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HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, April 16, 1878.
Passed to be engrossed.
Sent up for concurrence.
GEO. A. MARDEN, Clerk.
IN SENATE, April 26, 1878.
Passed to be engrossed in concurrence with the following amendments; to wit:
At [A] strike out section 1, and insert
1 SECT. 1. Section seven of chapter ninety-nine of 2 the acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy3 five is hereby amended by inserting therein after the 4 provision for a "fifth class ” of licenses the words 5 “sixth class ; and licenses may be granted to drug6 gists and apothecaries to sell liquors of any kind for 7 medicinal, mechanical, and chemical purposes only, 8 and to such persons only as may certify in writing 9 for what use they want it, the fee for which license 10 shall be one dollar only.”
At [B], in section 2, insert the words and the certificates provided for in section one.”
At [C] strike out section 3.
At [D] insert a new section, to stand as section 3; to wit:
1 Municipal, district, and police courts, and trial2 justices, shall have jurisdiction, concurrent with the 3 superior court, over violations of the provisions of 4 this act.
Commonwcalth of Ixlassachusetts.
IN SENATE, April 26, 1878.
The Committee on Military Affairs, to whom was referred the message of his Excellency the Governor so far as the same relates to military affairs, the Annual Report of the Adjutant-General, and the Order relative to re-organizing the militia, reducing its expenses, and promoting its efficiency, respectfully report, in part, —
That many of the existing military laws of this Commonwealth are in their opinion crude, and difficult of construction; that many have been copied from time to time, in revisions, from laws now practically obsolete ; that there are many provisions at variance with each other; and that, therefore, it is of great importance to secure a clear and systematically arranged code.
At the same time, the opinion seems to be practically universal that present system and organizations are not in accordance with modern ideas; that the force may be largely increased, and its discipline improved, without material addition to the present expense.
To report a system of regulations for the government of the militia, and to suggest changes to simplify the statutes, a board of officers, to consist of two brigadier-generals, two colonels, and one lieutenant-colonel, was detailed by the commander-in-chief on the twentieth day of December, 1876. The work of this board, performed with great patience and skill, has been largely adopted ; and the Committee think the
board substantially approve the bill proposed, if the reduction to sixty companies be excepted.
One of the most important provisions is for the organization of the militia into regiments of eight and twelve companies, 'in battalions of four companies each. The more economical division would be into regiments of three battalions each. But the desire to equalize the two brigades, and the idea that in sparsely-settled districts the companies of a regiment might be too remote from each other, prevailed to allow the formation of two battalion regiments, which by the bill must be limited to three in number, while three must have at least three battalions each. The same principle of formation prevails in each. And, if the commander-in-chief deems it best, he may organize the whole militia into five regiments of three battalions, or twelve companies each. If it be urged that the organization adopted by the United States should be selected, the reply is, that it is very probable that system will be changed to the one suggested in the bill ; and the relations of the militia to the United States service are not such as to render a close following of their organization necessary.
This organization, on the basis of battalions of four companies each, is adopted by the leading military nations of Europe. One of the principal reasons for it is the capacity which it affords of expanding a small force, on a peace basis, into a large one, all to be commanded by trained officers, The plan is warmly approved by Gen. Sherman and other military officers whose opinions are authority. In July, 1876, a commission was appointed by order of Congress to report on the subject of re-forming and re-organizing the army. As one of the commission, Gen. Sherman wrote a paper, from which we quote a few sentences, relative to the proposition to adopt this system in the United States forces : —
* Each company will have one captain, two first lieutenants, and one second lieutenants, — making four officers; one orderly sergeant, three sergeants, three corporals, two artificers, two musicians, and fifty privates, - making four officers and sixty-one enlisted men.
* Each regiment would then contain, for a peace establishment, fiftyfour officers and seven hundred and thirty-six enlisted men, aggregating seven hundred and ninety, or the
5 regiments artillery = 60 companies = 270 officers and 3,680 men. 10 6 cavalry = 120 16 540 66 66 7,360 " 20 " infantry=240 ob 1,080 " " 14,720 66
25,760 " Aggregating officers and men, 27,650
“To increase to the war standard, simply add to each company one sergeant, one corporal, and fifty privates, which would result as follows:-
5 regiments artillery = 60 companies = 270 officers and 6,800 men. 10 cavalry = 120
510 6 6 13,600 " 20
infantry = 240 6 1,080 06 66 27,200 66
47,600 “ To further increase for war purposes, add four new companies to each battalion, and we have, —
5 regiments artillery = 120 companies =510 officers and 13,700 men. 10
cavalry = 240 66 1,020 66 " 27,400 " 20 66 infantry = 480 66 2,010 " " 54,800 66
95,900 “ The Germans now use companies as large as two hundred and fifty men ; so that a battalion of eight companies numbers two thousand men. Assuming that as a maximum, we will have,
5 regiments = 15 battalions of artillery = 30,000 10 i
30 66 " cavalry = 60,000 2016 60 66 " infantry = 120,000
210,000 on a minimum or peace basis of 27,650. Thus an effective and wellorganized armıy of over 200,000 can be created promptly without the least confusion or disorder."
A further necessity for change exists in the great economy of the proposed system, reducing the number of separate organizations of infantry from eleven as at present constituted, — to wit, four regiments, six battalions, and one unattached company, — to five or six regiments, saving expenses of headquarters and bands and other expenses.
In consequence of the nearly universal opinion that the companies are too small in number of men, as expressed by the Governor in his annual message, the Committee felt it to be their duty to so arrange the force, that the number could be increased without additional expense to the Commonwealth. The captain goes into camp now with about forty men. Details for guard and other purposes may take fifteen