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I. Introduction and summary -

A. Purpose and extent of hearings-
B. Findings

C. Recommendations.-
II. The development of employment and manpower policy in the United


A. Definitions of employment and manpower policy.
B. History of employment and manpower policy in the United

III. The manpower revolution.-
A. Impact of technological change.

1. Technological change and automation: Some defi

2. Measuring the impact of technological change..

3. Future impact of automation and cybernation..
B. The labor force: Its size and composition.---
C. Changing demands for labor..
D. The causes of unemployment..
E. Consequences of the manpower revolution.

1. Need for economic growth..
2. Unemployment: Its costs and impact..
3. Poverty and the manpower revolution...
4. Consequences for labor-management relations.
5. Consequences for race relations...

6. Shortages of high-talent manpower.--
IV. Toward a comprehensive employment and manpower policy: Ap-

praisal and recommendation...
A. Employment and manpower policy: The policy-making


1. Making employment policy
2. Making manpower policy---

3. The integration of employment and manpower policy-B. Monetary and fiscal policies for full employment.

1. Toward a more flexible tax policy--
2. The Presidential role in monetary policy-
3. Expenditure policy for full employment.-

(a) Accelerated Public Works Act of 1962.
(6) Area redevelopment..
(c) Other expenditure programs.
(d) A special direct employment program for dis-

tressed areas.
4. The employment impact of the defense and space


(a) Reductions and shifts in defense expenditures.

(6) Defense, space, and the Nation's manpower. 5. Income maintenance through unemployment compen

sation. 6. Special employment problems of disadvantaged


(a) Youth.
(b) Older workers...
(c) Minority workers...
(d) Public assistance recipients.
(e) The handicapped...

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IV. Toward a comprehensive employment, etc.—Continued
C. Developing our manpower for full employment.---.

1. The manpower orientation of education..
2. Elementary and secondary education...
3. Availability of higher education.--
4. Vocational and technical education.-
5. Apprenticeship and on-the-job training--
6. Adult education.-

7. Retraining the unemployed: MDTA and ARA..
D. Matching men and jobs in a changing labor market ---

1. The U.S. Employment Service.---
2. Labor mobility -

3. Manpower statistical and research needs.
V. Private manpower adjustment efforts --
VI. Conclusion: A comprehensive employment and manpower policy---

I. Summary of recommendations.
II. Introduction..---
III. Adjustment to technological change: A key to more jobs.

A. The essence of the problem..
B. Education and training-

Education and job skills..
Human investment credit.
Making the Manpower Development and Training Act a

more effective tool in the fight against unemployment-
Vocational rehabilitation: A program to bring the handi-

capped into successful employment.--
The dropout problem: Help through guidance and coun-

seling at the elementary level..

The dropout problem: Help through private enterprise..
C. Labor mobility: T'he key to better jobs and greater oppor-


D. The U.S. Employment Service: Matching men with jobs..
IV. Alleviating the impact of joblessness: The road back to employment.

A. Installment debt assistance for unemployed workers...
B. Establishment of a system of mortgage unemployment insur-

ance for the purpose of preventing home foreclosures result%

ing from extended unemployment-
C. Allowing for Federal income tax purposes a deduction for loss

in income due to unemployment...

D. Unemployment compensation for high level unemployment.
V. The war on poverty: The lost battalions..

A. Public welfare and social security-
B. Recommendation that social security benefits be made avail-

able to all persons seventy years of age or older who have no

pension from any public source-
C. Widow's social security benefit election.
D. Surplus foods for the needy -
E. School lunch and school milk programs.
F. Medical profession's loan program.-
G. Better schools and teachers for poverty impacted areas.

H. Overtaxation of the poor: An administration policy-
VI. Special group problems.---
Separate views of Senator Jacob K. Javits---




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A complex revolution is underway in the kind of labor force need to man the American economy. It has profound implications for ture national social and economic policy. In general

terms, the revolution may be characterized as a sh from a blue collar to a white collar work force. Innovation, sys matic invention of new products, new materials, new production tec niques are the hallmarks of today's American economy. Repetitive bor is steadily being relegated to machines and computers. Empl ment once concentrated in mill, mine, and farm is now increasing to be found in the office, service establishment, retail store, and labo tory. The unskilled occupations, the pick-and-shovel jobs, are f disappearing

This revolution has, of course, been underway for several decad In many respects, the shifts now occurring have been evolutionary, revolutionary, the logical end results of forces set in motion by t industrial revolution in the 19th century.

This "second" industrial revolution has brought great benefit most Americans. It has generated the highest levels of mass aflluer in human history. It has made sweatshop labor obsolete. It has ma possible the transfer of human labor from repetitive work to me challenging fields of human endeavour. Within it are the seeds of better society.


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But, in making the transition, the American economy has left ma problems unsolved. While technology has moved forward, our e nomic, social, and political policies have not. The mismatch betwe our economic policies and the peculiar demands of our highly techn logical economy has caused a needless waste of manpower and produ tive resources. The most serious symptom of this failure has be unnecessarily chronic and persistent high unemployment througho the ups and downs of the business cycle ever since 1953.

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Modern productive enterprise is characterized by its emphasis up systematic invention and innovation, the constant search for ne products and new ways to make old ones. The thriving plant or val able skill of today can become obsolete tomorrow under the pressur of innovating competition. Technological advance is partly a sear for laborsaving techniques which cut labor costs, increase efficieno and release human work to less repetitive forms of labor.

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