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only a school of law, and this was divided, according to the locality from which the students came, into Citramontane and Ultramontane. But some time in the thirteenth century, schools of medicine and philosophy were established, but their right to form a component part of the university was not conceded until 1316, when they were allowed to aid in choosing a rector. To these a school of theology was added about 1360 by Pope Innocent VI., and at about the same time a second school of law with a separate rector. The rectors were chosen annually, and, as a pre-requisite to election, each candidate was required to subscribe to the following: That he had been a student of law for at least five years, was a member of no cloister, a clericus,' unmarried, twenty-five years old, and rich.
The title magnificus was first given to the rector in the fifteenth century. Previous to this he seems to have had no special title. In 1425 mention is made of the election of a professor to the rectorship, from which we are, perhaps, to infer that the professors were enrolled among the students. The students at Bologna were divided into twenty-two nations (nationes), and the representatives of these,-usually one for each nation,-formed the senate or council of the rector, and were called consiliarii. The other public officers were a syndicus, who represented the university before foreign courts,-a notary, a treasurer, and two beadles.
The penalty of death and confiscation was threatened citizens, as well as native and foreign professors, over fifty years of age who should be found guilty of drawing away students to other law schools.
The title doctor, as well as that of magister and dominus, was in use at a very early period. An office cannot thereby be meant, as it did not then exist. Irnerius, one of the earliest professors, is called in the records judex or causidicus, by contemporary writers magister, but never doctor. Walfredus, who was professor somewhat later, was called doctor, magister, or judex. After the permanent establishment of this university,-i. l., about 1150,—the name and dignity of doctor seem to have gained much in popular esteem. The title was then only conferred after an examination by such members of the faculty as had already received this degree. About this time doctors for each a particular grade was given. It is quaintly stated that the of canon law are mentioned, and in the thirteenth century doctors of medicine, grammar, logic, philosophy, arts, etc., at which time the title ranked higher than that of master (magister). Previous to 1304 it was given only to members of the university faculties, but after that it came to have very nearly the significance which is now attached to it.
1 In general, in the Middle Ages, the universities were regarded as ecclesiastical establishments. The studium, originally limited to the spiritual order, seemed to be the business of the clergy, so that scholaris and clericus came to have the same meaning.– Tholuck: "Academisches Leben.”
2 The title dominus originated in the time of Justinian. This emperor placed the lawschool at Beyrout under the care of the presiding bishop, who became law-professor, and transferred his former title to the new dignity.
The doctor examination was twofold, - public and private, - and examiners were required "to treat the candidate in a friendly way as their own son, on penalty of a year's suspension.” The oldest known doctor's diploma is that of Cinus in 1314. Before this could be received the candidate was required to take oath that he had studied the specified time, had paid all dues, would in the future obey the rector, and not teach outside of Bologna. In 1219, Pope Honorarius III., to guard against misuse, decreed that the archdeacon of Bologna should also give his approval; but previous to this, and for some time thereafter, the degree was never conferred by emperor or pope.
The lectures began each year on the day after St. Luke's (Oct. 19th), and extended throughout the year,—the long vacation beginning the 7th of September. Including Easter and Christmas there were in all about ninety holidays. Besides these, lectures were never read on Thursday,' for this day, as the old records inform us, was not set apart“ for the care of the body." Before the fourteenth century there were no public lecture-halls, and the lectures were accordingly held in the houses of the professors. The time was limited to an hour and a half, and the morning lectures were required to begin at daybreak and close before nine o'clock.
We have no satisfactory information respecting the tuition fee. We know, however, that a contract was always made between professors and students, and we learn that Odofredus received for one course of lectures an equivalent of $400. In other cases the fee for each hearer was fixed at a very low rate,-probably from one to two dollars. It was not uncommon for new professors to increase their popularity by lending money to the students, or, in other words, pay. ing a fee to secure attendance upon their lectures. This, however, was considered a violation of discipline, and was forbidden, except in the case of students who had received permission to lecture gratuitously.
It was the usual custom for each student to intrust himself to one of the professors, who exercised a sort of guardianship over him dur. ing his stay, and represented him, when necessary, before the university authorities, At a later day we find this custom in some of the German universities. In the thirteenth century there were universities at Padua, Pisa, Vicenza, Vercelli, and in other cities of Italy,-offshoots in part from Bologna, and, like most of the schools of the Middle Ages, devoted to the study of law.
1 The same custom is still observed in Tübingen, South Germany.
University of Paris.—The reputation of this university reaches, also, much farther back than the mention of any definite constitution. As early as the twelfth century, men renowned for their scholarship, were found here both in the departments of Theology and Philosophy. The oldest authentic documents are two decrees of Pope Alexander III. (c. 1180), which relate to the right of the chancellor to receive fees for granting permission to lecture. In a decree of Innocent III. (i 198–1216), the word universitas first appears. Previous to this, and for two centuries following, the usual expression was studium generale.
The University of Paris called itself the daughter of the king, and yet it owned no buildings, and was in other respects so poor as to be obliged to seek shelter in the cloister.
Statutes were enacted by the different faculties trom time to time to meet special cases; and some, especially at the close of the sixteenth century, were similar to those already in force in other universities, but a complete statute-book never existed. In Paris the professors and, in exceptional cases, other masters of arts or doctors, constituted its senate or assembly, and the university was never divided here into two or more separate bodies, as happened at Bologna. The professors and students at Paris, without reference to their de. partments of study, belonged to four “nations" which received the names of France, England (later Germany), Picardy, and Normandy. These nations, represented on public occasions by their procurators, exercised a controlling influence in university life. It is true that the faculties were represented by their deans, but the faculties themselves were members of these nations.
In the middle of the thirteenth century a difficulty arose respecting the Mendicant Friars, — who attempted to force their way into the university chairs, - which resulted at first in the withdrawal of the theological faculty, and later of the faculties of medicine and law. Soon after this the four nations came to be regarded as the philo sophical faculty,—that is, the College of Liberal Arts. Henceforth the four departments of Theology, Law, Medicine, and philosophy had mostly separate lecture-rooms and churches, and to this period properly belongs the origin of the four faculties.
The collegia or colleges were originally intended for poor students,
and were common to Italy, but did not exert the influence there, or reach that development which gave them their great popularity in France and Germany. Their organization and rapid growth will be, perhaps, best seen in Germany, where, as in Paris, they came in time to be vast boarding establishments, and included nearly the collective body of the University. The head of the University of Paris was the rector,—the choice being made by the professors of the philosophical faculty, as the members of the other faculties were neither eligible to the rectorship nor permitted to share in the elections. Later the concession was made that the deans of the three other faculties could share in the deliberations. When, therefore, an election took place an electoral college was first chosen,-each of the nations being represented by a single elector,-and this college chose the rector. At first the elections were held every four or six weeks, but after 1279 only at intervals of three months. The sole condition of eligibility, aside from that already named, was that the candidate for this office should be unmarried.
The University, as a whole, stood originally under the jurisdiction of the king in person, but after the middle of the fifteenth century under the Parliament of Paris. Criminal matters, which, after about 1200, belonged to the spiritual court, were transferred to this parliament. The civil jurisdiction, which had also been exercised by the spiritual court, was intrusted in 1340 to the Provost of Paris. To the university court belonged the settlement of difficulties between professors and students, the jurisdiction in case of insults to the rector, violations of discipline on the part of the students, and like infractions of order. The usual punishment was by scourging upon the naked back in presence of the rector, and this alike to students and baccalaurei. This form of punishment is mentioned as early as 1200, and was still very common more than two centuries later. In addition to the officers already named, there was a conservator appointed by the Pope, who, when the spiritual privileges were violated, tried both civil and criminal cases.
In the early period of its history the University of Paris was looked upon preëminently as a theological school, and the professors, whether theologians or not, were forbidden to marry. The first to obtain a release from this prohibition were the medical professors, in 1452. For the law professors it remained in force until 1600, and for those of philosophy until comparatively recent times.
It is said that the tuition-fee in this university was properly volun. tary. From the poorer students nothing was expected, and from the rich not more than six ecùs (c. $12) a year for each professor whose lectures were attended
If we compare this university during its early history with those of neighboring lands we shall see that it had much greater influence in the councils of church and state, and, besides, aided more powerfully than all others to give form and character to the new universities of Germany.
The New Era in Germany.—Before the opening of the twelfth century the parish and cloister schools were common to all portions of Germany, but of their origin and development during the two or three centuries preceding very little is known. With the twelfth century begins the intellectual activity of Germany. The spirit that had been aroused in Italy and France was caught up and found a permanent home here, where a zeal for knowledge has ever since been a special characteristic of the nation. German students wandered to Italy and France, and entering generally the universities of Bologna or Paris, sought to gain there the culture which their own land could not give them. This had not long continued when a desire was awakened for similar high schools at home, and this found expression at the Lateran Council of 1215, when Pope Innocent III. ordered that in every cathedral school there should be at least one master of arts, and in the chief cities also a master of theology. In consequence of this decree there arose at the beginning of the thirteenth century a studium particulare in the church of St. Veit, connected with the castle of Prague. Here lectures were delivered to the native clergy and courses of study pursued, but the academical degree conferred was valid only in Bohemia. When, in 1248, Ottakar II. endeavored to dethrone his father, King Wenzel, the school was necessarily affected by the commotions of the time, but soon thereafter regained more than its former prosperity, and was frequented not only by students from Bohemia, but also from Austria, Bavaria, and other neighboring lands. Lectures were read upon grammar and logic and the libros naturales of Aristotle.
At the close of the thirteenth century an effort was made to found a university in Prague after the model of Paris, but met with much opposition from the States of Bohemia, who feared that an increase of learning would endanger their power. A half-century later (1346), when Charles IV. mounted the throne of Bohemia, the circumstances were more favorable, especially since he, as co-regent with his father, had already gained the confidence of the people. Still the civil and moral condition of the European States at this time was most appalling, and the magnitude of an undertaking that must necessarily array against it an established spiritual power, whose permanency would be endangered by the removal of ignorance and oppression,