found in almost any of * found erroneous. The Elephant, it was our chalk-pits. This reputed concretion alerted, would never couple in a state of of lightning, or caput mortuum of the domesticity. This was ascribed to the explotion, or whatever else it was conmolt elevated sentiments, which, could ceived to be, was not, however, always a they be proved, would indeed place this flinty substance ; the Philosophical Transanimal far above the level of the com- actions for 1738 contain an account of a mon nature of brutes. Buffon observes, small ball of sulphur found after a storm " that to be agitated by the most ardent in the Isle of Wight, and supposed to desires and to deny themselves the fatis- have been generated in the air. But we faction of enjoying thein; to love fue well know the discharge of a thunderriously and preserve iriodetty, are perbaps cloud has no tendency

to form such bothe lait efforts of human virtue ; which dies, and that if it had, they must have in this majestic animal are all suggested been very frequently found and conseby instinct. Enraged that he cannot gra- quently well known to us. tify his desires without witnesses, bis fury, The opinion of the petrifaction of Wa. stronger than his paffion, destroys the ter, appears equally unfounded with the effects of the latter, provokes at the same foregoing, although some years fince it time his anger, and is the cause that, in was adopted by naturalists, and is still these instants, the Elephant is more dan- current in those parts of England where gerous than any other wild animal.” Stalactites and other sparry concretions The British dominions in India contain are found. Dr. Plott (in h's History of thousands of living witnesses to the fallity Oxford hire) speaking of Stalactites, says, of this account. The fascinating power that the very body of the water is turned alcribed to the Rattle Snake and other into stone as it drops down from the Serpents, was laid not only to affect rocks. It does not require an acquaintHares, Squirrels, Partridges and the like, ance with modern experiments on the in such a manner as to make them run compofition or decomposition of water, directly into their mouths, but even to to be convinced that an unconfinad fluid extend its influence to the human species. cannot be petrified, and that, though The inquiries of Dr. Barton, and Mr. water is che vehicle in forming sparry Ritterhouse in America, where there must concretions and incrustations, it does not be the belt opportuni:ies for ascertaining enter into their composition in a gr-ater the fact, have, however, shown that this degree than into that of moit other extrao: dinary circumstance may be re!olve mineral subftances. The petrifying quaed into the expressions of f-ar coinmon lity afcribed to the water of Laugh-neagh to mott linall animals when their own lite lake in Ireland, arole entirely from the or that of their young is in danger.

circumítance of considerable quantiiies of I here are other accounts which cannot foisil wood having been found on the be called exaggerations, for, having shores of it; but that the water itselt been built on a talle foundation, they are contains no such quality, has been fully toond to be wholly erroneous. Of this proved by experiments made for the purkind is the opinion which was very coin- pose. monly entertained previous to the dif- In fome instances, the improbability covery of the analogy between lightning of the affected fact justly excites doubts and ihe electric fluid, of the fall of respecting it, although it may be of a Thunder bolts. The form or fiibitance of nature which renders it very difficult 10 this body, which was supposed to be ascertain the truth ; tuch is the opinion generated in the air during thunder- of no venemous animal living in Ireland ; itorms, and to be the instrument of the which implies the imp obable circummitchief they fonietimes occasion, was itarce of lomething in the foil or climate wholly undetermired, though, from the of that illand 10 iftentially diffeient from great number of thunder-storms which this country, that animals which 'eel no have happened since the creation, it might inconvenience here could not exiit i here. have been supposed they could not be We are far from certain that even of Very scarce in any country. Some years the few venemous animals of this country ago I was shown, by a collector of natural there are one in the interior part of curiofities, several stones which he affirmed Ireland: but even if this is really the were thunder-bolts, though they evidently cale, it may be merely the consequence were nothing more than common black of its being an island, and there may be Aints which happened to be merely similar others equally fortunate in this respect ;


nor ean it be expected that the naturalists where it is effectually deprived of these of Ireland will ever attempt to determine essentials. The only supposition then, the point by the importation of fuch which can give any degree of probability animals ; it would be folly to risk the to such accounts is, that the animal may introduction of a dangerous race of crea- almost immediately after its inclosure fall tures, merely to refute an affertion fo into fuch a complete state of torpidity highly improbable.

as to render air or nourishment unnecessary Still more contrary to all probability during an immense period of time. It, are the accounts of Toads being found is contrary to all our knowledge of anicompletely inclosed in mafles of stone. mal nature to admit this fuppoßtion; for That an animal to whom motion, respira. a total luspension of respiration and cirtion, and digeftion are natural, should be culation implies, or at least must soon procapable of living in a ftuation which duce, an extinction of the vital principle ; effectually precludes the exercise of these and if these powers were not completely functions, not merely for a few hours, stopt, there must be a consumption of air but for years, hundreds of years, ur and lubstance from which in so great a even thousands of years (for to 10 diftant length of time death would as certainly a period must we refer the formation of entue : nor is it probable that the creamany kinds of stone) is a circumstance ture should be fuddenly awaked out of which must furely startle credulity itself, such a profound torpidity, and, on the and cause us to hesitate in admitting kone being cleft, immediately resume its possibility on any thing short of the faculties which had lain dormant hun. molt full and competent teltimony. I am dreds of years; yet most of the accounts aware that accounts of this kind are relate that on the fone being broken, the numerous, and that most of the persons animal crawled about and appeared to who have given them appear to have had have suffered lit:le inconvenience from its no doubts of what they related. The impriionment, though if you take a Bat late learned and accute Mr. Wakefield or other animal which usually passes the atserted in your Magazine, that“ the fact winter in a torpid ftate, from its retreat, is unqueftionable :” but with the highest it will for a considerable time exhibit litrespect for such distinguished authority, I tle signs of life, and will in general ream (till inclined to think otherwise. That quire many days and ihe application of life should continue in any animal with warmh to enable it to resume its natural out the accession of nourishment, during faculties. On the whole, there is great such an immense period of time, is in reaton to believe this wonderful story has the highest degree improbable. Lizards, arisen entirely from inattention. The fnakes, and some infects will live a very Toad hides itself during the winter in considerable tiine without food; in ihe holes and crevices, and the breaking of a course of a few weeks, however, ihe want stone may have often disturbed its retreat of nourishment is generally apparent, by and give rise to a hasty conclusion that the creature becoming thinner and let's it came out of the stone: the accounts vigorous; I have seen Toads experience have generally been taken from labourers the same effect from a few days confine- and ignorant persons, who prefer relating ment without food. Mr. H. Baker a wonder 10 examining into its reality. (Philosophical Transactions 1740) has Some other opinions, which probably, given an account of a common House- on examina:ion, will be found erroneous, Beetle which he kept tiree years without appear more within the reach of attentive food, and which the whole time appeared obfervation, and consequently may be Atrong and vigorous (except that in cold more eahly determined : excuse me if I weather it leemed more torpid) but mention as an instance of this kind the though it appeared to be kept alive merely relation of the Porcupine. scoting or by air, Mr. Baker had no doubt that in darting its quills at its assailants. That its natural fate it eais more solid food. the creature pofsefles an excellent defence That the Toad when at liberty feeds on by erecting its quills, must be admitted ; small insects, I have had positive evi- but the pretended power would deitroy dence, as well as that fresh air is necessary this advantage, as by irritation it might for its respiration ; and surely no one be provoked to discharge all its darts, will suppole that it can fo materially differ and thus would become a most defenceless from all other animals as not to require creature indeed, in which state it must food or air; consequently it must be im- remain exposed to all attacks, for it can. possible for it to continue to exercise the not be fuppofed that these strong quilla w!ual functicns of an animal in a situation would be very speedily renovated. Upor




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examining the animal, there appears no land; in fixty-one degrees and a few mia ground for believing, that it can yolunta- nutes norih latitude, on the bay of Agdrily discharge its quills; and it has been luit. This settlement bas existed fince The jully observed, that it is no more pro- year 1774. bable, than that an enraged turkey-cock The peninsula which is known by the thonld shoot its feathers.

name of Terra Labrador, extends from The accoun's of female birds of differ- the fifty-second to the fixty-first degree ent species putting out, in advanced age, of north latitude, so that the most norththe plumage of the male, naturally excite erly point of Labrador lies nearly under fufpicion ; there are, however, fome ac- the same latitude as Cape Farewell, the counts of this circumstance, which appear most fouthern part of Greenland. Seme so well authenticated, that they demand members of the Moravian Brotherhond. attention, if they do not positively esta- having discovered, in 1752 and 1764, that blish the fact. It must, however, be re- the Greenlanders and Eskimaux Indians membered, that the transformation is were but one nation, and that they spoke merely in outward appearance, tře sex of a funilar language, they gradually formthe bird remaining (as miglit be expect- ed among th: latter (whole dwellings are ed) precilely as before.

scattered over a coast about seven hundred The opinion which has been very com- miles in length,) the following missionary monly entertained even by many highly Itations and communities :-1. Nain, in respectable naturalisis, that all the hells, 1771, situated in 56° 55' of north lati. bones, fragınents of marine animals, im- tude.-2. Another on the island Kivala pressions of plants, and other adventitious lek, to the north of Nain, on a narrow matters, found buried in the earth, at all gulf, which the Etkimaux call Okkak, known depths, are remains of the Univer- i. e. Tongue.-3. Hoffenthal, in 1'82. fal Deluge, is of a nature that its proba. This misionary settlement is the most bility may be decided by judicious obier- southern on the coast, and Okkak the vation, and I believe will be found wholly most northern, lying nearly under the untenable : but I must defer some re- fifty-eighth degree of noith latitude. marks on this and other similar opinions On the 21st of January, in 1790, the to a future opportunity:

thermometer rose at Lichtenfels, in GreenJ. J. G. land, five degrees above the freezing.

point, though for some time previous the

cold had been very severe; the thermoFor the Monthly Magazine. meter having, on the 19th of December, OBSERVATIONS on the state of the 1789, fallen eighteen degrees below the WEATHER in GREENLAND and TERRA

freezing-point : but in a few days it LABRADOR, between the YEARS 1750

again became cold.

In the beginning of and 1801. *

August there were a couple of excessively

hot days at Lichtenau, and it was impotHESE observations may serve to con- lble to remain out of doors on account of

firm, elucidate, or rerder more com- the immenfe swarms of flies. Immedia plete, the information to be found relative ately after the 19th of September, the to the climate and weather of these north- ground in the neighbourhood of New ern countries, to be found in deveral well. Herrnhut was entirely covered with snow, known Travels, and particularly in Cranz's and winter already set in. Hiftory of Greenland.

During this winter there was much The Moravian Brethren have now three snow in Labrador, accompanied with incommunities, or missionary settlements, in tense frost, so that the thermometer of Greenland :-1. New Herrnbut, built on Fahrenheit frequently stood at from thirty the Balsriviere, on a peninsula not far to thirty-five degrees helow o; and at Holfrom the Danish colony Godhaab, in 64° fenthal, on the 6th of January, even at 14 north latitude, and founded in 1753. forty degrees. The bay near Nain was not -2. Lichtentels in the Fischerfiosde. free from ice till the beginning of July.-tighteen miles farther south, on an island On the ad of August, there was much lour miles in circumference, founded in lightning in the night 1758. – 3. Lichtenau, in South Green. The Elkimaux, to whom this was rather

an unusual phenomenon, awakened the Extracted from the MS. Journals of the Missionaries, supposing that the house was Moravian Millionaries. MONIHLY MAG. No. 113,




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