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Review.-Scott's Lectures on the Devil.

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situatiou, he would, after all his exertions

compounded of g (ge), land, and {rvoji, and fears, be naturally exhausted, and hinnom, a proper name ; in order to make was most likely placed in the hold or it correspond as nearly as possible to the bottom of the vessel, where he continued

Hebrew for the valley of Hinnom ; called in safety for three days and three nights, by Joshua, (chap. xv. 8,) 'the valley of i. e. until the storm subsided, which the son of Hinnom,' who assigns its situ. would probably be about thirty-six hours, ation near Jerusalem, to the south east. one whole day, and part of two others, It was the place where the idolatrous when he was safely landed by this vessel, Jews anciently celebrated the horrible whose distinguishing name, mark, or rite of burning their children in sacrifice head, was a whale. Thus we have ships to Moloch, an idol of the Ammonites : called after the name of fishes, Dolphin, a fire was continually kept there for this the Nautulus, the Sea-horse, &e. At and other idolatrous purposes. To put a all events, Jonab could not mean to say, stop to such an unnatural and detestable that he had been in the belly, or the bot- practice, Josiah, about six hundred years tom of such a Hell as our Calvinist bre- before Christ, defiled or profaned the thren advocate; nor, that from thence place, by filling it with human bones, as he prayed to God. Jonah's Hell con- we learn from 2 Kiugs xxiii, 10–14. st sisted of salt water, waves runoing moun- was afterwards the custom to carry out tains high; not of fire and brimstone. the dead carcases of animals, the filth It is related of Hercules, that Neptune and offal of the city, into this valley; in sent a sea-dog against him, that the dog order to cousume this nauseous assemswallowed him, and that he remained in blage a fire was kept continually burning. the dog's belly uninjured for three days. Jeremiah informs us, (chap, vii. 32, 33,) This, perhaps, is only another edition of that it became also the common buryingthe preservation of Jonah by the dog. place for the poor inhabitants of JerusaIn the same point of view we may con- lem, who could not afford the expense of sider the circumstance which is related tombs or of ernbalming. Here also were of Arion, the musician and poet of burned the bodies of those criminals who Lesbos, who, in escaping from the mur- were denied burial: and, indeed, some derous hands of some mariners, jumped are said to have been there burned alive.t from the vessel where he was, upon the The Pharisees, whose opinions concernback of a dolphiu that was close by it, ing the state of the dead were chiefly which, having been charmed by his music, adopted from the Heathens, and certainly carried him safe on shore.”—Pp. 495– not from Moses and the prophets, had 497.

been long accustomed to designate the The Lecturer considers Hades to considered to be wicked, by the name of

future punishment of those whom they be synonymous with Sheol, but he this horrible place : horrible it really was, does not satisfactorily explain our whether we consider the shocking inhuLord's using this term in the parable manity in which the first fire originated, of Dives and Lazarus, to signify a or the loathsome disgustfulness which place of torment. He seems to us to occasioned the second."-Pp. 566, 567. be fettered in this part of his inquiry by his system as a materialist, which

In quoting and explaining Matt. x. however, he frankly avows, asserting

28, (Fear not them which kill the in the most unqualified manner, (pp.body, and are not able to kill the 530, 536, 566,) that “ neither Moses soul; but rather fear him which is nor the prophets were authorized to able to destroy both body and soul in make any communications respecting

hell,) and the parallel place, Luke futurity! We cannot subscribe to xii

. 4, 5, the Lecturer does not atthis hypothesis, and if we could, (so tempt to reconcile his previously differently are human minds consti- avowed materialism to these seemtuted,) we doubt whether we should ingly strong assertions of a substance be able to admit that the Old Testa- that survives the body: his comment ment contains a Divine Revelation.

is in our view unsatisfactory, though On Gehenna, rendered Hell in the New Testament, Mr. Scott says,

* “ That the valley of Gehinnom was “ This is not a Greek word, but is

a place of sepulture, may be proved by reference to various authorities, Heathen,

Jewish and Christian. Clarke's Travels, “ See Fragments to Calmet's Dic. Vol. IV. p. 353, note." tionary, No. cxliv. p. 103."

+ “ See Lowth's Isaiah, notes."

it.

we are not certain that we understand does the Devil present himself to yoit,

shaking his instrument of flagellation at Our Lord here clearly designates the you, restrain you, and instantly make

you speak the truth contrary to your future punishment to be inflicted on those intention? When you are about to dewho do not fear God, by a metaphorical fame others or to injure them, by any allusion to this mode of punishing crimi- means, in their reputation and character, nals. It was a human, not a divine sen

are you induced to desist by the Devil tence; it was temporal in its nature and threatening to burn your tongue with origin; a reference to it, therefore, could fire and brimstone ? When you are about not be understood as intending to convey to commit a crime, or to indulge in any the idea that the future punishinent of those vice, are you prevented by the fear of who did not fear God would be eternal, the Devil coming and carrying you of like the Hell of the Assembly's Catechism; with him into his infernal' dominions ? nor did he hint, in the most distant way, if such be the nature of the motives that the sentence to which he alluded, which influence your conduct, you are was an association with the Devil and the worshipers of the Devil and vot of his angels."-Pp. 575, 576.

God, whose authority with you is perLecture XXIII. is from Isaiah xlv. fectly nugatory; it is the Devil who is 7, and the design of it is expressed all-sufficient with you. Your principles in the following comment upon the of obedience are not gospel principles ; text:

for the Christian Scriptures command us

to honour, serve and obey God from a “ 'The prophet here rejects, from Je- principle of love, and not from a slavish hovah himself, the idea of an evil being, fear or dread."-Pp. 597, 598. the cause of evil and misery of any kind to the human race, and asserts from Him, The XXIVth and last Lecture is that He alone is supreme and omnipo- upon Future Panishment, which the tent ; that, besides Him, there is no author maintains will be temporary powerful, omnipresent being, no universal principle of action, no source of good, and remedial. Here again he opposes

“the Heathenish notion,” (as he freely no author of evil to any of his rational creatures : - 1, Jehovah, am the author calls it,)“ of there being a principle of all these things.'”—P. 591.

in man which is naturally immortal.” In this Lecture, Mr. Scott considers majority of the wise as well as the

This description of a tenet held by the the question, “ Whether the rejection of the Devil out of the Christian sys; haps not to be censured in a work

vulgar of all sects in all ages, is per. tem, will not remove a salutary check from the minds of men, by inducing professedly polemical ; but we would them to cast off not merely the fear of suggest whether it be quite correct or him, but also the restraints of religion turer says, p. 627, that the doc

altogether candid to say, as the Lecand the fear of God.”

trine of a continuation of being at “To this it may be briefly replied, that death, by one part of the human frame the principle of fear is not the principle being immortal, is in opposition to of obedience which is recommended in the teachings of Christ and bis Aposthe Christian Scriptures. They who be- tles, and must, therefore, be antilieve a Devil to be necessary to keep men in the fear of God, and render them sub. christian"!--The practical reflections missive to the Divine will, compare the which conclude the Lecture are truly kind and benevolent Father of mankind excellent. Mr. Scott closes with an to a slave - holder, and themselves to exposition of his design in taking up slaves, requiring a slave driver, the Devil, such a subject and defending so unto be continually following them with his popular an hypothesis, and with a soinstrument of panishment, lest their fears lemn appeal to the understanding and should relax, and they become inattentive conscience of his audience. to the task allotted them. Is it, then,

We have said nearly all that we inmy brethren, the Devil who keeps you tended upon this work. The reader honest? Are the commands of God in. will have seen that we consider it sufficient for this purpose ? When you highly creditable to the talents, indusothers without detection, is it the Devil try and moral courage and Christian who steps in and prevents you? When faithfulness of the preacher. It conyou are going to tell a wilful, deliberate tains a inass of information, taken falsehood, to serve some vile, base end, from the best authorities, on every

con

Review.A Christmas Present for Young Persons. 727 topic to which it relates ; and may be to be met with in Mr. Ackerman's regarded as a text-book on the sub- Forget me not,” or Mr. Relfe's ject of Demonology. The author's tastefully decorated “ Friendship's desire to leave out nothing important Offering.Its claims to notice are on any part of the inquiry has caused of a far more humble and unpretendthe volume to swell to a great bulk: ing character ; and while other prothis of course limits the number of ductions of the season are calculated readers, but it makes the work more for display in the drawing-room, this valuable to such as have leisure and is recommended as a companion for resolution to study it throughout. the young in their more serious mo

Our sincere respect for the author ments, and as a means of fixing their has not restrained us from stating attention upon more important subsome objections to his argument; and jects. he will, we are sure, take it in good The first division of the book is part, if we say further that there are written in poetry : the remaining two some epithets and descriptions in the are in prose. The prose parts Lectures which appear to us to be sist alınost entirely of extracts.” The wanting in gravity and even in charity. former of these contains a brief chroWe refer generally to the epithets nological sketch of the mission of « Devil-Believers," “ Devil's Advo- Jesus ; the dates, as we are informed cates," and the like ; to the phrase in a note, being entirely adopted from (p. 188) “ head of the Holy Alliance ;" Dr. Carpenter's valuable " Introducto the remark (p. 241), that the Devil tion to the Geography of the New was not either a native or foreign Testament.”. This we think will be Jew;" to the fractional division of of considerable use in furnishing the the legion of Devils (p. 346) which juvenile reader with an intelligible aconce procured a semi-profane nick- count of the life of Jesus, by laying name for a certain dignitary of the before him the events recorded in the church, his only distinction with pos- different gospels in a regular and terity; to the appeal to the multitude unbroken connexion. The extracts (p. 401) on their not liking to be from Scripture are so numerous in

on bad terms" with the Devil; but this part of the book, that it may be particularly to the adoption, by quo- considered as the language of the tation (Note, p. 261) of Mr. Wake. New Testament merely, with the adfield's unworthy exclamation on a

dition of dates. comment of Archbishop Secker's, “So account of Christmas-day," easily are the wretched criticisms of appears to be compiled chiefly froin bigotry and superstition put to shame!" Rees's Cyclopædia. "It concludes with

The author has prefixed to the vo- a copious extract, in which the argulume a table of the texts preached ments for and against the religious upon and an Index of those explained observance of this day are fairly though or referred to, but not an Index of concisely stated. subjects, which we have experienced

But the “ Poetical Allusions to our the want of, and which in so large a Saviour's Life and Sufferings,” forin work, comprising so much miscella- the most important part of this little neous matter, is almost indispensable. “Present." These are classed under

the following heads : “ The birth of

Jesus.—The goodness of God in sendArt. III.- A Christmas Present for of his reign. The baptism of Jesus:

ing a Saviour, and the permanence Young Persons : containing Poetical Allusions to our Saviour's

The Beatitudes. The hatred of the Life and Sufferings; a Brief His- Jews and the conduct of the Apostory of his Mission; and an Ac. tles.—The death and resurrection of count of the Origin and Observance

us. - The Saviour's patience and of Christmas-Day. 12.no. pp. 40. resignation. The ascension of Jesus, R. Hunter. 18. 1823.

and his second coming.-The bless

ings of our Saviour's Mission designed THE little book here presented to to be universal.”—And, lastly, " The of that elegance of ornament which is obey their Lord and Master.”

The «

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The following passage, (p. 15,) will at once give the reader an idea of the general character of the poetry, and serve as the foundation for a remark.

Ah! why do war and bloodshed rage ;*.*. 14:43
And men with fellow-men engage,

In an eternal strife?
When not the wolf that roams the plaints}!:!!!

With kindred blood its teeth will stain,"11,8... t?!

Or take its fellow's life! 1 1,548 144..!!
But man, more savage than the beast, 4, Dr.
Still glories in the human feast, 16

And wields the blood-stained sword; i per *** 1
Still triumphs in the trumpet's blast,

!!! 24, "I! Sighs when the vengeful fight is past, proto

And union is restored.
Blessed are those the strife who stay,
And drive the demon War away,

Aud bid the tumult cease!
They are the favourite sons of heaven ;
To them the glorious prize is giren

Of everlasting peace !" These verses are intended as a para- , in stating it as our opinion, that it phrase on Matt, v. 9, Blessed are would soon find its way into general the peacemakers; for they shall be circulation, and become one of the called the children of God." The turn most useful little works for Sunday.. given to this passage in the above schools lines is well calculated for poetical we few han families which

to have met with. effect, and for this reason it seems to These hints are by no means intended have been adopted by our author. to depreciate its character in the shape. But it appears to us that the spirit of which it now assumes, which, as A the passage would have been more Christmas Present for Young Persons,' nearly prescrved, if the words of our we can recommend with the greatest Lord had been taken in a more re- sincerity and confidence to our readers, stricted sense, and applied only to the

OP. Q. cireumstances of private and domestic life. Here, too, we may remark, that. Art. IV.- The Aposuus the Rev. C..

Vohn an Uniif the word happy had been uniformly tarian. A Letter to the adopted in the Beatitudes, as it some times is, instead of blessed, correct

Blomfield, D.D., Rector of St. Bo

tolph's, Bishopsgate, and Archdeaness and consistency would have been

con of Colchester, occasioned by his preserved, while the character of the

Five Lectures on the Gospel of poetry would have remained uninjured. These observations, it is hoped, will

St. John 'as bearing Testimony to not be deemed fastidious and hyper

the Divinity of our Satiour." By

W. J. Fox. 12mo. pp. 50. Fox critical. They are well intended, and, we have no doubt, will be taken in

and Co.Hunter and Eaton. 1833. good part.

R. BLOMFIELD has great re If this little book should come to putation as a Greek scholar, but a second edition, we would recom- judging by the extracts from his tec mend the author to give it a more tures that are given in this little trået, general character. By the addition he is not likely to obtain much theoloof a poetical version of some of the gical fame. Mr. For's answer to his most interesting of our Lord's para arguments is complete. So we think, bles, and seleet passages from such of and nothing would give us more satishis discourses as are best calculated faction than to hear that the Doctor to arrest and fix the attention of the proposes to shew that our judginient youthful mind, it might be made to is wrong. assume å stilt more attractive dress Controversy is in general of tess than it' already wears; and, under value on account of its vagueness and this new form, we fcel 'no hesitation generality. Where disputants are fixed

DR

Review.-Yates's Sermon before the Scottish Unitarian Association. 729 to one point, the result is more likely ness in this ; and, when you acknowledge to be favourable to truth. The Arch- Jesus as your SAVIOUR, to regard him as deacon has chosen a narrow arena for preserving you, not (according to the the display of his polemical power and immediate reference and genuine force

of that title) from damuation in the life dexterity, and his opponent keeps to come, but from the principles and strictly within the lists. We do not practices of this present evil world. It pretend to be impartial in the contest, is true, that all Christians, who shall but laying aside prejudice as far as

attain to the bliss and glory of the heawe can, we feel authorized to pro- venly state, will ascribe this deliverance, nounce, that the issue is decidedly no less than the other, to the influence favourable to Unitarianism.

of their Christian faith ; and, since the The “Letter” is highly honourable cultivation of Christian virtues here is the to Mr. Fox, on account not only of direct and appointed method of procuring the logical ability which it eminently unspeakable happiness hereafter, the acdisplays, but also of the good temper liverer from spiritual darkness and cor

kuowledgment of Jesus Christ as our dein which it is written, there being no one phrase in it that the least friendly he is also our deliverer from shame and

ruption, implies an acknowledgment, that reader can object to on the ground of wretchedness in the life to come. It uncharitableness.

ne rtheless appears evident,-and I hope In the investigation of particular to prove it to the satisfaction of candid texts the Letter-writer is successful, and impartial minds,—that the terms but the general remarks towards the under consideration are not most comend are particularly valuable. There monly used with any immediate reference is a force in them which we see not

to the effects of the gospel upon our conhow any candid inquirer can resist. dition after death ; but that they are Besides these, Mr. Fox has given (pp. stances, to describe its beneficial operation

used, except in comparatively rare in. 44-46) a table of propositions, sup. during the present life ; and 1 advance ported by references to the Gospel of this interpretation with the greater conJohn, which justify the title of his fidence, because I am supported in it by Letter and prove the Apostle to have the authority of some critics, held in high been an Unitarian.

estimatiou by Christians of every sect; and especially by the authority of Dr.

Henry Hammond, who gives place to ART. V.The Scriptural Meaning of none' in long-established reputation for

the Title Saviouras applied to learning, diligence, accuracy and fidelity; our Lord: a Sermon preached at and who, in his Commentary upon the Glasgow, July 28, 1822, at the New Testament, maintains in its fullest Annual Meeting of the Scottish extent the view of the subject, which it Unitarian Association. By James is my design to lay before you.""_Pp. 6, Yates, M. A. F. L. S. Member of

7. the Geological Society, one of the We think that Mr. J. Yates has Ministers of the New MeetingHouse, Birmingham. 8vo. pp. 46. Eaton. 28. 1823.

• “ See especially his Note on Luke

xiii. 23: Are there few that be saved?" THIS is a very able discourse; He shews the import of this question to

somewhat too critical perhaps be, Is the number small of those who for an unlearned auditory, but well embrace the Gospel ?" He has also long deserving serious study in the closet. and instructive notex, in support of the It has too the recommendation, rarely same views, on Rom. x. 1, and xiii. ll. found in a Sermon, of some novelty, Le Clerc, in his Additional Notes to being the exposition (and it is a judi- Hammond, follows the same principle of cions and clear exposition) of a pe. Dr. John Taylor (see his key to the Apos

which is also adopted by culiar theory. The author will best tolic Writings, $ 93, 94): by Mr. Kenexplain his own design :

rick, iu his Exposition of the Historical “ The prosecution of this inquiry will Books of the New Testament;' by Mr. lead you, I apprehend, lo consider the Belsham, in his valuable work, recently term · Salvation as denoting in its most published, on the Epistles of St. Paul; common scriptural sense, deliverance, not and by the late Mr. Buckminster, of Bosfrom eternal misery in the next world, ton, N. America, in his excellent Sermons, but from guilt, ignorance and wretched- No. 18, on Eph. ii. 3."

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VOL. XVIII.

5 A

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