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having lady-like (?) manners. Exercise should be as compulsory as study.
As to expense: At Girton the charge for board, lodging, and instruction is about $500 yearly; at Newnham, about $400 ; Somerville Hall ,nearly $400 ; Lady Margaret Hall, $450. At University Col. lege, board is at the usual rates, and fees vary according to subjects. For matriculation in Latin, one term, $11.00,- for the year, $31.50; for honors, $15.75; for two lectures a week in English language and literature, $21.25. At Vassar the expense is $400; Smith, $350; Wellesley, $275. At Harvard Annex the tuition is $200 for five courses of two hours each, per week, or $75 for a single course.
It will be seen that the expenses at Girton are the highest ; but it must not be forgotten that she alone has the same entrance-examination as Cambridge men, and an identical course of study with them, so that there can be no doubt as to the educational standard of her graduates. For a century to come, when the course for women is not identical with men, there will not be wanting a large number who will claim that is is an inferior course.
As to the advantages for study abroad, old institutions, with immense libraries, and incomes sufficient to command the best talent of a country, will always offer superior opportunities to students. To study under Professor Jowett in Greek, Max Müller and Sayce in Philology, Rawlinson in Ancient History, Bonamy Price or Fawcett in Political Economy, or Seeley in Modern History, is no small thing. Some of our own institutions are admirable in their scope and aids to learning, like Johns Hopkins, Harvard, and Yale, but these are not yet open to women. As to classics, Greek and Latin are electives at Wellesley in all save the freshman year. If the student works for honors, the senior year requires Cicero, Lucretius, Pliny, and selections from Æschylus, Sophocles, Plato, and Aristotle. At Vassar, Cicero, Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, and Sophocles are required. At Smith, Greek and Latin are electives in the junior and senior years, with the opportunity of taking Plato's Phædo two hours a week in the fall term ; Latin selections two hours a week in the winter term, with neither in summer. In Boston University, Greek and Latin are electives in the junior and senior years, while in the sophomore three hours a week are given to Greek, Demosthenes, Thucydides, Æschylus, Sophocles, and Plato, and ten hours a week to Latin. At the Harvard Annex the classical course is ten hours instruction in Greek in Plato, Æschylus, Sophocles, Homer, and Herodotus, and the same time given to Latin.
A classical tripos at Girton College means much more than this, as some of the exercises for last year's examination will show : (1) Three hours devoted to Plato's Republic in Greek (his views as to to the cause of evil; his limits to communism, etc.),—the answers to be translated. (2) Three hours to translating Terence, Lucretius, Ovid, Lucan, Juvenal. (3) Three hours to Aristotle's politics in Greek, and to Cicero. (4) Three hours to Pindar, Aristophanes, Sophocles, etc. (5) Three hours to Greek Iambics. (6) Three hours to Quintilian, etc. (7) Three hours to Classical Philology,—“The general characteristics which distinguish the Indo-European from the other chief families of languages," etc. (8) Three hours to Latin Hexameters. (9) Three hours to Herodotus, Thucydides, etc. (10) Three hours to Ancient History, - one question being, “Trace the effects of the Theban Supremacy upon Greece, and compare generally the position and aims of the various States at the conclusion of the Peace of Callios and on the accession of Philip of Macedon.” (11) Three hours to Greek Prose. (12) Three hours to Virgil, Horace, Tacitus, etc. (13) Three hours to Latin Prose. (14) Three hours to Homer, Æschylus, Euripides, Demosthenes, and Polybius. After a young woman has passed this examination, I think there can be no question either as to her mental capacity or knowledge.
In science at London University, and mathematics at Cambridge, we find the same high standards. In the latter, the examinations continue for nine days, six hours each day," beginning with the Differential Calculus, and going up to the highest calculations of astronomy and optics.” Mr. Hazeltine says, in his British and American Education, after speaking of the studies required for the first three days, “The topics of examination on the fourth day, and last five days, are arranged in five divisions, in each of which numerous original problems are propounded. One section of the ground here traversed comprehends analytical geometry, spherical trigonometry, the differential and integral calculus, finite differences and spherical astronomy; a second section comprises the higher parts of algebra, and of the theory of equations, elliptic functions, the calculus of variations, an] the theory of chances; a third division is concerned with the ninth and eleventh sections of Newton's Principia, Book I., with iunar and planetary theories, the higher parts of dynamics, and Laplace's coefficients, with attractions, the figure of the earth, and procession and mutation ; in the fourth division are classed hydrodynamics, physical optics, waves and tides, the vibrations of strings and bars, the theory of elastic solids treated as continuous, and the theory of sound; finally, the fifth division of subjects includes heat, electricity, magnetism, and the expression of arbitrary functions by series or integrals involying sines or cosines. In each branch and sub-branch of work the examination at Cambridge is searching and vigorous, and no man who is not proficient in the whole circuit of study can hope to see his name even in the class of senior optimes, much less in the list of wranglers."
Several young women from America are studying at Cambridge and Oxford, with credit to themselves and to us as a nation. The number of women asking for broader learning is increasing every year. At Oberlin there are nearly 500 young ladies ; at Boston University, 156; at the University of Michigan, 128 ; at the University of Wisconsin, 112 ; at Cornell, 54. All honor to these institutions, and many more, which have opened their doors to women, giving them equal opportunities with men for acquiring knowledge and the means of self-dependence. Wellesley has about 400, and Smith and Vassar about 300 each.
The question is not whether it is wise for women to seek this higher education. The fact is that they are seeking it. The question is rather, “Shall America give its best opportunities for education to women, or compel them to go abroad for study?”
PRIMARY EDUCATION: WHAT AND HOW.
BY HON. HENRY A. RAAB.
When you ask the inhabitant of a city, “What school facilities have you in your place?" the answer will invariably be, “Oh, we have an excellent high school,” as if secondary education were the principal concern of the community. The answer is generally given with a good deal of pride and satisfaction, but very rarely have I been told that the primary schools were excellent. If you examine the course of study for high schools, you will in many cases find that some elementary branches are taught in these schools ; that spelling, penmanship, and elementary arithmetic form part of the curriculum; that the habits of discipline and study are anything but what we may reasonably expect in a high school.
These facts show that primary education does not receive its share of attention ; that, in many instances, the top receives the good will and support of the people, the labor and fond care of the teachers, while the foundation, the primary school, the school of the great majority, is neglected. Hence all the shortcomings of the high school mentioned above; hence the want of intelligence and skill of the mass of the people. If any part of education deserves the fond care and cheerful support of the people, it is the primary school, for it is the school of the greater number; it is, also, not too much to say that, if the work in the primary school is of the right kind, the higher eduuation will take care of itself ; you cannot build a solid superstructure if you have not first laid a solid foundation. By these remarks I do not wish to be so understood as if I was hostile to the high school ; no, I fully believe that the high school is a part of the common school system and deserves the good will and consideration of the citizens, as well as school officers. All I desire to say is, that the high school should not be fostered at the expense of the primary department.
I have proposed to myself to present in as concise a form as it is possible, in the space allotted, the what and the how of primary education, claiming for my paper neither novelty nor originality; for I am well aware that what I am going to offer has been felt and partly acted upon by conscientious, progressive teachers.
What is the aim, scope, and method of the primary school ? This eminently important qustion craves a definite answer, the more as we hear daily the moc heterogeneous and conflicting demands made
One classemen demand that some agricultural science be taught in order to prepare our farmers the better for their work; a second class thinks elementary political economy should find a place in the curriculum, so that future generations may judge the better the social relations of life ; a third class expects that the school prepare for the trades and industries, so that our young people find bread in shops and manufactories. Physicians desire that the school lay greater stress upon teaching the principles of physiology and hygiene, because the prevention of disease seems to them the most important; lawyers lament over the flagrant ignorance of the laws existing among the population, - a late governor of one of our western states recommended in his annual message to the legislature that the penal code be made a text-book in the school; the prohibition folks want instruction given in the use of stimulants and their evil effects upon the human system ; and thus complaints from every quarter are urged against the school. The school is made the scape-goat that has to bear all the burdens, and upon which every one heaps the blame.
It seems to me unnecessary, in addressing school-men, to argue that most of these demands which are made upon the school cannot be fulfilled, and will forever remain unsatisfied. enact the most magnificent laws on behalf of the schools; there will forever be certain insurmountable barriers, which render it impossible for the common school to meet these demands. These barriers are partly founded in the imperfection of human nature in general, partly in the social conditions under which the children of the public school grow up, and partly in the average mediocrity of the intellectual faculties of children, and partly in the difficulty of class instruction.
The gentlemen who ask that the public school should realize their lofty ideals ought to visit some of the schools in rural districts, or in certain portions of our populous cities, where sixty and more children of all ages and stages of advancement, often from the most depraved families,— are crowded together; they would soon be cured of their lofty ideals and be well satisfied, if the minimum of attainments laid down in our course of study could be reached. I hope that teachers and school officers will not be led astray by these conflicting opinions and demands, but will, like the pilot who looks to the polar-star and compass to guide his vessel along the cliffs and