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Dr. Kennicott and the late Rev. G. Walker.
645 (that is, the interpretation of the six way instrumental in producing such days of creation as six indefinite pe- glorious results ! How ought this riods,)." with great vehemence, as persuasion to nerve our strength and wholly incompatible with the institu- stimulate our exertions ! tion of the Sabbath, which is mani
K. K. K. festly set forth as the seventh day, and therefore they contend that the other six must necessarily be regarded Religious Intrepidity exemplified in as days in the same sense and of the
Dr. Kennicott, and in the Rev. same kind. Instead of presuming to
George Walker, of Nottingham. decide peremptorily in this matter, SIR,
Nov. 3, 1823. our object will rather be to caution THERE appears to have been an and possibly a mischievous mode of Benjamin Kennicott, which reflects vindicating their opinions. We be- particular honour on his character, seech them to bear in mind that and which has a close parallel in an similar alarm has been taken and occurrence, that befel the late Rev. similar zeal manifested for the cause George Walker, of Nottingham. of religion in several instances which Between these two highly valuable have all terminated in establishing persons a wide diversity existed, in the points so much dreaded. And yet respect of their situation in the world, Christianity so far from receiving a of their political and theological opishock has only emerged from the nions, of their pursuits and tastes, controversy with increased vigour and their attachments and connexions : lustre."
both of them were governed, lowAnd again, p. 163. “We would ever, by that religious principle, call to their recollection also the opi- without which it is comparatively of nions formerly maintained as to ple- little moment to what church a man nary and even literal inspiration of belongs, what sentiments he professes the Scriptures, &c. Well indeed is it and defends, or in what studies he for us that the cause of revelation engages; and, while, in some things, does not depend upon questions such to which, it may be, an undue imas these, for it is remarkable that in portance is attached, I dissent from every instance the controversy has both the individuals whom I have ended in a gradual surrender of those mentioned, I must equally admire in very points which were at one time each that manly integrity, that Chrisrepresented as involving the vital in- tian fortitude, of which each was the lerests of religion."
example and the advocate. I am aware that this is but the In the very concise and general acopinion of the Quarterly Review, and count of Dr. Kennicott, which Nithat nine out of every ten good ortho- chols' Literary Anecdotes, &c. supdox religionists would startle at such ply, it is said that he distinguished infidelity. But it is really delightful himself by the publication of several to see that all the efforts which have occasional sermons, which were well been making for the diffusion of libe- received.”+ Among his discourses of ral opinions are not thrown away, this class, is one, preached before and that the most respectable oppo- the University of Oxford, Jan. 25, nents begin to avow their conviction. 1757, on Christian Fortitude, and We cannot expect that the great mass afterwards printed, for the author, of uneducated enthusiasts should be at the Theatre ;t though, for reasons open to any argument. The present which are not assigned, the Vicerace will live and die in their present Chancellor's IMPRIMATUR was opinions. After a certain age, as fused to it. I shall be greatly obliged Dr. Priestley well observes, there is little chance of change ; but the next
* I designate him thus fully, in order and succeeding generations will gra- that he may not be confounded with a dually perceive the truth. How plea- celebrated frish divine, of similar habits sant it is to look forward to this of mind, The Rev. George Walker, who happy period! What consolation un- was slain at the battle of the Boyne. der all our rebuffs and rebukes to + Vol. II. 408. think that we shall have been in any | Then the Uuiversity press.
to any of your correspondents, who, Thus far therefore we perceive a being acquainted with the circum- remarkable coincidence in the situastances in which this discourse was tion, the views, the feelings and the composed, delivered and published, conduct of Dr. Kennicott and of Mr. will have the goodness to communi- Walker. To point it out, has been a cate some history of it, in your pages. pleasing, and, I trust, a salutary, It is a very animated and pious ser- employment. The Christian spirit, mon, from Rom. viii. 35, 37: in the wherever, and in whomsoever, it exprogress of it, the preacher avows his ists, is “ the spirit not of fear, but cordial attachment to the cause of of power, of love, and of a sound Protestantism, and to “ The Glo- mind.” RIOUS REVOLUTION," adverts to the
N. war then raging on the continent of Europe, and to the state and dangers
Liverpool, of the country, and takes occasion to
Nov. 12, 1823. recommend a more numerous attend- AVING lately looked a good church of the University. From the genius, referred to by Mr. Gurney, as preface and the notes it clearly ap- related by your correspondent E. (p. pears, that some things which he 590,) I beg leave to state that as far said were subjects of animadversion, as I have been able to observe, that and even of severe censure : what learned writer does not quote any one these were, however, is not stated; passage from the book Sohar or from though we may justly conclude, that any other book, such as Mr. Gurney the discourse was not quite so “ well (if your correspondent did not misreceived” as the rest of his single také his meaning) pretends to have
With the author of his derived from him. It is true that text, Dr. Kennicott could, no doubt, Schoettgenius has endeavoured to ask, Do I seek to please men?” prove that all the names enumerated and, with him, could add, “If I yet by Mr. G., as well as several others, pleased men, I should not be the ser- were ascribed by the Jews to their vant of Christ.”.
expected Messiah, for which purpose The late Rev. George Walker, hav- he has produced passages from variing undertaken to supply the pulpitous Jewish writers, and especially at Salters' Hall, on March 24, 1793, from the book Sohar, but I cannot delivered a discourse from Heb. xii. 3, think very highly of the success of on Christian Fortitude: the sermon his endeavours. That your readers “ appeared to have given offence to a may be able to judge of his manner, few of the hearers;" and “this of- and of the general value of his reafence they were pleased to signify in soning, I will quote what he says of a singular manner, by a very abrupt the name Jehovah, the first on Mr. departure in the midst of the service, Gurney's list, and offer a few obserand without waiting to judge of the vations on it. design of the preacher." Mr. Wal- Book I. Chap. i. p. 4. This esker, like Dr. Kennicott, published sential name of God is attributed to the discourse, in justice to himself;t the Messiah, Jerem. xxüi. 6, on which nor does it contain any thing, which place see what is said Book II. a Christian, a Protestant, and a Pro. Suhar on Deuteron. fol. 119, col. 473: testant Nonconformist can reasonably “ Elsewhere the doctors of traditions arraiga. Soine allusions, however, have taught that the temple and name there are to the awful contest then of the Messiah are expressed by the exhibited on the theatre of Europe, nomen tetragrammaton," i. e. Jehoand some very seasonable admoni- vah. Sohar on Eirod. fol. 21, col. tions to the exercise of that religious 83, on the words Exod. xi. 21, courage, of which many professors of “ And the Lord went before them." the gospel neither understand the na- The words are explained of the Mature nor feel the obligation.
tron and the Angel of the Covenant, which names we shall shew hereafter
to belong to the Messiah. Gal. i. 10.
Midrasch Tehillim on Ps. cvii. I, + Sermons, by G. Walker. IV. p. 281. fol. 40, col. ), remarking on Isaiah
Mr. Hincks or Jewish Titles of the Messiuh. XXXV. 10, “And the ransomed of cause in his times the justice of God the Lord shall return." “ He does will be firm and established amongst not say, the ransomed of Elias, nor us, which will never depart. the ransomed of the Messiah, but the These two passages contain the ransomed of the Lord.” Here it is whole of what Schoettgenius has clear that the ransomed of the Mes- produced to prove that the Jews exsiah and the ransoined of Jehovah pected their Messiah under the name are taken as synonymous. Midrasch Jehovah. The real question is wheMischle, cxix. 21, fol. 57, col. 1, ther they expected him as Deity or Rabbi Huna said: The Messiah is possessed of a divine nature. The called by eight names, which are, Jin- authority of the rabbinical writers in non, Jehovah, Our Righteousness, general, as interpreters of Scripture, Zemach, Menachem, David, Schiloh is less than nothing, as they were and Elias. These are then severally completely devoted to the allegorical proved by passages of Scripture which method, and have applied to the I shall elsewhere produce. But as the Messiah innumerable passages which words Jehovah, "Our Righteousness, have manifestly no relation to him ; are here enumerated as two names, besides that many of them have writthough really but one, perhaps the teu the most extravagant nonsense, modern Jews have expunged one, of which Schoettgenius's extracts af(viz. one of R. Huna's eight names,) ford abundant specimens. The simwhich might be rendered plain by ple questiou is, what they thought of the comparison of copies.
the nature of their expected Messiah, Again, Book II. p. 200, on Jerem. and we must recollect in applying to xxiii. 6, the place referred to at the him certain high epithets, (not as exbeginning of the last extract, we meet pressing his nature but his offices and with the following remarks : v. 6, works,) they might have been influ“ And this is his name, whereby they enced by rivalship of the Christians. shall call him, Jehoval our righteous- Now on the first testiinony from ness." Echa Rabbathi, fol. 59, col. 2, Sohar on Deuteronoiny, it is obvious on Lamentations i. 16: What is the to remark that the temple, as well as name of the King Messiah? R. Abbu the name of the Messiah, is said to ben Cahana said: Jehovah is his name, be expressed by the name Jehovah. q. d. “This is his name.” Midrasch The meaning, therefore, could not be Mischle, fol. 57, col. 1, R. Huna said, to ascribe a divine nature to the Mes&c., the saine passage quoted above. siah any inore than to the temple. See above at Isaiah Ix. 6, (where We are next referred to Sohar on there is a reference to this passage of Exodus, for an explanation of the Jeremiah taken from Breschith Ralse words Exod. xii. 21, “And the Lord ba). Midrasch Tehillim on Ps. xxi. went before them by day in a pillar I, God calls the king Messiah by his of cloud, and by night in a pillar of
But what is his name? fire," of the matron and the angel of Answer. Exod. xv. 3, Jehovah is a the covenant, names, says our author, mun of war. But this is said con- of the Messialı; but it is the express cerning the king Messiah.
testimony of the book Sohar on Gen. Bava Bathra, fol. 75, col. 2: Therefol. 68, col. 268, that wherever the are three things which come in the expression ANGEL OF The covenant name of the Holy and blessed God, occurs, the discourse is concerning the namely, the Just, the Messiah und Je- holy and blessed God. As to the marusalem. The Scripture thus speaks tron, it is made out to be a name of concerning the Messiah. " This is the Messiah, chiefly by its being his name.
R. Joseph Albo in Sepher shewn to be synonymous with ShechiIkkarim, as cited by Eisenmenger 1.p. nah : but our author's own extracts 216. The Scripture calls the name of prove, that though the Jews might the Messiuh JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTE- call their Messiah the Shechinah or OUSNESS, because he is the Mediator sign of God dwelling among them, of God, by whom we obtain justification in reference to the blessings of his from God. Kimchi. The Israelites reign, they did not exclusively or shall call the Messiah by this name, even frequently intend him by the use JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS, beo of the word 'Shechinalı.
Jews meant by the allegorical name There is a direct and acknowledged matron, it is not easy to understand, reference to Jer. xxii. 6, which exand our author's attempt to explain plains the meaning, he is Jehovah our it of the marriage between the human righteousness, for as Kimchi has it, and divine natures in the Messiah, In his days, the justice of God shall be and of the Messiah's participation of established amongst us. In Midrasch his Father's dwelling and glory, as a Tehillim on Ps. xxi. l. (God calls queen shares those of the king her the King Messiah by his own name. husband, will only excite a smile. But what is his name? Answer. Our author's reasoning on this pas. Exod. xv. 3, Jehovah is a man of sage is as follows : “Jehovah is said to war, but this is said concerning the have gone before his people in the King Messiah.) The meaning is, that cloud and pillar of fire, (plainly mean: where God represents himself as a ing that the visible sign of his pre- warrior, he does so in allusion to the sence went before them,) Sohar ex- victories which he would give to the plains Jehovah here as meaning the Messiah, whom the Jews expected as Matron, (a fanciful and figurative ex- a conqueror; bnt what can be clearer pression by which some of the Jewish than that God, who calls the Messiah writers seem to have denominated the by his name to do him honour, and visible sign of God's presence,) but express his purpose of giving bin the Matron is elsewhere explained of success, is his superior in nature? We the Shechinah, (by which expression have but one passage more, that from the visible sign of God's presence Bava Bathra, and surely I need do with his people is certainly meant). no more than remark, that the Just Now Jewish writers have sometimes and Jerusalem are in precisely the spoken of their expected Messiah as same state with the Messiah. The the Shechinah, therefore the writer reference to Jer. xxiii. 6, shews the of the book Sohar understood the way in which the writer understood Messiah by Jehovah, Exod. xiii. 21, the Messiah to come under the name and believed him to be truly God.” By of God. such reasoning any doctrine might be I think I have shewn that Schoettestablished.
genius has not proved from their The third extract from Midrasch writings that the Jews expected their Tehillim only shews, that in the wri- Messiah as Jehovah, or ascribed this ter's estimation it was correct and name to him as expressive of his proper to describe what was done by Deity or Divine nature ; and be has the Messiah as done by God, since certainly nothing stronger to produce the Messiah could only perform his respecting any of the other names will and act by his power. Schoett- which can at all be considered as genius's own observation on R. Hu- implying superiority of nature. I na's eight names is sufficient, namely, may, if I can find time hereafter, that " Jehovah our righteousness” is send you a few observations on the evidently one name, and there has rabbinical sense of the phrase Son of probably been another name lost God, as well as on the phrase Word which would make up the number. of God, in the Targums, and on the Now “ Jehovah our righteousness” Spirit of God being the Spirit of ibe is a name of the kind which occurs so Messiah. In the mean time I must frequently in Scripture as Immanuel, venture to contradict Mr. Gurney's asMaher-shalal-hashbaz, &c., not intend- sertion respecting the doctrine of the ed to express the nature of the indi- Targums, and I conclude by reminding vidual, but some circumstance to your readers that Justin Martyr, the happen in his time or through his earliest defender (and that not in the instrumentality. That it was thus the sense of modern Orthodoxy) of the Jewish writers understood this name divinity of Christ, complains much of is manifest, from the comments of the Jews as misunderstanding and R. Joseph Albo and Kimchi, as quoted perverting the Scripture, and repreby our author above. In Echa Rab- sents Trypho as asserting that " all bathi, fol. 59, col. 2. What is the his nation expected the Messiah as a name of the King Messiah ? R. Albo man born like other men,”-a testi. ben Cahana said: Jehovah is his name. mony as to the opinions of the Jews,
Divine Foreknowledge and Man's Free Agency.
649 clear, disinterested, because strongly tion. Thus, whatever ensues, neither opposed to the writer's wishes, and unknown nor unprovided for, it opantecedent in time to all the Jewish poses no obstacle to the exercise of writers above quoted; of course strong- the attribute of foreknowledge. ly confirming the view of their mean- The Deity knows precisely what is, ing which I have given.
that a capacity is given of doing either W. HINCKS. right or wrong ; but to contend upon
account of the Divine foreknowledge Sir,
of the ultimate result, that we must HAVE read with much interest in choose the one, and could not have
your current Number, (p. 585,) chosen the other leaves no alternative, Mr. Johnston's remarks “ On some and is in effect to deny we can do recent Hypotheses of the Origin of either; thereby rendering the Divine Evil.” Many of them are conclusive; prescience a nullity, it having no but essentially differing in opinion cognizance of nonentities. Compelled with him upon a particular point of to act in one way rather than another, practical import, I propose suggest- our privilege of choice ceases, and at ing a few hints for his future con- the same time accountableness. With sideration. Does he not, with many your valued and ingenious corresponothers, assume too much, and only dent I perfectly agree, That to sanction a popular prejudice, when reconcile the Necessarian Jiypothesis he says, “ to reconcile the free agency with moral accountability is equally of man with the strict and unlimited impossible and absurd;” but differ omniscience of the Deity, appears to from him in toto, when he considers our finite minds an impossibility, a it" a contradiction in terms to reconcontradiction in terms”? Every in- cile the free agency of man with the dividual introduced into existence is strict and unlimited omniscience of placed in circumstances over which, the Deity ;" believing that to do so in the first instance, he has no con- is neither . absurd nor impossible. troul. Thence, however, to infer, Convinced of the practical importance he must always continue so, is a mere of a meet elucidation of the point at gratis dictum. Whether to be born issue, you will, I trust, pardon this or not is no object of choice; but is intrusion. The above considerations this a reason why introduced into are subunitted to the candid inquirer, being the subsequent development who possibly upon reflection may, of our powers, when duly improved with me, be of opinion, that the comby ourselves, and matured, should monly-alleged inference of the incomnot enable us to make elections ? patibility of the free agency of man The infant, at birth, hungry and re- with the Divine foreknowledge, is an quiring food, would of itself presently assumed dogina of highly injurious perish; the faculties nevertheless as tendency, as, if proved to be true, it yet in embryo, when subsequently must sap the very foundation of modeveloped enable the child not merely rals, by being utterly subversive of to eat, but also to choose food the the moral relation, or at least of such most suitable and agreeable to the a view of it as is consistent and compalate and constitution.
patible with the Christian doctrine of Upon the supposition (apprehended a future state of retribution. to be correct) of the Creator having
SAMUEL SPURRELL. placed us in circumstances in which a real choice of action is given, not at birth, but subsequently attainable
Clapton, by our own exertions, it will be no Sir,
November 5, 1823.
N a catalogue the the other of two given results takes place, how. elles,” which is annexed to ever opposite in their nature and Actions Héroiques et Plaisantes de quality, as of right and wrong: for L'Empereur Charles V.,” the Approinstance, the Creator having provided bation to which is dated 1674, I find for the alternative--a fact fully con- the following articles : firmed to us by the Christian revela- “ Apologie du Sistême des Saints VOL, XVIII.