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On the Jewish Sacrifices.

295 Who does not see that these sacri- atonement being made with success fices were offered up for real sins, and for wilful transgressions, not directly that forgiveness was obtained through specified in the law of Moses. See them? Noris there the least intimation Numb. xvi. 46–48; 1 Sam. xxvi. 19; of its being only a partial forgiveness. 2 Sam. xxi., xxiv. 18—28. Which And no doubt many of the sacrifices strongly suggests, that as they were at that are referred to in the book of liberty under the patriarchal dispensaGenesis, or that were offered up in tion to propitiate God by sacrifice for that early period of the world, though any wilful transgresion that was not called burnt offerings, as the above, then declared to be capital, so they mentioned are, were really sin offer- were under the law of Moses. Dr. ings. The term sin offerings was not Priestley, in his comments on some of then coined.

the last-mentioned passages, hesitates 2. Many of the sacrifices of the not to assert that God was appeased Mosaic dispensation cleansed the of. by them. ferers from moral guilt.

These things were discussed at large The whole of the patriarchal reli- in papers that may be found in the gion formed a part of the law or reli. Monthly Repository for December gion of Moses. It was what they and 1316, and also for September 1819, their fathers had been brought up in which makes it imprudent to say much the belief and practice of.

more under this head. Many as the ceremonies were that When these atonements were made, were used in consecrating Aaron and their sius are positively declared to be his sons to the priest's office, all would forgiven, and in some cases the evil not do without a sin offering. Exod. effects of them were speedily removed; xxix. 10–14. This, therefore, might without the least hint that their effects refer to real sins.

were confined to the purification of Sin offerings were offered up for the flesh, or that they would ever hear Aaron and his sons, and the whole any thing more of thein, now they congregation, when they were all set were confessed, (Levit. ii. 5,) lamented, apart for God. Levit. ix. God com- (chap. xvi. 29,) and atoned (chap. vii.). manded atonement to be made for all And what was there in all this that sins of ignorance, though some of them is not highly creditable under the gowould be attended with much guilt. vernment of an infinitely wise, powerLevit. v. compared with 1 Tim. i. 13. ful, holy and good Being, who wishes

He commanded atonement to be to promote the moral improvement made for several wilful transgressions of his creatures ?

God is love : he of an immoral nature; Levit. vi. 1-7; delighteth in mercy, and judgment is as lying, theft, fraud, false swearing - his strange work. “ As I live, saith fornication bordering on adultery; the Lord God, I have no pleasure in Lerit. xix, 20.

the death of the wicked, but that the He also commanded a sin offering to wicked turn from his way and live.” be offered up for the whole congrega IV. In like manner, when Christians tion at each of the three annual feasts, are said to be sanctified by the blood when they'appeared before him. Levit. or death of Christ, it signifies not xvi. 26–34; Numb. xxviii. 15, 22; merely that they are made members xxxjü. 26, 32.

of the Church of Christ by it, but that At the last of these feasts it is said, their past sins are forgiven them Levit. xvi. 21, “And confess over himn through it. “For if the blood of bulls all thc iniquities of the children of and of goats," &c.,“ sanctifieth to Israel, and all their transgressions in the purifying of the flesh, how mueh all their sins." The three (Hebrew) more shall the blood of Christ," &e., terms used here, iniquities, to pervert, 'purge your conscience from dead distort, or to turn aside; transgres- works,” (works that deserve death, sions, to pass, to step forward, to step Rom. vi. 23,) “ to serve the living over; and sins, to miss the mark, are God?” Heb. ix. 14. “By the which supposed by the Jews to comprise will we are sanctified through the every thing that implics a breach of offering of the body of Jesus Christ the divine law, or an offence against once :” chap. x. 10. “ For by one ofGod. See Dr. Adam Clark in loc. fering he hath perfected for ever them

III. We have also several instances of that are sanctified;" yer. 14. “And

has counted the blood of the covenant, siis,” (1 Cor. i. 2,) and to be baptized wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy into Christ, are one and the same thing :” ver. 29. “ Jesus also, that thing. So the Christian Fathers behe might sanctify the people with his lieved. See Wall on Baptism, I. 115, own blood, suffered without the gate.” and Grot. on 1 Cor. i. I. Heb. xiii. 12. This language is so 2. But those persons who are bapsimilar to that used in the Old Testa- tized receive at their baptism the forment, in relation to sin offerings, that giveness of their past sins. Ananias if the blood of bulls and of goats ever said unto Saul, “ Arise, and be bapcleansed from wilful offences, it must, tized, and wash away thy sins.” Acts on this ground of argument, be sup- xxii. 16; ii. 38. Therefore, posed that our Lord's did so too: yes, 3. Those persons who are sanctified if it could be proved that the blood of in Christ Jesus, or by the blood of balls and of goats did not cleanse the Christ, are not merely permitted to offerer from moral guilt, the blood enjoy the privileges of the Christian of Christ must be admitted to do it, Church, but have also their past sins because this writer says, “purge your forgiven them. A covenant state conscience from dead works," and implies favour,” &c., " and a clear because the same thing is asserted so account; such as forgives, and imputes many times in a little different lan- no past trespasses." Rev. George guage, both in the Old and New Tes- Stanhope on the Gospels and Epistles, tament. Dr. Whitby says on Heb. ii. 1. 359. 11, “Who sanctifieth” (“ i. e. by his

As then the word sanctified appears oblation purgeth us from sin”). And sometimes to contain in it the forgiveon chap. x. 10, he suggests, that to ness of sin as really as admission into be sanctified doth not here signify to the church of God, why should we be freed from the power and dominion hesitate to ascribe this sense to it as of sin, but from the guilt of it. And well as the other? Perhaps to some in chap. ix. 13 he observes, from Dr. persons it may seem like a repetition Hammond, that to sanctify to the to observe, purifying of the flesh, is to make le V. That if it could be proved that gally clean, i. e. so as that they might the word sanctified was not directly come into the congregation again, it designed to express the forgiveness of being the sanctifying of the unclean; sins, nevertheless, it would be neces“ but still in a metaphorical significa- sarily found to be included in it, or tion, as cleansing signifies expiation, must follow from it. The blessed and obtaining pardon of sin ; and when God's being the God of Abraham, this is done by a sacrifice, aya'sely &c., was not, perhaps, designed disignifies to expiate and cleanse from rectly to teach the doctrine of the reguilt by virtue of it, in which sense it surrection of the dead; but it necesis used throughout this Epistle, and sarily followed from it. It was hidden that agreeable to the import of it in it. So that our worthy deceased when it relates to sacrifices in the Old friend and others grant what they Testament.” So the learned Dr. John meant to deny : for they admit that Taylor having quoted Heb. x. 10, and the blood or death of Christ has an 26—29, says,

Note; sanctified in efficacy to restore sinful and disobethose texts doth imply or suppose the dient creatures to a sanctified state ; remission of sin.” Taylor on Atone-' that is, to their becoming members of ment, p. 116, and in p. 117, “Note; the church of God; consequently in purging, cleansing, washing,” &c., covenant with him, and, therefore, * do imply pardon.”. It is evident enjoying all the religious privileges of from what precedes this remark, that that highly honoured and happy sohe is speaking of the effects wrought ciety. But does not this necessarily by the blood of Christ. And in his include in it the forgiveness of their Key to the Romans, p. 127, he ob- past offences? Can you suppose it serves, “that professing Christians possible that a person should enjoy should take it for granted that they the one without the other? Are they are the called, the justified,” &c., " for not two essential parts of one and the these are benefits freely given us of same subject ? Does not the blessed God on our faith in Christ.” Also, God, in the gospel, say to Heathen

1. “To be sanctified in Christ Je. idolaters, and to all unbelievers, leave

Unitarianism in Madras and Calcutta.

297

I

your idols, &c., and enter my church as large a place in our public religious as the humble disciples of my beloved services as it occupies in the Sacred Son, and I will pass by all your past Scriptures. And I am inclined to offences; only take care hereafter to suspect, that the Unitarian car will behave yourselves becoming your new drag rather heavily along until this relation, and all shall be well with popular and powerful principle shall you for ever? When Mr. Cogan re be linked faster to it, and be set in stores an offending child or pupil to more vigorous motion by it. And if his former state in his family, does our friend Mr. Field could be pernot the youth consider himself as for- suaded to publish his numerous set of given, and does not Mr. C. reckon discourses on the sufferings and death himself to have forgiven him by his of Christ, it might greatly promote behavio ir to him, though he may not this good end.-F.'s Letter to H. p. have expressed his thoughts in so 22. many direct terms ? Actions speak

J. JEVANS. Jouder than words.

If, then, the blood or death of Christ procures sinful creatures a sanctified Sir,

May 12, 1823. giveness of sins, for they are, in some proaching when Unitarians will no relations, inseparable things. The longer be reproached with a want of Holy Scriptures were wrote in the zeal for spreading the knowledge of Eastern part of the world, where, it divine truth amongst distant nations. is well known that no prince will The very favourable and unlooked-for permit a disobedient subject to appear-openings exhibited to us at Madras in his presence, on friendly terms, if and Calcutta, appear to me nothing he does not, at the same time, intend less than the finger of Providence to forgive him. Esther vii. 8, and pointing out the theatre where our chap. viii. Indeed, all the world must exertions should for the present be feel the great impropriety of such an principally made. If (as I hope we action.

all firmly believe) the period will : A certain writer, speaking of the arrive when Christian truth shall overbehaviour of the late Emperor of spread the earth, even as the waters France towards the Duke of Enghien, cover the sea; there can be little whom he would not admit into his doubt in my mind that this great work presence to intercede for his liberty must be accomplished by Unitarian and life, says, " That N. seems always missions. We may ask, what has to have considered that to see the reputed Orthodoxy done towards the Duke of Enghien, and to pardon him, attainment of this great end? How were one and the same thing."

sincere and earnest the endeavours As then the blood of the patriarchal that have been made by different and Jewish sacrifices often cleansed missionary societies in our own times, the offerer from moral guilt, and the and in comparison how very small the blood or death of Christ is so many results ! nor without a miracle could times directly or indirectly said to do it be otherwise. The stupid Hottenso too, why, I again say, should we tot, or the scarcely less benighted hesitate to use this language, espe- Pacific islander may be induced to cially as we allow the same thing in a profess a belief in dogmas which they different set of words, that are not a cannot comprehend; but what impreswhit more scriptural? How trifling sion has been made on the Jew or the it appears to admit that we are re Mussulman? Must not the true but ceived into favour with God, enter melancholy answer be, None? Howinto the covenant of immortality, with ever inviting the pure and divine morahim, and enjoy all the sacred privileges lity of the gospel may appear to wellof the church of God through the disposed men of those religions, so as blood or death of Christ, but do not to induce them to make further inreceive the pardon of our past sins quiries concerning the truth of Christhrough it! Let him make good and tianity, they no sooner enter upon consistent sense of this who can. those inquiries than they are astounded

And if this be truth it ought to have and horrified by hearing doctrines set

VOL. XVIII.

2Q

AND REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE OF GENERAL READING.

forth as the very essence of Christi- who, from their perfect knowledge of anity, which must of necessity from the language and customs, would all their previous belief, appear to labour with an effect that an European them nothing less than the most would with difficulty attain. appalling blasphemy. With the Hin

B. doo we might suppose the case would be different. Believing as he does in GLEANINGS ; OR, SÉLECTIONS a variety of incarnations of the Supreme Being, we might predicate of him that he would give a ready assent to the Christian incarnation ; yet, in

No. CCCCV. fact, the Orthodox missionary finds Coughing Eloquence. nearly as many difficulties to encoun Strange as this phrase may seem, ter with the Hindoo as with a Mussul- it is borrowed from the history of the man. He must of course attack the pulpit among our French neighbours. Bramunical tenets as irlolatrous, but L'Eloquence Tousseuse" marks a unfortunately it is not in his power to period in the annals of preaching. Of advance a single argument in support this era, Olivier Maillard, a Cordelier of the Trinity, which his opponent preacher and Doctor of Divinity, was may not fairly use in defence of his one of the most characteristic speciown belief. There are some very

mens. His sermons were published curious extracts from the writings of after his death with caricature prints, a Brahmin on this subject, inserted by an appropriate embellishment. The Captain Thrush in a pamphlet in most singular of these productions answer to, Mr. Richardson's defence was printed by itself, under the follow. of the Athanasian Creed, which are ing title : “ Sermon d’Olivier Maildeserving of the serious attention of lard, prêché le cinquième Dimanche all missionaries.

de Carême, en la ville de Bruges, In conclusion, I must express the l'an 1500, en 40.". This is a curious anxious desire I feel that some effec- volume, much prized by bibliogrative means may be adopted for calling phers. In the margin are inserted the the attention of the Unitarian public words Hem! Hem! at the places to this interesting subject. London is where the preacher pansed, in order doubtless the proper place in which to to cough ; and he professedly desigoriginate these measures, and some of nates these passages thus marked as the active members of the Unitarian models for the same pulpit-action, Fund will, I hope, come forward with (See De Bure's Bibliographie, volume an offer of their services in establish- de Théologie, No. 510.) This reveing a missionary society for the East rend buffoon was a great favourite Indies, and I have no fear whatever of with the high and mighty of his day, a failure, feeling confident that such and was employed in important eman establishment would meet with the bassies by Pope Innocent VIII., by cordial and zealous support of Unita- Charles VIII., King of France, and by rians in all parts of the island. It Ferdinand, King of Arragon. He died appears to mc little less than a libel at Toulouse in 1502.-One anecdote on the cause to fear that every thing told of bim is creditable to his chadesired by Mr. Adam might not be racter. accomplished, if active and judicious He had insinuated in his sermons measures were taken, with the excep- some satirical strokes at Louis XI., tion perhaps of sending out his num- who, in consequence, ordered a mesber of learned missionaries, as I under- sage to be conveyed to him that he stand that there is at present rather a would throw him into the river. “The deficiency in the supply of our own King is master,” he replied ; places of worship. It appears to me tell him that I shall sooner get to Pathat were Mr. Adam provided with the radise by water, than be by postprinter, press and paper, and the horses,” alluding here to the relays necessary pecuniary means, that he of the post, just established by Louis. would in a short time be able to sup- (Biographie Universelle, T.' XXVI. ply himself with native teachers in p. 238.) every way fitted for missionaries, and

“ but

SELECT NOTICES OF FOREIGN LITERATURE.

1

Account of M. de CLERCQ, a Dutch that undermine its capital; depicted
Improvisatore.

the Romans, the Goths, the Greeks

of the lower empire, the Saracens, the (Translated from the Musée des Variétés Normans, and the Hungarian, Ange

Littéraires, for April 1823, pp. 152, vin, Arragonese, and French princes, 153.)

who have by turns been its invaders ; Amsterdam, February, 1823.

pointed out the efforts made by the A most extraordinary phenomenon unhappy country, eternally subjected is to be found at this place,-a Dutch to the caprice of foreign usurpers, to Improvisatore. Between him and the obtain the freedom which eludes its Italian Improvisatori we can institute grasp; and, lastly, narrated the events no comparison; for M. de Clercq, of the year 1820, and the dangers who is distinguished in the commercial which again threaten the independence world, applies himself with zealous of that classic ground, which appears industry to his calling, and in his for ever devoted to slavery. leisure hours alone, having arrived but On another occasion, the ladies in a at the age of seren and twenty, he has numerous assembly were desired to acquired a profound knowledge of propose a subject to the poet : One's history, modern history especially; of Native Country, and The Death of the Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, Socrates, were the two themes most French, English and German litera- strongly recommended; M. de Clercq ture, and of the literature of his own united them in one effusion. Nothing, country. Of this knowledge he gave perhaps, excites our adıniration so a brilliant proof in his essay on the inuch as that flexibility of talent which subject proposed by the second class enables him to seize with equal of the Institute : An Examination of strength of genius objects the most the Influence of Spanish, Italian, dissimilar. In one of those evenings French and German Literature on devoted to his intimate friends, The the Literature of Holland ; an essay Chase had been the subject of his which obtained for him the golden extemporaneous verses ; a few miprize, in the sitting of 1822. With nutes afterwards he was entreated to an impartiality, as unswerving as his celebrate the poet Schiller; his en acquaintance with those writers is ex thusiasm was instantly kindled, and tensive, he adıniringly quotes the with the hand of a master he traced verses of Calderon and of Tasso, of the characteristics of this most distinVoltaire, of Byron, and of Schiller. guished of the tragic bards of GerTo his large acquirements M. de inany, translating at the moment some Clercq adds the inspiration of the of Schiller's most brilliant passages poet. Hitherto his pen has preserved into Dutch verse. One of those effu. but few of his verses; frequently, how- sions, most calculated to impress the ever, in a circle of friends, when a memory, was that entitled Melpomene, subject is pointed out, he rises, and which he gave at a meeting of the after revolving it in his mind for one members of the Institute, at the or two minutes, pours forth a torrent house of M. Wisélius. On that occaof ideas and images in the noblest sion the Professor Kinker, of Liege, straios of poetry. At an entertain. one of the most celebrated Dutch ment of a political nature, given at poets, who had not hitherto been conthe end of the year 1820, or the be- vinced that the enthusiastic praises ginning of 1821, a gentleman requested bestowed on M. de Clercq could be him to sing the journey of the King merited, had the opportunity of apof Naples to Laybach. Rising imme- preciating his wonderful powers. The diately, in lines full of poetic fire he Improvisatore began with the feeble sketched the beautiful country of Italy, infancy of the dramatic art, then dwelling on its most lovely part-the portrayed its vigorous youth in the paradise of Naples ; traced its politi- genius of Æschylus, Sophocles and cal revolutions, which are not less Euripides ; giving in brilliant touches, dreadful than the natural revolutions instantly recognized by the best Greek

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