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Question. Where did he live?
Answer. In Chattanooga. He was whipped there. He has been living there all the time. He lived there before the war; and he was whipped in Chattanooga.
Question. In the town? Answer. Yes, sir. That was last January or February-I cannot say which. Question. What were the circumstances about his being whipped ? Answer. I know the circumstances as he states them. He married a white roman, and the Ku-Klux came after him and whipped him.
Question. Had he lately been married ?
Answer. No, sir; he had been married a good long while-two or three years, I think.
Question. Did they take him out of the house ?
Answer. He states that they took him out of his house and down on the bank of the river. He did not live very far from the river.
Question. Did they take him away from the houses ?
Answer. He was severely whipped. People who heard them whipping him do not believe he got less than two hundred lashes.
Question. Did you see him soon after he was whipped ? Answer. Yes, sir. He told me he was severely whipped. Question. Did you see his person? Answer. No, sir. We were talking right in the street. Question. Did they tell him what they whipped him for Answer. Yes, sir. Question. What was the reason they gave? Answer. Because he had married a white woman. Question. They did not like that? Answer. No, sir. Question. Are you acquainted with him ? Answer. Yes, sir; I have known him personally. Question. Is he a respectable man? Answer. I think he is a very respectable sort of a man. I never knew anything else of him.
Question. Have you ever heard him charged with having committed any offense or crime ? * Answer. There is no such thing alleged against hivi, I think.
Question. You do not understand that these men who whipped him made any complaint against him except that he had a white wife?
Answer. That was all I understood.
Answer. He is married to her; I am pretty sure of that. That is what he states. I know a great many of them there are.
Question. Can you tell any other cases where colored men have been whipped ? Answer. Last Saturday night two weeks ago there were whippings over the river; they whipped a man there-on the north side from Chattanooga, over the river.
Question. Chattanooga is on the south side of the river?
Question. Do you know his name?
Answer. It was some dispute about some business; they had a little fight, I suppose, and I think he whipped the white man.
Question. And these men then took him and whipped him with a chain and killed hiin?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Answer. I was informed by persons living there that these men were over there and whipped a man. I did not find out the man's namre, nor what they whipped him for.
Question. Did you understand that it was done by a body of men in disguise ?
Answer. Well, a white man, a republican, was whipped pretty badly the night that Joe Coulter was whipped. His name was Brubaker.
Question. Did you know him ?
Answer. Yes, sir; a man of very good standing; he is a carpenter, and did a good business there.
Question. What did they whip him for ?
Answer. He and his wife had a little falling out. They went there and whipped him for that, I suppose ; I do not know what else. They made him agree to go back to his wife.
Question. He and his wife had separated ?
Answer. Yes, sir; they were living apart. They made him agree that he would go back and live with her.
Question. Was he whipped ?
Question. Have you ever seen any of these bands of disguised men except the band that took you out?
Answer. No, sir, I never saw any but that.
Question. What is the general understanding in the community as to why these men are going about in this way? Answer. The general understanding
out by me is that it is to intimidate the colored people and the white republicans. They always get worse about elections. In some parts of the country round where I am they are not so bad at all times; they get worse about election times.
Question The election seems to inflame them?
Answer. Yes, sir; they don't want men to vote the republican ticket. I have known men who said they had told them, “You vote that ticket and you will be ku-kluxed to-night.” That is the way they do generally round on the mountains.
Question. Men bave told you that that has been said to them?
Question. What has been the result of the operations of these men who go about disguised ? How do the colored people feel, especially those who live away from towns ?
Answer. Well, sir, they just feel and know that they are not in any safety.
Answer. They are afraid. They know that when they come, if they have anything against them, or if they have not, but they have stood up to the republican party, they will kill them or whip them half to death.
Question. The colored people, so far as you know, think that these bands do not feel friendly toward them if they vote the republican ticket?
Answer. No, sir; they know that.
Question. Do the colored people all understand that if they vote on the republican side they are in danger from these bands?
Answer. They all understand it.
Question. Do you know any instances where colored people have left the country and come into town, except this case of the old man that you spoke of ?
Answer. Yes, sir. There is a place called the “Cove," twenty miles from Chattanooga, in Georgia, I believe, where the people come in frequently. They work and make good crops, and then they are driven off or ku-kluxed at night. I have known many cases where they would slip up in the day-time and get a load of their corn or something of that sort, and go away the same day.
Question. Because they are afraid of the Ku-Klux ?
Ansioer. Yes, sir; the Ku-Klux would run them out. I know several families who are stopping around there who hardly had a place to go to on account of the Ku-Klux.
Question. Which way do the colored people generally vote?
Answer. Round these little towns where they get protection they always vote republican.
Question. How do the great mass of them want to vote ?
Answer. They all want to vote the republican ticket. That is the intention of all of them if they are not intimidated.
Question. Do you think that any of them want to vote the other way ?
Answer. There might be some. There are always some that are bribed ; but the general mass of the colored people, you may say, vote the republican ticket.
Question. You think they would all vote that way if they were left free from any improper control or influence ?
Answer. They will all vote that way.
Question. But you think, so far as their personal safety is concerned, it would be better for them to vote the other way?
Answer. We are all pretty sure of that, that if we would all vote the other way we would be perfectly safe.
Question. In no danger from the Ku-Klux ? Answer. In 10 danger from the Ku-Klux. We all know that if we would vote that ticket we would all be safe.
By Mr. COBURN : Question. State the names of the witnesses of this outrage upon you. Answer. I was at Birch Overby's house. Question. Was anybody else there at that time? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. Who? Answer. My sister, Roxana Flowers, Birch Overby's wife, Albert Lee, and Mac Overby. Question. As to the outrage at Wauhatchie, did you hear who were present?
Answer. I did not hear exactly. I don't know whether the man lived with his father-in-law or lived by himself.
Question. Have you nientioned the names of all the persons on whom the other outrages were committed, so far as you know them all ?
Answer. So far as I could remember.
Question. Can you state the names of the witnesses of the whipping of this man Coulter, in Chattanooga ?
Answer. I leard it spoken of by some who heard the whipping, but I do not know exactly now who they were. A man told me he heard the whipping, but I don't know exactly who he was; he lives in that neighborhood somewhere.
By Mr. BLAIR: Question. You say you have lived in Chattanooga since 1865 ? Answer. I have. Question. Were you in the town in 1866 ? Answer. I was. Question. Do you recollect the canvass for governor, when Mr. Brownlow was elected Answer. Yes, sir; I remember it. Question. Who was the democratic candidate in that canvass ? Answer. Well, I disremember who was the democratic candidate. Question. Was it Mr. Etheridge ? Answer. Etheridge was the man. Question. Was not Mr. Etheridge mobbed in that town by negroes ? Answer. He was not, to my knowledge. Question. You did not know anything about that? Answer. No, sir. Question. Did you hear of it? Answer. I never heard anything about it, that I know of. Question. Did you hear of Mr. Etheridge being mobbed anywhere in the State ? Answer. I don't think I ever did. Question. You never heard of his being mobbed by the negro militia of Brownlow? Answer. I never heard of it; if I did, it has slipped my memory.
Question. Do you know of any democratic meetings having been broken up in Chattanooga by mobs ? Answer. In 1866 ? Question. Yes, sir.
Answer. I do not know that any was broken up; there may have been some broken up; I did not take any particular part in politics in those days. If I happened to be around where there was anything going on, I generally knew of it; if not, I did not. I was a working fellow. I was never around at meetings of any sort except republican meetings. I never cared about being at democratic meetings. They may have been broken up by some means or other; I don't know. I think I did hear Etheridge speak there once; it seems to me I did.
Question. There was no mob at that time?
Answer. No, sir; no mob at that time. I think William B. Stokes made the first speech, and I staid till after he was through, and heard Etheridge speak a little while. When í left I think he was not through speaking.
Question. Did Mr. Etheridge and Mr. William B. Stokes speak at the same meeting? Answer. I think they did, if I am not mistaken.
Question. Did you ever hear of any democratic meeting being broken up by the militia?
Answer. I don't think I did. There may have been some broken up, and I may have heard of it, but I. don't remember it now. I don't remember hearing of any being broken up. I have been at meetings (I don't know but it was the time that Etheridge was running) when there were some colored orators there from Memphis, or somewhere else, and some parties wanted to break the meeting up, and other parties wanted to let them go through with it. I have been at several meetings where parties wanted to break them up.
Answer. Some rowdy drinking parties, such as there are in all political meetings, wanted to stop the meeting ; then there were other parties, with more judgment, who wanted the meeting to go on. I don't know of any political meetings being broken up at all. It seems to me I was not in Chattanooga then. It seems like there was a meeting broken up there one night by the democrats in front of the National. That is the only one I ever heard of.
By Mr. BECK: Question. Have your people never interfered with any of your colored brethren when they wanted to vote the democratic ticket? Did they never object to their voting that ticket? Answer. Do you mean me? Question. No, the League ? Answer. O, yes, sir; some of them would talk to them, and tell them about it. Question. Have they not sometimes cuffed them about it pretty smartly?
Answer. I don't know but there were some fights round the polls about voting; there might have been; I never had anything to do with it. I don't believe I ever knew an election to be held there without some little scuffle with some of them, I suppose, about voting the democratic ticket.
Question. Was it not a rather hard thing for a colored man to get a chance to vote the democratic ticket when any of his colored brethren were about? Answer. I expect it was. Question. They would talk to him pretty roughly?
Answer. They would talk to him about it, of course; refer him back to the days previous to these. I have talked to a good many of them. I never had any fuss with them about it. I have told them to vote as they pleased. I have had them reconsider, and vote the right sort of a ticket. I have seen them fooled by having the wrong ticket handed to them. Some have brought me their tickets to read for them, and I would tell them they were the wrong tickets. There is generally a contest about such things as that.
Question. Have you not known colored men to be abused and beaten by other colored men for trying to vote the democratic ticket?
Answer. It seems to me I have known some men have a fight about such things, but I could not say for certain when and where; but I have seen them have some contest about it.
WASHINGTON, D. C., July 31, 1871.
JOHN R. FRENCH sworn and examined.
By the CHAIRMAN:
Question. Has it been your duty to procure the attendance before this committee as witnesses of such persons as the committee have called from time to time?
Answer. I have been engaged in that duty for this committee since some time in May last.
Question. Were you directed to send for W. L. Saunders, of North Carolina ?
Question. What communications, telegraphic or otherwise, have passed between you upon that subject ? Answer. In answer, I submit the following:
6 WASHINGTON, D. C., July 15, 1871. “To W. L. SAUNDERS, Chapel Hill, North Carolina :
“The Committee on Southern Outrages require your immediate attendance at Washington, as a witness before the committee.
"JNO. R. FRENCH, “Sergeant-at-Arms United States Senate."
(Dated Chapel Hill, July 18, 1871.-Received at 1, via Durham 1.19.
“TO JNO. R. FRENCH, Sergeant-at-Arms United States Senate :
“ Telegrams received. It will be impossible for me to reach Washington before next week.
6W. L. SAUNDERS."
By Mr. POOL: Question. Do you know whether Mr. Saunders came to this city after his telegram was sent to you?
Answer. I did not see him. Two or three men have been in my room who said that Mr. Saunders had been in the city, and asked me if he had been in my office. That is all I know about it.
By the CHAIRMAX:
Answer. He did not from me; I do not know what the committee said to him. After he had been gone a fortnight I received this letter from him:
“ST. CATHARINES, ONTARIO, CANADA,
" July 19, 1871. "General J. R. FRENCH, Sergeant-at-Arms United States Senate :
« The extreme illness of Mrs. Avery, and the urgent necessity of at once bringing her to a cool and bracing climate, will, I hope, be a sufficient excuse to the members of the committee for my absence; and though I should dislike very much to leave her among strangers, yet if the committee wishes it, and my wife's health permits, I will endeavor to attend on any given day. My evidence would only touch upon local affairs in York district, South Carolina, of no general importance whatever. Please telegraph me at once if I am wanted or not. “I am, very respectfully,
"J. W. AVERY. “If I am wanted, name as distant a day as possible.
"J. W. A.”
By Mr. POOL:
Answer. About a fortnight before the date of this letter. After I received his letter, by order of the committee, I telegraphed to him, and the operator replied that he was not able to find him.
By the CHAIRMAN :
Question. Did you telegraph to F. N. Strudwick, of North Carolina, to come here as a witness?
Answer. I did. The following papers will show what has been done :
“WASHINGTON, D. C., June 9, 1871. " To F. N. STRUDWICK, Hillsborough, North Carolina :
“You are wanted here immediately, as witness, by congressional committee investigating condition of late insurrectionary States. Telegraph when you may
" JOHN R. FRENCH,
" Sergeant-at-Arms United States Senate." [Dated Hillsborough, North Carolina, June 10, 1871.-Received at Washington, D. C., 10.30 a. m.] “ TO J. R. FRENCH, Sergeant-at-Arms United States Senate :
“It is almost impossible for me to leave home without a sacrifice much too great for one in as reduced circumstances as I am, I am in the midst of my little harvest and