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Lord Burghly's “Precepts" and the Earl of Bedford's “ Jewell."
is round, and Man's heart a Triangle fond of it, and used it as a manual, receptacle for the Trinitie.”
his “ Jewell and delight." Yet there The last paper in these Miscella- is little in it to entitle it to this high nies, all purporting to come from the distinction. Unlike Cecil's treatise, pen of Cecil, is “ The genealogy, off- it is slightly tinged with Puritanism : sprieg, progeny and kindred, the but it is sober, even to dulness. Comhoushold, the family, the servants ing to it from the smart, sagacious, and retinue of Pride, cum tota sequela proverb-like sentences of that adept sua, with all her trayne and follow- in human nature, we find nothing ers,” in which goodly company are scarcely that takes hold of the imagiplaced 10thly, “Error, heresie, super- nation. Now and then there is a grostition, schisme, sects, pharisaisme, tesque description. “Shamefastnesse Puritanisme, idolatry."
(shamefacedness) is a goodly ornaCould this lynx-eyed statesman dis- ment of noble persons. It exalteth corer no other sentiment than pride those which be humble, making them as the motive of those men of irre- noble. It is the beauty of thein that proachable and saintly lives, that are feeble and weak, the prosperity of would not bow to the authority of a them which be sicke, the comfort of vain, loose-living and profane-talking them that are in heavinesse, the inwoman, who succeeded her father, the crease of all beauty, the flower of reli. Nero of his age, as “ Head of the gion, the defence and buckler against Church of Christ upon earth,” or that sinne, a multiplier of good deeds ; questioned the spiritual lordship of and, to be short, it is the onely parabishops who had played fast and loose mour and durling of God, the Creator with religion, and were frocked or of all.” unfrocked at the pleasure of “ Queen
The “ Contents” of this little book Bess”?
are summed up in the following chap
ters, designed to picture so many "--0! soul of Sir John Cheke."
abuses." “). A wise man without
workes. 2. An old man without deCecil was the trimmer from policy votion.
3. A young man without that tliis Greek scholar was from weak- obedience. 4. A rich man without Ress, and the master was so far hap- charity. 5. A woman without shamepier than the scholar, that the griev- fastnesse. 6. A master or ruler withousness of Cheke's fall from the faith out virtue. 7. A Christian man full made repentance and restoration al- of contention. 8. A poore man proud. most a matter of course, whilst Cecil's 9. A wicked and an unjust king. 10. even but slippery tenor of life allowed Anegligent bishop. 11. A people withhim to practise hypocritical compli- out discipline. 12. A people without ances, without any great outward vio- law.” lation of integrity, and consequently “ The ninth abuse" the writer justwithout any deep compunction of con- ly calls “a capital abuse indeed." To science.
display it by contrast, he describes The whole title of the second tract royal excellence in a passage not within the volume runs as follows: "A out strength, and containing a sumGlasse, wherein those enormities and mary of patriotic principles: “The foule abuses may most evidently bee righteousnesse and justice of a king, seen, which are the destruction and is to oppresse no man wrongfully by overthrow of every Christian Com- power: to judge and give sentence mon wealth. Likewise the only means betweene man and man indifferently, how to prevent such dangers : by without affection of any person : to imitating the wholesome advertise. defend strangers, orphane children ments contained in this Booke. Which and widdowes : to see that robbery sometimes was the Jewell and delight and theft raigne not in his realme : of the right honourable Lord, and Fa- to punish straitly adulterous and forther to his Country, Francis, Earle nicating persons : not to promote and
Bedford, deceased.” At first, I exalt such as are wicked: to give no thought that the “ Glasse” was com- living to such as are unchaste persons, posed by the “Earle of Bedford,” but and makers of vicious pastimes : to I believe Mr. “Thomas Jones” incans destroy out of his land all that are only to represent that the Earle vas wicked against God and their parents :
to suffer no murtherer or man-queller
Waiworth, to live, much lesse such as doe kill SIR,
Dec. 11, 1822. church: to comfort the procedurile IF you think the accompanying
cudeeds of charity: to take heed that his Repository, it is at your service. It officers under him bee just and good is “The Methodist Hymn," taken men: to bave of his counsell, ancient, from a Collection of Hymns, for wise and sober men: to give no eare Camp-Meetings, Revivals, &c. &c. By to sooth-sayers, witches or enchan- Hugh Bourne. Nottingham. 1821. ters: not to keepe anger in his stomacke: to defend his country justly
HYMN xxxii. and valiantly against adversaries : to
Methodist Hymn. put his whole trust and confidence for all things in God: not to be the 1 The Saviour's pame I'll gladly sing, prouder in heart if things doe succeed He is my Saviour and my king ! after his minde, and to beare the con
Where'er I go his name i'll bless, trary patiently: to keepe steadfastly
Aud shout among the Methodists. the Catholike or universall Faith : not 2 To the Devil's camp r'll bid adieu, to suffer his children to doe wickedly: And Zion's peaceful ways pursue ; to bestowe certaine houres daily in Ye sons of men come turn and list, prayer: not to eate and drinke out of
And fight like valiant Methodists. season. For woe be to that land, (as the prophet saith,) whose king is a
3 It is religion makes the man, childe, and whose great men doe rise
The world may try to prove it vain,
But I will give the world for this, up early to eate and drinke."
To be in heart a Methodist. The honest moralist dwells upon “many and sundry sores" which “doe 4 Come sinners, turn unto the Lord, infect"a realme and hinder the pros- And closely search his precious word, perous weale thereof,” “but above And when you do his truth possess, all things,” he says, “the unrighte- You may become a Methodist. ousnesse of a King, doth make darke 5 Come now with me, and you shall and clowdie the face of his whole
know realme;" and he concludes with this
What a great Saviour can bestow; warning to the possessors of thrones : His love to me I can't express, “But yet let every King take this Although lam calid a Methodist. lesson with him, and marke it well,that as among men he is set highest in 6 I am a soldier of the cross, his throne, so if he minister not jus
All earthly things I count but loss, tice, hee shall be deepest in paine.
My soul is bound for endless bliss, For in this life as many transgressors
To praise thee with the Methodist. and offenders as hee had under him, 7 They preach and pray, and sing their so many in the time to come shall hé
best, have above him, to his extreame sor- They labour much for endless rest; row and paine remedilesse.”
I hope the Lord will them increase, The spirit, at least, of this and a And turn the world to Methodists. few other passages is worthy of one of the founders of the house of Russell
, 8 We shout too loud for sinners here,
But when in Heaven we shall appear, a “father to his country," whether So faithful then our souls shall rest, as the author or the admirer. Had
And shout among the Methodists. this little compendiuin of duty been the “jewell and delight” also of the 9 And when that happy day is come, Charleses and the Jameses, it might
Wheu all the Christians are brought have saved one from decapitation,
home, another from discrowning, and all four
We'll shout in high enraptured bliss, from indelible historic infamy.
With all the blood-wash'd Metho
dists. CANTABRIGIENSIS. The following account “Of the
Origin of the English Camp-Meetings,” &c., forms the Introduction to the Collection.
“A large Religious Meeting in the Essay on the Principles of Criminal Law.
27 open air, and the first in England repairing and improving what time which bore the title of A CAMP-MEET- has dislocated, or earlier wisdom had ING, was held upon Mow, * on Sun- left incomplete, in the great political day, May 31st, 1807. It commenced and social institutions of this conntry, about six o'clock in the morning, and it may be permitted to any individual, continued without intermission till however humble, to offer with suitabout half-past eight in the evening. able diffidence and temperance, his It began with one preaching stand counsel upon the occasion. only : but three more were afterwards It is proposed in the present essay erected. The preachings were inter- very briefly to discuss the principles uningled with pious exercises ; such of criminal law, or punitive justice; a as singing, prayer, exhortations, speak. discussion that inight seem altogether ing experience, relating anecdotes, superfluous to those who advert only &c.
to the copious. exposition of those “During a great part of the day, the principles which has been made by scene was interesting: a company writers of the most eminent talents in wrestling in prayer; four preachers this and other nations. But as the delivering the word of life; thousands practice of no people, perhaps, has listening ; tears fowing; sinners accorded with correct theory in this trembling; saints rejoicing: Such matter, and as consequently it has was the first of the English Camp been difficult to inquirers at all times Meetings.
to view the subject through a clear “A day's praying upon Mow be- medium, an attempt to bring out the gan first to be talked of in the year chief points to be regarded in this 1801. The thought rose simply from melancholy department of jurisprua zeal for praying which had sprung dence may not be improper or useless. ap in that neighbourhood. From the Now, as it is obvious that we cannot year 1802 to 1807, various accounts expect to draw safe conclusions from of the American Camp-Meetings. were false premises, nor to form good syspublished. These accounts strength- tems without establishing and adhering ened the cause, and fanned the flame: to solid fundamental principles, it apand in the mean time LORENZO Dow, pears most important in the inquiry a native of America, preached in En- before us to determine what are the gland, and gave some account of these proper purposes or ends of criminal meetings. He drew some attention laws. These purposes we will begin to the subject, but never had a thought with stating in the following order : of attempting a Camp-Meeting in 1. To protect society from injurious England; and when he left England, and vicious practices, denominated by he had no thought of such a thing Blackstone « public wrongs." taking place.
2. To reclaim and reform offenders. “In 1807, by a peculiar direction 3. To deter the criminal and others of Providence, a Camp-Meeting took from a repetition of the offence. place as above; and two more were 4. To make reparation, wherever it published in the same year. These is practicable, to the party injured. were strangely opposed, and as won- Simply to state the first mentioned derfully supported, and Camp-Meet- purpose is sufficient, as the only conings gained an establishment." troversy would be respecting the A COLLECTOR.
means of attaining that end, and these means are to be investigated under the
following heads. Essay on the Principles of Criminal It might be presumed, that in ChrisLau.
tian communities the purpose next T
and apprehension are alternately to be the most important. In parenexcited by the contemplation of a tal government, punishment is termed Legislature engaged in the work of correction, whether it be or be not
adapted to that end. In the govern* Mow is a large mountain running inent of a state, we say that justice is between Staffordshire and Cheshire ; and administered towards those who are abost fire miles distant from the Staf- accused of offences; and justice imfordshire Potteries,
plies what is equal and right, or tend
"ing to rectify what is wrong. “ In in order, among the ends of criminal moderate governments," says Mon- justice, appears solely or principally tesquieu, a good legislator is less to have occupied their attention. Every bent upon punishing than preventing one will concur in the principle that crimes; he is more attentive to inspire laws must be enacted and measures good morals than to inflict penalties." adopted for this end, of deterring It is true, that when we speak of the from crime; though a wide difference amendment of an offender, we sup- of sentiment may exist respecting the pose that an offence has been com- application of that principle-respectmitted, and to prevent offences, it ing the measures and the laws best may be reasonably urged, should be suited for the purpose. Legislators our leading desire and aim. Offences, appear commonly to have considered however, will come under the best that the prevention of crime could system of policy. Their enormity only be effected by the severity of may be greatly restrained, and their penal enactments. Hence the cruel number diminished, but notwithstand- laws to be found in the codes of many ing the force of religion and of law civilized nations, ancient and modern; they will exist in every society: Good and hence among us the great number institutions for religious and moral of offences against which the penalty instruction, wise means for diffusing a of death is denounced. Montesquieu virtuous spirit through a nation, are the was of a different opinion. He says, most effectual preventatives of crime. • Experience shews, that in countries But our present business is with crin remarkable for the lenity of their laws, minals, and with the laws relating to the spirit of the inhabitants is as much persons actually in that class. We affected by slight penalties, as in other inay contend, then, that the most countries by severer punishments. Imefficient means of lessening the num- agination grows accustomed to the ber and enorunity of crimes will be severe as well as the milder punishfound in judicious plans for reclaiming ment. Robberies on the highway offenders at the commencement, or at were grown common in some counan early stage, of their career. With tries; in order to remedy this evil they reflecting persons it surely cannot be invented the punishment of breaking difficult to establish the truth of this on the wheel, the terror of which put position. To apply correctives before a stop for a while to this mischievous the mind has been hardened by a long practice. But soon after robberies on course of criminality must, it seems, the highways became as common as offer a better chance of success than If we inquire into the cause of to attempt to restrain obdurate of all human corruptions, we shall find fenders by severity of punishment. that they proceed from the impunity The criminal not deeply practised in of criminals, and not from the modevice would, in very many, if not in ration of punishments." Beccaria, most, cases be reclaimed by being another writer of deservedly high placed in an appropriate situation, name, thus declares his sentiments : and supplied with suitable instruction “ Crimes are more effectually preand aid. He might be led and en- vented by the certainty than the sevecouraged, but even he would rarely rity of punishment. The certainty of be forced and terrified into amend a small punishment will make a ment. And as to criminals more ad- stronger impression than the fear of vanced in their sad course, we may, one more severe, if attended with the without hesitation, say, that so long hope of escaping. If punishments be as any reasonable hope of their refor- very severe, men are naturally led to mation could be entertained, it would the perpetration of other crimes to be right, and conducive to the best avoid the punishment due to the first. interests of society, to make their pu- In proportion as punishments become nishment a reclaiming process. more cruel, the minds of inen, as a
But if these be truths, and if in fuid rises to the same height with speculation they might receive general that which surrounds it, grow har. and ready assent, it is evident that dened and insensible, and the force of they have not been much attended to the passions still continuing, in the by practical politicians and legislators. space of 100 years the wbeel terrifies That which we have mentioned third no more than formerly the prison.
Essay on the Principles of Criminal Law.
29 That a punishment produce the effect and powerful advocates, and many of required, it is sufficient that the evil it these will plausibly argue, that if it occasions should exceed the good ex- be allowable to punish murder with pected from crime, including in the death, other crimes that may
lead in calculation the certainty of the pu- their consequences to murder, or that nishment, and the privation of the in their nature are almost equally inexpected advantage. All severity be- jurious, deserve an equal punishment. yond this is superfluous, and there. And others cling to the notion, that fore tyrannical." And are not Bec- the mere denunciation of such a pecaria and Montesquieu right? Surely nalty must exeite the highest degree their arguments are no less supported of terror, and so most effectually deby experience than by enlightened ter from crime. A distinguished setheory. In framing penal laws, the pator is reported to have maintained, force of human passions, urged and in a recent debate, that no penalty strengthened by various circumstances, could be so terrible as the punishment seems to have been forgotten. But, of death, and that the fear of death in fact, few persons after proceeding was the greatest of moral restraints. some time in a vicious course can be This at the utmost is mere opinion. induced by terror to draw back. If And though a contrary opinion is not they have subsisted by plunder or dis- capable of being established by dehonesty, they become more and more monstration, it is supported by Becvoitted for obtaining subsistence by caria and other enlightened men, and honest means, and those means soon reason and fact appear to be decidedly became barred against them; unless in its favour. Men who voluntarily they could avail themselves of the embrace the military profession can poor-laws. Actuated by long-indulged have no very strong habitual fear of vice; not restrained by religious or death. The force of attachment to moral principle; encouraged by vicious life must surely be greater or less companions, and stimulated by want, according to the principles, habits, real or factitious; will they think of condition and prospects of a man. At the severity of punishment, with which all events, the punishinent of death they are threatened, further than to will not effectually deter men from elude, if possible, the denunciation of committing crimes, as is evinced every the law, and perhaps to prefer the day, and even among criminals not offence, if it will answer their pur- the most abandoned. The question, pose, to which the lighter, rather than whether society have a right to take that to which the heavier, penalty is away the life of an offending member attached? If robbery and fraud, in will not be here examined; but it. every shape, were made capital crimes, deserves the most solemn considerathe practised offender, in ninety-nine tion on the part of legislators; for eases out of a hundred, would despise if it may be properly determined in the penalty, or avert his eyes from the afirmative, there are at least obthe view of it. This we may hold to jections and difficulties which ought be an incontrovertible truth. And the to make us very cautious and forfirst inference to be drawn from it is, bearing in the exercise of the supposed the importance of a corrective process right. Every truly wise and good early applied to offenders. The next man will admit that the punishinent inference is, that if severity will not de- of death should never be inflicted, ter from crime, neither can it be justly unless it answer a salutary and adeapplied in a mere penal way, as if to quately important purpose. It seems, avenge society. Admitting that there then, that before this highest of penalis a class of offenders who, to human ties is denounced, we ought to be view, are incorrigible, or nearly so, well assured, that by this, and this and, therefore, that it is expedient to alone, certain crimes can be prevented disable them from continuing to injure or restrained. Not many will serithe community, it does not follow that ously contend that this is the case Fe can be justified in consigning them with respect to scores of offences to the executioner, and hurrying them (such as breaking down the head of unprepared to the bar of Divine jus- a fish-pond, destroying trees or hoptice. From various motives, however, vines, demanding money by anonythe penalty of death has numerous mous letters, soldiers or mariners