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if the two covenants were the cove- tablisheth the covenant,” that is of nants of Jehovah, as the Scriptures the victim by which the covenant is every where state them to be, and ratified. (See Wakefield and Dodthe term covenant means a last will dridge.) For a covenant is firm over and testament, then must not he have the dead, whereas it is of no force been the testator which would in- while that which establisheth it liveth. volve in it the monstrous idea, that So that the death of Christ was renthe death of Jehovah himself was dered necessary, in order to give vanecessary for the confirmation of each, lidity and effect to that covenant of for without it, as the apostle rea- which he was the mediator, sons, “ they would have been of no Fourthly, we observe that the reastrength at all.”
son why Christ was made the racdi. Secondly, we remark, that Jesus ator of the new covenant was, that he Christ is here styled the mediator of might redeem the past offences that the new covenant, as Moses is said to were committed under the Jewish or be the mediator of the old covenant ; Sinai covenant ; " For this cause he Moses was the medium through which is the Mediator of the new covenant, it was communicated to the people of that by means of death for the reIsrael. “ It was ordained by angels demption of the transgressions that in the hand of a mediator."* Jesus were under the first covenant.” It is Christ is the messenger of the new worthy of observation that the author covenant, by whom that new and of this epistle when treating of the gracious dispensation was brought deliverance of those who were under from heaven and communicated to the law, (and consequently under the the children of men. “The law was curse and condemnation,) from their given by Moses, but grace and truth former sins under that covenant, came by Jesus Christ.”+ We may makes use of the term redemption, here remark, that the term mediator for where law is transgressed, sin is is applied to Jesus Christ, exclusively imputed, which renders the redempin relation to the covenant which he tion of them necessary; whereas the was commissioned to reveal and to Apostle Paul, treating of the same ratify with his own blood. We are subject in relation to the Gentiles who accustomed to hear a great deal said were not under the law, but, as he about the mediation of Christ, his says, without law, does not speak of mediatorial person, as God-man, his their past sins as redeemed, but as mediatorial work, his mediatorial of- passed orer, as not reckoned, not fices, his mediatorial righteousness, his imputed to them, “ for sin is not mediatorial reicard, his mediatorial imputed when there is no law.” In kingdom and glory; modes of expres- the former case, the sacred writers sion adopted, in order to support an
consider those who were under the hypothesis, without the least coun- law as bond-slaves and captives under tenance or warrant from any thing a sentence of death, for the law gencontained in the Sacred Scriptures, dereth to bondage ; so the apostle where the term is solely applied to speaking of the freedom of the goshim with respect to his connexion pel in opposition to the bondage of with the new covenant.
ihe law, as allegorized in the persons Thirdly, we observe that Christ's of Sarah and Agar says, “ These are being the medintor of the new cove the two coronants; the one from nant, rendered it necessary that he Mount Sinai, which genderetk to should die in order to confirm and bondage, which is Agar; for this give validity to that covenant. “ For Agar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and this cause he is the mediator of the answereth to Jerusalem which now new covenant, that by means of death is, and is in bondage with her chilfor the redemption of the transgres. dren.” From this captivity and slasions that were under the first cove- very it was necessary that they should nant." This writer adds, “ For be redeemed; and for this very purwhere a covenant is, there is a neces- pose was Jesus Christ the Mediator sity for the death of that which es- of the new covenant, that he might
redeem the transgressions that were
under the first covenant. How then # Gal, iii, 19. t John i, 17. were they to be redeemed from this
Mr. Marsom on the Efficacy of the Death of Christ. 641 captivity? Clearly by the death of observes upon it, “ In that he saith the tyrant by whom they were en a new covenant, he hath declared the slaved. That, says Paul, being dead former void. Now that which is dein which we were held.*
clared void and groweth old, is ready This leads us to inquire, fifthly, to disappear." what it was in the death of Christ The Apostle Paul, in order to prove that made it effectual for the accom- the total abolition of the law, complishment of this great and important pares its dominion over those who are purpose. Or whence was it that the under it, to that of a husband over sacrifice of himself was available to his wife, which entirely ceases when put away sin? This did not arise he is dead. “The woman,” he says, from his being à vicarious sacrifice, " that hath an husband is bound by the substitute of sinners, having their the law to her husband as long as he offences charged to his account, and liveth, but if the husband be dead, suffering, in their stead, the full pu- she is loosed from the law of her nishinent which was due to them; nor husband.” “ Wherefore," he adds, did it arise from his sacrifice
appeas my brethren, ye also are become ing the wrath of Almighty God, satis- dead to the law by the body of Christ; fying the demands of law and justice, for,” says he, "when we were in the and thereby making a complete atone- flesh,” (1. e. under the carnal dispensament to God for all their transgres- tion of the law,) “the motions of sin, sions ; nor did the efficacy of his death which were by the law, did work in consist in this, that by it he recon our members to bring forth fruit unto ciled God to his offending creatures death; but now we are delivered from and purchased his favour and mercy the law, that being dead wherein we towards them; nor was the death of were held, that we should serve in Christ designed to exhibit to man newness of spirit and not in the oldkind God's abhorrence and detesta- ness of the letter.”+ tion of sin, by the punishment of it Thus it appears that the death of in the person of his innocent and well- Christ put away sin by abolishing the beloved Son in the stead of punishing law, which gave to sin its life and the guilty. Nothing of this sort is power, for without the law, sin is attributed to the death of Christ in dead. But as the subject is of great the Holy Scriptures: they represent importance, and largely insisted on in the efficacy of it as consisting in this, the New Testament, we shall proceed that the blood which he shed, as the to a further consideration of it, as mediator of the new covenant, was stated and illustrated in various other the blood of the covenant by which it passages of Scripture. In those Scripwas sealed, ratified and established, tures, then, we are informed, that as an everlasting covenant, by which “sin is the transgression of the law,” he superseded, annulled and did away and that “where there is no Inw, the old covenant with all its obliga- there is no transgression;" that "the tions and penalties, depriving it of its strength of sin is the law," and that commanding and condemning power, “ without the law, sin is dead.” Paul, and thus redeeming the transgressions in his own person, describing the state that were under it. For this cause he of a Jew under the dominion of the was the mediator of the new cove- law, says, “ I was alive without the nant, that by shedding his blood, as law once; but when the commandthe blood of the covenant, he mightment came, sin revived, and I died; accomplish the redemption of trans- for sin, taking occasion by the comgressions, and thereby open a new and mandment, deceived me, and by it living way for those who were called slew me." And again,
“ sin is not into the gracious dispensation of the imputed when there is no law.” If gospel, that they might receive the then the law be abolished, the power promise of eternal inheritance. The and the very existence of sin is done writer of this epistle, having quoted away. from Jeremiah the promise of God The apostle enters at large into that he would make a new covenant,
* Heb. viii. 13. Imp. Ver. 1st edit. + Rom. vii, 1–6.
* Rom. vii. 4, 6. VOL. XVIII.
this subject, in his Epistle to the having slain the enmity thereby," he Ephesians, and proves, that the abo- came,” (that is, by his ambassadors the lition of the law, by the death of apostles,) "preaching peace to you Christ, was the means by which he which were afar off, and to them that made peace, and by which he recon were nigh ; for through him we both ciled both Jews and Gentiles to each have access, by one spirit, unto the other and unto God. He first reminds Father.” them of their former state, as being The enmity betw the Jews and in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who the Gentiles was abolished by removare called uncircumcision, by that ing the cause of it, the separating which is called the circumcision in wall, which not only prevented any the flesh, made by hands ; that at friendly intercourse between them, that time they were without Christ, but was also the cause of the greatest being aliens from the commonwealth enmity to each other. The enmity of Israel, and strangers from the cove- said to be slain by his cross, appears nants of promise, having no hope, to refer to the enmity of both Jews and without God in the world. He and Gentiles unto God by their wicked then lays before them the means by works, because it is said to be done which this state was reversed. “But away by reconciling both unto God. now,” says he, “in Christ Jesus, ye This enmity with respect to the Geuwho sometimes were far off, are made tiles, was slain by God's passing orer, nigh" by the blood of Christ,” that and not imputing their former tres. is, by that blood by which the new passes unto them; for which purpose covenant, embracing in its promises Jesus Christ was set forth as a mercythe Gentiles as well as the Jews, and seat in his own blood, as the seat or by which the first covenant (which throne where the grace and mercy of kept them at a distance from God, God in the new curenant, which he and precluded them from all access ratified with his own blood, as it were, to him, or knowledge of him) was took their stand. With respect to done away. “For,” he adds, “he the Jews, the enmity was slain by is our peace, who hath made both,” the non-imputation of their transgresi.e. Jews and Gentiles, “one, and hath sion under the first covenant, Christ broken down the middle wall of par. having by his death abolished that tition between us, having abolished in covenant, which was the only ground his flesh the enmity, the law of com- upon which the transgressions under mandments contained in ordinances ; it could be imputed; for, as we have for to make in himself of twain one before seen, sin is not imputed when new man, so making peace; and that there is no law. Thus then did Jesus he might reconcile both (Jews and Christ make peace, reconciling both Gentiles) unto God in one body by Jews and Gentiles unto God in one the cross, having slain the enmity body by the cross. thereby.”
The same apostle, in another place, Under the old covenant, the way speaking of this reconciliation by the into the holiest of all was not made death of Christ, says, that the word, manifest. None were permitted to (the doctrine,) the ministry of it, was enter into it but the high priest only, committed to them, (the apostles). and he not without blood; but now, What was this doctrine of reconciliathat covenant being abolished, that wall tion? He tells us, it was this, " to of partition being broken down, and wit, that God was in Christ,” i. e. by the veil of the temple rent in twain, bis death“ reconciling the world unto the way into it is opened, and both himself, not imputing their trespasses Jews and Gentiles have boldness, free unto them.” That is, passing over liberty, to enter into the holiest of and not reckoning to them their forall by the blood of Jesus, the blood mer transgressions in their Jewish or of the new covenant, by which the Heathen state, but freely forgiving former covenant was entirely set and blotting them out. And this he aside.
So the apostle says here, did by abolishing the law, the minishaving made peace by his cross, and
* Ephes. ii. 11-16.
* Ephes. v. 17, 18.
Paris Protestant Bible Society.
643 try of condemnation, by the death of rized versions, without Note or Comhis Son; so the apostle says, “ when ment. The Marquis de Jaucourt, we were enemies we were reconciled Peer of France, is the President? unto God by the death of his Son." amongst the Vice-Presidents are Le
In like inanner in the Epistle to Comte Boissy-d'Anglas, Peer of the Colossians, the apostle says,
France; Le Baron Cuvier, Counsellor “and you being dead in your sins, of State ; Le Baron De Lessert, Memand the uncircumcision of your flesh, ber of the Chamber of Deputies; Le hath he (God) quickened together Comte Maurice Mathieu de la Rewith him, (i. e. Christ,) having for- dorte, Peer of France ; Le Comte de given you all trespasses, blotting out Reinhard, Counsellor of State ; Le the hand-writing of ordinances which Comte Ver Huell, Peer of France, was contrary to us, and cook it out of &c. One of the Secretaries is Le the way, nailing it to his cross." it Baron de Staël-Holstein.—A full acwas the law that stood in the way of count is given in this Report of the the access of the Gentiles into the last Annual Meeting, held at Paris kingdom of God: this he took out of the 16th of April. It bore a great the way, cancelled and blotted out, likeness to the similar meetings of nailing it to his cross, representing it England; the same long speeches, all figuratively as put to death by being containing nearly the same matter ; as it were crucified with him hence the same bandying of compliments the apostle says,
we are become from speaker to speaker; and the dead to the law by the body of Christ, same ardent expressions of loyalty that being dead in which we were
and assurances of the increase of held,” as in a state of captivity and loyalty from the circulation of the slavery.
Scriptures. This said loyalty obliges [To be concluded in the next Number.) object to be to circulate the Bible
the French Society to profess their Paris Protestant Bible Society.
amongst Protestants only; but it ap
pears from some passages of the WE Bible Society of Paris, es- Report that a Roman Catholic who
. a tants, will it may be hoped arouse conquest. In one respect, the French this languid body, and produce a re- Society goes beyond the English. vival of the dormant spirit of reforma. With the same avowal of no Notes or tion in their churches. The English Comments, the object is evident of have been the means of originating, making the Society an engine of and are perhaps the instruments in Orthodoxy, at least in those points upholding, this institution. How long on which Lutherans and Calvinists such an association will be permitted are agreed. Though the several reto exist under the Bourbon govern- ceived versions are pretended to be ment is questionable. A hint from adopted, the last Geneva Version, the the Thuilleries would dissolve the best of all the French translations, whole fabric and cause the most ac which is in use amongst a large protive agents of the Society to be dumb portion of the Swiss and French Pro. and motionless. But whilst it lasts, testants, is not even alluded to. It the Society will we are persuaded do is implied in the language of the some good, thouglı it is not the fault speakers that the Protestants, speakof the anglicized members if it is not ing the French tongue, are 'l'riniproductive of some evil.
tarians; and Messrs. Marron and The last Report of the Society is Monod allow the language to pass lying before us, an 8vo. volume of uncontradicted. The English Mis240 pages. (Société Biblique Protes- sionaries must smile at their silence. tante de Paris. IV. Rupport An- A barefaced violation of the fundanuel. 1823.”). The Rules state the mental rule of the Society is confessed object of the Society to be to distri- in the Report.. A Coinmittee was bute the Holy Scriptures amongst appointed to prepare a new edition of Protestant Christians, in the autho- Ostervald's French Bible. The edi
tions of this work in general use are • Col, ii, 13, 14.
that of Basle in 1820, and that of
Neuchâtel in 1744. These the Re- Christ,” and from his representing it port says were collated in forming the as cominon for the English Dissenters new edition. But it is admitted that to express their wish of seeing the the text has been changed and the National Church maintain its authority translation of Martin foisted into untouched. These publications are Ostervald, in 2 Cor. v. 19, “in order full of eulogiums on the late Mr. to express more decisively the Di. Owen, one of the Secretaries of the vinity of Jesus Christ!" (" Le texte Bible Society. The Report contains même n'a subi aucun changement an Eloge” upon hiin of thirty quelconque, à l'exception d'un seul pages. His merits were doubtless passage. Au verset 19, chapitre v. great in relation to the Bible Society; de la 2°, aux Corinthiens, la traduc- but it is a real injury to his memory tion de Martin, conservée sur ce point to speak of his learning, talents and dans l'édition d’Osterwald de 1724, virtues as if they were never equalled l'a été égaleinent dans la nôtre, comme and the loss of them can never be plus fidèle et exprimant plùs formelle- supplied. ment la divinité de Jésus-Christ.") After this we cannot wonder at seeing Sir,
Nov. 1823. in the Report a profession of unity TILL you allow me to call the with Roman Catholics on the subject
attention of your readers to of the Trinity (p. 121), or at finding what appears to me a striking proof one of the orators describing Christ of the progress of those liberal opias the “ Saviour-God, who perished nions which it is the main object of on the Cross ;" but we confess our. your Repository to advocate and difselves a little surprised at some semi- fuse? In the Quarterly Review for papistical language with regard to last September is an article intitled the Virgin Mary (p. 131). This comes “ Buckland's Reliquiæ Diluviana," from the Lutherans, and the Reform- in which I found, not without surcd suffer it no doubt as tending to prise and I may say delight, some conciliate their Roman Catholic neigh- observations socongenial to the bours.
opinions which I have always been With the Report we have received taught to entertain, that I could not Bulletins 15 and 16 of the Society, help giving way to a sort of triumphsubsequently published. The foriner ant feeling. It is true I am about as of these gives an account, which much entitled to triumph as the priis truly French, of the distribution vate who wears a Waterloo medal for of Bibles in a country-school, as having during the battle been some“ Wisdom--prizes.” On this occa- where within sound of the camnension, the President addressed the ading; but one cannot help sympasuccessful candidates, and one sen- thizing in the triumph of one's party tence of his speech is a curious speci- or principles, and we by-standers are men of Bible - Protestantism : “ On apt to forget that we have no right to this subject (of the Bible ) flee all appropriate to ourselves any part of discussion; your piety would be de- the glory. stroyed by it and toleration would be You, Sir, have always advocated injured.” The words must surely be the principle that a liberal interpretastolen from some Romish Priest's tion of the Scriptures was most concharge to his flock against the use of ducive to the interests of religion. the Bible. In these Bulletins and in Point after point has been contended, the Report itself much is said of M. and though ihe opponents have strugStapfer's visit to the last Annual Meet- gled desperately and refused to own ing of the Bible Society in London. their defeat, we have seen them graHis Speech on this occasion is trans. dually abandoning the object of conlated, and all the compliments to him tention, and cautiously avoiding to and praises of him are carefully pre excite fresh discussion ; but I am not served. He makes a special report aware that so bold an avowal of this of his mission, the accuracy of which fact has ever been made as is contained may be judged of from his describing in the following extracts from the the friends of the Bible Society under Quarterly Review. the general term of “Worshipers of P. 162. “Others object to it,"