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strawberries last spring, which have done well, except in some places where injured by the larvæ of the May beetle. Should the next season be favorable, we hope for quite an increase in our income from this source.
Arrangements have been made for the establishment of a trade nursery in connection with this department. Mr. J. W. Clark, a graduate of the College, who will have charge of this work, has made a beginning by putting in about twelve thousand cuttings of the more choice varieties of Evergreen trees, and planting seeds of apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, and many ornamental and timber trees, such as ash, maple, beech, hickory, &c. Also a large lot of green cuttings of the most desirable hardy shrubs were rooted early in the season, and placed in boxes for the winter. About two acres of land north of the plant-house, and the same amount on the south, have been ploughed and subsoiled to fit it for planting with trees. The extra expense attending the establishment of this department has rendered it necessary for us to exceed our income to a small amount. This, we feel confident, we can cancel by our increased sales the coming spring
To facilitate work, and extend our operations, a new glass house has been built, one hundred feet long by seventeen feet wide. The funds for the purchase of material were generously loaned us by Hon. William Knowlton. All the work, with the exception of putting in the water-pipes and making and putting up the smoke-pipe, has been done without the aid of mechanics. Many of the students have assisted us in this work, having done nearly all of the painting, and all the glazing.
The Durfee Plant House has been painted outside with two coats of paint, put on by students, which adds very much to its beauty. The new boiler, put in last winter by the liberality of Hon. William Knowlton, has worked admirably, with a saving of much labor, and nearly ten tons of coal per annum. Many species and varieties of tender plants have been added to the collection by purchase or exchange ; and many new sorts of hardy trees and shrubs have been procured in the same way, or grown from seeds.
Around the orchard and vineyard has been planted a hedge of blackberries of the Kittatinny variety, to prevent trespassers from passing through when grapes and other fruits are ripening. It is hoped, that, by good cultivation, we may be able to make an impeuetrable hedge, and get fruit enough from it to pay the cost. Among the trees in the pear-orchard have been planted many of the leading varieties of blackberries and raspberries, which will give some fruit the coming
To the orchard and vineyard has been applied a chemical fertilizer, containing, with every hundred pounds of potash, fifty pounds of phosphoric acid, and twenty-five pounds of nitrogen.
For the success of the plans made for the work of this department, the sale of the plants grown, and the proper cultivation of the crops, it seems absolutely necessary for us to have the use of a good horse and express-wagon in addition to what may be done by the farm-teams.
The students who have been under my charge the past season have been very faithful in the discharge of their duties both in the class-room and at manual labor.
The success of our plant trade the past season has been largely due to Mr. Charles H. Maynard, who was chiefly responsible for it.
S. T. MAYNARD,
PRESIDENT W. S. CLARK.
Sir, I have the honor to submit this my Second Annual Report as superintendent of the College farm.
Prosperity has accompanied the management another year. The farm account shows a good increase of revenue. It is alsó gratifying to know that more cash has been paid into the treasury than in any previous year since the establishment of the Institution.
I have to thank the Executive Committee and officers of the College for their hearty support.
Sixteen acres of corn produced between two and three thousand baskets of ears; three acres of potatoes, about three hundred bushels of marketable size; one acre of rutabagas, eight hundred bushels; two acres of sugar-beets, twelve hundred bushels; one acre of carrots, ten tons; four acres of spring wheat, one hundred bushels; two acres of rye, thirty-seven bushels ; and ninety acres of mowing, one hundred and twentv-fire tons of hay.
The corn-crop was excellent, and, but for the heavy rains of early summer, would have been much heavier. One field Fas so muddy at harvest-time, that it was actually unsafe to go upon it with horse-teams. The potato-crop was, every thing considered, very good. The turnips grew upon land that I mentioned in my last report as lying south-west from the old farm-house, and which was never before ploughed. This piece was manured with the “ odds and ends;” in other words, with any fertilizing material that could be scraped together about the place. The crop suffered from excess of water while growing, and we fairly had to wade while harvesting it. The beet-crop was good, the roots being of fair size and excellent quality. This crop suffered also from excess of water while growing. The carrots were reasonably satisfactory, though the dry weather of August and September seemed to entirely stop their growth.
The wheat-crop was a grand success, the grain being unusually plump, and weighing, at the present time, sixty-one pounds to the bushel. One grain-dealer says it is seldom that such a lot of wheat can be found in the market. It is selling readily for a dollar and a half per busbel. It was manured with Stockbridge fertilizer; and a better catch of grass I never saw. I would advise sowing a much larger piece the coming season. The rye-crop would have been much heavier but for the
seed sown. During the past fall I was fortunate enough to put in fifteen acres of rye, my object being to get grain enough from this crop to feed the hogs.
Our conveniences for securing grain-crops are very meagre, to say the least, the old-fashioned grain-cradle being employed in harvesting; whereas a good reaping-machine should be used, for the twofold purpose of securing our crops quickly, and also to show the students, and especially visitors from abroad, that we propose to be foremost in the use of all modern appliances in our agriculture. We also greatly need a threshing-machine and a grist-mill, as we have an engine in the barn that would furnish ample power for running the same.
STOCK. The stock consists of forty head of cattle, of which seventeen are Shorthorns, seventeen Ayrshires, four Jerseys, and two Brittanies. The horses are six in number.
SWINE. Of swine there are seven Berkshire sows, two Chester sows, eleven pigs for fattening, two fat hogs, and one small boar. My sales of pigs and hogs amount to six hundred and sixty-seven dollars, and my outlay for additions to the stock has been forty-three dollars. The Berkshire swine of the College are of very superior quality. I am rather pleased to say that not an animal has been lost by sickness or accident thus far, although this is my second year.
I am experimenting, to some extent, to determine practically the cost of keeping, and the produce of, the various
breeds of cattle; the results of which will be published at an early day.
I have purchased, at my own expense, a “Cooley creamer,” for use in the dairy; and, thus far, very satisfactory results have been obtained.
No grain has been bought the past year for the cattle; but three hundred bushels of corn have been purchased for the horses and hogs.
During the fall we succeeded in breaking up about fifteen aeres of the pasture-land; and, for the purpose of thoroughly eradicating the brush, it is proposed to plant it for a year or two. We also ploughed and seeded about five acres in front of the old farm-house; but this is so covered with water, that I have fears for the success of the operation. There remains now only one piece near this latter, which is in sight of the public travel, that has never been ploughed; and, although it is a sort of mud-hole, I would advise ploughing and seeding it the coming season, as even this will improve the general appearance much.
Two new model Buckeye mowers and an improved American tedder have been added to the list of machines to take the place of old ones worn out.
Considerable work has been done for the botanical department in the way of grading, ploughing, and subsoiling; and the public roads on the estate have been kept in repair.
During the fall I built a corn-crib of old rails and boards, fifty-four feet long, ten feet high, and four feet wide. I did all the work myself: so there was no expense, except for nails. The corn keeps perfectly in this rude receptacle.
The coming year I advise the growing of clover for the pasturage of swine. Very respectfully submitted,
A. A. SOUTHWICK, Farm Sup't.