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Review.-Bishop of Peterborough's Divinity Lectures. 595 of the Jews, is attested by the con- be applied." This authority he finds sideration, that they could have had in the testimony of our Saviour, which no motive to write, as they did, if has been borne, in various ways, to their narratives were false : they have the books of the Old Testament. By not flattered the vanity of their coun- Jesus Christ the Pentateuch was trymen, and as their contemporaries quoted repeatedly, as the work of must bave known the character of Moses. Next to the writings of that the ancient records to which those distinguished Lawgiver, he made the historians appealed, so their descend- greatest use of the book of Psalms, ants would not have received their one of which (the 110th) he expressproductions, without a rational con- ly ascribed to David. The fact is the viction of their being credible.
same as to the books of Isaiab and of To all the prophetic books the term Daniel: these he specifically attested. authenticity is applicable without ex- But the greater part of his quotations ception : for each of these books is from the Old Testament were made asèribed, and, we have reason to be without reference to the particular lieve, justly, to a particular author. book, from which the passages were In estimating the credibility of the taken. This mode of quotation was prophetic writings, we should remem agreeable to the practice of the Jews. ber, that as a history-may be true, Whenever he appealed to the Scripthough the author is unknown, so à tures, that is, to the Scriptures of the prophecy may be true, even though Old Testainent, he appealed to the it proceeded not from the author to Hebrew Scriptures without distincwhom it is commonly ascribed. Two tion: all of them, as they existed in questions must here be asked : the his time, received the sanction of former, Do the words of the alleged his authority. They were then, as prophecy, according to their plain they are at present, divided, by the and literal meaning, relate to that Jews, into three classes : and this distant event,' to which they have threefold arrangement of thein our been subsequently applied ? The sew Lord observed ; his appeal to them cond; Was that prophecy delivered corresponding with the appeals of so long before the event predicted, as Philo and Josephus. Should it be to place it beyond the reach of human objected, that, according to the Jew. foresiglat? (4--14.)
ish reckoning, the three classes conWith the Margaret Professor we tained twenty-two books, whereas the think that a propheey may be literal canonical books of the Hebrews, as and divine, whether it be an authentic arranged in our Bibles, amount to part of the book which contains it, thirty-nine, a slight attention to the or not. There is an obvious impor- manner of computation will convince tance, however, in ascertaining, if we us that the dissonance is only appena can, the name and history of the rent and not real. A difficulty so writer ; for the purpose of better de- removed, is converted into a proof. termining on the age and character of (17–31.) the alleged prediction.
Throughout this lecture the Mar. Bishop Marsh concludes his thirty: garet Professor reasons with intelli. first lecture with some very general gence and strength. His argument remarks on the antiquity and nature will be satisfactory to those persons of the remaining books of the Old who, like ourselves, are already perTestament; on Job, the Psalms, Pro: suaded of the truth of Christianity. verbs, Ecclesiastes, and Solomon's Nevertheless, for the sake of others, Song.
we should have preferred his treating In the thirty-second lecture le of the two Revelations in the order of takes a different view of all the Jewish their dates. Scriptures, and considers them not The object of Bishop Marsh's thirindividually, but collectively. To the ty-third lecture, is to prove, that the whole of them he applies the term Hebrew Scriptures which received the “ authority," which, he observes, sanction of our Saviour, contained the
may include both authenticity and same books which are now contained in credibility, where both terms are ap- our Hebrew Bibles. Of this identity, plicable, and denote credibility or however, direct historical evidence truth, where the other term cannot cannot, at present, be obtained. Accordingly, the Professor 'endeavours sephus himself, in a well-known pasto establish the fact by induction ; a sage of his treatise against Apion, mode of reasoning, which, in many though he has not enumerated the instances, is perfectly legitimate, and seventeen books which composed the which is here pursued with consider- two last classes, has given a descripable ingenuity and force. From se- tion of those books; and this descripveral particular propositions he de- tion exactly corresponds with the induces that general proposition which ference deduced from a comparison he sets out with enuntiating by of his account with Jerom's. To the steps he arrives at the final conclu- third class the book of Proverbs, and sion, that the Hebrew canon in the the book of Ecclesiastes, as well as time of our Saviour was the same the book of Psalms, have been reHebrew canon, which is now repre- ferred by the Jews of every age: 'to sented by our Hebrew Bibles; and the same class Jerom, in his catathat we have his sanction for every logue of the Hebrew Scriptures, has canonical book of the Old Testament. referred the book of Job and Solo
For this purpose, the learned Pre- pion's Song; though it be probable late attempts to connect the catalogue that by Josephus they were somewhat of the llebrew Scriptures, which Je- differently arranged. Nor is it a sorom has given in his Prologus gale- lid objection against the accuracy of atus, with the account which Jose- this reasoning, that later Jews have phus has given of those Scriptures, referred to the third class various in his treatise against Apion. Jeroin, books, which are here referred to the like Josephus, divides them into three second class of Josephus ; the remoclasses, which he calls, the Law, the val of such books from the class in Prophets, and the Hagiographa. He 'which they were originally placed has further enumerated the several being well explained by history. books of which each class consisted : The Margaret Professor's concluand it appears from this enumeration, sions are, that the Hebrew Scriptures that the books which were then con- which received the sanction of our tained in the Hebrew Bible, were the Saviour were the same Hebrew Scripsame books which are now contained tures which were known to Josephus; in it. In regard to the first class, that they contained the same books or the Pentateuch, the enumeration which were enumerated by Jerom, made respectively by Josephus and by and still constitute our Hebrew BiJerom, is, beyond dispute, the same. bles; and that the authority of the The only difficulty which attends the Old Testament, according to the eacomparison of their accounts, is that non of the English church, though which relates to the two other classes. not according to the canon of the Yet, if we take those two classes to church of Rome, rests upon a basis gether, both writers agree as to the which cannot be shaken. We recomtotal number of the books comprised mend his argument to the careful in them: and the sole difference con- attention of students in theology and sists in the partition of the books in logic. (31–50.) between the two classes. Now, as Of his thirty-fourth lecture the obwe know that the Jews bave been ject is to establish the integrity of gradually augmenting the number of the Hebrew Bible, to shew that the books in the third class, by a pro
compose it have descendportionate diminution of the numbered to the present age without material in the second, we need not wonder alteration. With this view, he diif the third class, which in the first vides his inquiries into two periods ; century contained only four books, the one extending from the time of contained nine at the end of the fourth Moses to that of our Saviour, the century, and that the books of the other extending from the time of our second class had been proportionally Saviour to this day.. Here he makes reduced from thirteen to eight. Jó a very fair and judicious use of several
historical facts: nor, in any part of
This reasoning, is he more successful * We employ this word, in preference than in his proofs that the Jews have to Bishop M.'s repartition, which is a French, and not an English, noun.
not wilfully corrupted their Scriptures. As a specimen of his manner
Review.-The Claims of the Clergy to Tithes examined. 597 of arguing, two extracts shall be laid Reverend Prelate should be silent conbefore our readers :
cerning Sir Isaac Newton," H. Owen, « The authentic books of Ezra and of whom he adopts, while those of
Graves, &c., the arguments of some Nehemiah afford is no reason to sup. others he impugna! He will not do pose, that the law of Moses had been so destroyed, as is represented in that apo- justice to his subject and to himself, cryphal book, called the second book of unless, in a subsequent part, le treat Esdras (xiv. 21). From the eighth chap. of the Hebrew Seriptures in detail. ter of Nehemiah it is evident, that the of Generally speaking, his style is book of the law (whether the Temple- pure as well as elear. In p. 65, howcopy or not) was preserved during the ever, he uses the word operate in an period of the Babylouish Captivity: For unwarrantable, that is in a transitive when the worship of God was restored at Jerusalem, they spake unto Ezra the
signification, scribe, to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the Lord had commanded to Ant. II.-- The Claims of the Clergy Israel." And Ezra the priest brought the it to Tithes and other Church Revelaw before the congregation." Nchemiah hues, 80 far us they are founded on viii. 1, 2. The prophet Daniel' must the Political Expediency of supalso have had a copy of the law, for he
porting such a Body; on Divine appealed to it, and quoted it. Daniel ix. 13."-Pp. 57, 58.
Right ; on History; or on the Notion of Unalienable Property, ex
amined. 8vo. pp. 40. Liverpool 166-the charge of corrupting the printed ; sold by Hanter, &e.; LonHebrew Scriptures, though it has been
don. 1823. repeated in modern times, had its origin
THE question of it. The Greek and Latin Fathers were for the most part unacquainted with more interesting, and it is extremely Hebrew, though Origen and Jerom were desirable that the public should be in illustrious exceptions. The Greek Fa: possession of full information upon thers quoted from the Septuagint; the the subject. The author of this pamLatiu Fathers' from the Latin version, phlet has done his part towards this which was made from the Septuagint. They had no Latin translation from the great object, under the persuasion that Hebrew till the time of Jerom: and even
how much soever the fear of change, his translation was not inmediately attachment to custom, respect for inadopted as the authorised version of the dividuals and motives of personal inLatin church, P. 64. :
terest'may retard the progress of opi
nion, truth, justice and public good Even theological students, who are will finally prevail, and it must be of considerable standing, inay read honourable to be, in whatever degree, with great pleasure and advantage an instrument in promoting them. this part of Bishop Marsh's lectures. (P. 40.). To young men who are preparing The subject is treated in this pamthemselves for the exercise of the phlet under the four heads of-The Christian ministry it will be espe- expediency of a publicly endowed cially and highly useful. At the same clergy; the divine right of tithes; the time, it has obvious defects. not the least is the arrange Of these history of Christian tithes; and the
right to tithes as being the property order and the method of proof which of the church. These are argued ably, a well - informed Jew wonld pursue and boldly argued, and the writer's in laying before the world the evi- conclusions are, that an established dences of the authority of his sacred church is unnecessary, inchristian, books, are what the Margaret Pro- and of injurious influence; that the fessor ought, on every account, to claim of tithes universally, as by dihave preferred. Another glaring im- vine right, is the imposition of priestperfection (we have formerly com- 'craft on ignorance and superstition; plained of it), is the extreme scanti- that the history of the Christian Church ness of reference to " the principal proves that tithes belong, if to any authors” on this branch of divinity. How strange that, in the pulpit of the University of Cambridge, the Right * On the Prophecies, Part I. Ch. i,
body, to the poor ; and that the pre- his own acknowledgment, this owner and sent right of the clergy in tithes is all others (or rather their tenants) were at created, and may be destroyed by an that time obliged by law and custom to pay act of the Legislature.
tithes, though they might theo pay them Some remarks are made in the pam- that Wiliam de Walley Ouly provided for
to what religious house they pleased ; so phlet on the publications of “the Rev.
the tithes he could not help paying, being Aug. Campbell, Rector of Wallasey,
made useful to his own estate. The the champion of tithes," and trusting,
glebe fields only he gave freely out of his as we confidently do, in the quotations owu property to the church. "This glebe, here made, we cannot but be surprised and all other church lands which hare at the frankness and courage of that been given by their owners iu former divine. He is said to have called on times, certainly do not belong to the dethe Gentlemen of England, in a recent scendants of those owners; but before work addressed to them, * (p. 26,) to
we decide that they do belong to the support tithes for the purpose of present clergy, beyond the just controul
keeping sixteen or seventeen wil of the Legislature, we must consider a lions of RAGAMUFFINS in order, by
little the nature of the gift. The owders the awful terrors of an invisible gave these lands, as any other lands are world.” Again, this Christian minis- poses. Now amongst these purposes
left iu charity, for certain special purter is represented (p. 39 of this pam- the support of the poor; for the lands phlet, Note,) as saying in his Appeal, were all given before the sopport of the p. 15, ** It is for iheir dinners that í poor out of the parochial income bad wish to interest some of the Gentlemen ceased: and farther, these lands were of England; when the people have given with an immediate view, to the supe emancipated themselves from the ty, port of the ceremonies and worship of the ranny of the priests, is it to be sup- corrupt Catholic Church of the dark ages, posed that they will submit to the
on the performance of which the givers tyranny of the graine-laws » Mr. relied for salvation; and, therefore, since Campbell is right: tithes and game are the rites performed which the girers
neither the poor are now sharers, uor laws stand on the same ground, that deemed necessary, the present holders ground not justice; and when the peo- cannot certainly found their right on the ple have rid themselves of one of these origiual gift. All the lands of the church abuses of power, they will not be very were given to the Roman Catholic Church, patient under the other.
and the kind of right by which they are Our anonymous author (known, now held is, that that church ceasing to however, to us, and not unknown, be the religion of the couotry, and being under his real name to the religious discountenanced by the Legislature, its public) thus satisfactorily disposes of forfeited possessions were given by Parlione of this plain-spoken clergyman's ament, that is, by the public, to the prearguments for church-property:
sent establishment; and the same public
may differently appropriate them by the " That zealous advocate of tithes, the
same right whenever it shall seem expeRev. Augustus Canapbell, in his · Appeal dient. Church lands are precisely in the to the Gentlemen of England,' seems
same situatiou with estates left for a disposed to rest the right to tithes as charitable parpose which would now be property on the gift of King Ethelwulph; thought absurd, or cannot be fulfilled, but in a previous pamphlet (* The Rights and which estates are, therefore, applied of the English Clergy asserted') he seems to some other useful purpose, to be deto prefer resting it on the gifts of indivia termined by the proper authorities : por duals in later times ; as an example he can any one doubt, but that in such a brings forward the case of his own parish,
case as that now before us, the only right Wallasey, in the county of Chester, which authority is vested in Parliament. Whathe says was endowed by a certain Wil. ever right, either to tithes or estates, is liam de Walley, before the year 1182, founded on their being the gifts of indiwith the tithe and glebe, and he wishes viduals, is unsatisfactory; because the to know what possible right the people gifts are not employed as originally incan have to what an ancient owner gave tended, and because the public have alto the church? According, however, to ready interfered to alter their destina
tion; so that the present Church of
England holds its property merely by act Appeal to the Gentlemen of Endi of Parliament, and it is no more secure gland in behalf of the Church of Eus from reformation or abolition by the pub. gland."
lic will, than any other of the public Review.--Acton's Unitarian Fand Sermon.
institutions of the country: it has no of their own; for unless the most untepretepsious whatever to a right similar nable and gloomy doctrines of orthodoxy to that of private property; and the cry be first admitted as true, such an atone. against the violation of property raised, ment was never needed by man, nor could whenever its reformation is proposed, is have been accepted by God. It is little no more than the cant of an interested better than sophistry, therefore, to charge party.”—Pp. 31–33.
our representation of Christianity with being defective, because it contains no
reniedy for an evil which, if this repreART. III.-Zeal for the Revival and sensation be correct, never existed. The
Diffusion of Pure Christian Truth, truth, we humbly presume, is, that our & Duty arising from Belief in its brethren, by their misinterpretation of Divine Authority. À Sermon, the Sacred Writings, first plunge the preached at the Unitarian Chapel, whole human race into an imaginary
Parliament Court, Artillery abyss of guilt and woe; and next, by Lane, London, on Wednesday, May
further misinterpretation, discover air 21, 1823, before the Supporters and imaginary method of delivering some few Friends of the Unitarian Fund. upon us to admire as a peculiar excel
out of this abyss, which they then call By Henry Acton. !2mo. pp. 32. lence of their system. 'I'hey first, by Hunter; Eaton ; and Fox and Co. their own vain imaginings, cast WHIS is an able and judicious the whole face of human existence a thick argumentative discourse. The
darkness, which shuts out every ray of proposition which forms its title is hope from the bosom of man, and then deduced from 1 Thess: ii. 13, and is reproach us that we have no doctrine
purposely revealed to dispel the withering amplified in the following remarks :
gloom which they themselves have cre« 1. That since Christian truth is the ated. But for every moral and spiritual woord of God, the more nearly that it want with which may really becomes acshall be professed in its genuine pu- quainted from vature or from revelation, rity, the greater, we are bound to assuredly Unitarian Christianity affords a believe, will be its efficacy in answer.
sweet and abundant supply. To the peing the important purposes of Divine nitent sinner it poiuts out a sure way by Providence.” “ 2. Christian truth, which he may attain to the forgiveness being the word of God, is undoubtedly and farour of God, and this in a park of infinite value to all mankind,
and the mercy of Heaven, even in the broad essentially conducive to their highest way
way of repentance and reformation. To moral improvement and happiness."
them that be slow to the practice of vir. “3. From our conviction that Chris
tue and piety, it brings all the pleasing tian truth is the word of God, we have and all the awful motives to righteousgood reason to anticipate its generalness, arising from the great themes of diffusion in the world.” “4. Per. future judgment, eternity and the Divine suaded that Christian truth is the word favour. To the mourning children of of God, we must hold ourselves bound afiliction it affords an inexhaustible founto receive it as a sacred trust, com tain of consolation and peace, by giving mitted to us not for our own benefit them faith in the coustant providence of only, but that we may do all in our
a heavenly Father, whose dispensations power to dispense its heavenly truths eyes are closing in the darkness of death,
are all mercy and truth. To them whose abroad."
it reveals the light of life and immortaUnder the second head, the preach- lity. And if men have been brought to er thus vindicates“ the efficacy of suppose that they need any thing of relithe simple doctrines of the gospel :" gion further than this, they are misled
Our particular views, indeed, have, by false views of their own condition, or been commonly denounced by our Trinj- of the character and government of God." tarian brethrea as being wholly deficient -Pp. 17, 18. in moral value, especially because they In the following passage, Mr. Acton make us acquainted with no atonement makes an animated appeal to the exfor the supposed original and infinite perience of the church, in confirmation guilt of our fallen bature, without which of his third remark : atonement, it is said, we can have no sure hope of the mercy and favour of « And has not Christianity, in the God. But this is plainly nothing less triumphs which it has already effected, than to raise an objection to our views given us a glorious pledge of its future upon a gratuitous assumption of the truth conquests ? Thc Heathen are fast bę.