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It is said of Eloisa that at a very early age she knew the ancient languages and philosophy and the sciences of theology, although most assuredly she did not love them as she loved Abelard.
In our own country, in the fifteenth century, besides the great Queen who founded libraries and gave free access to the books'in her dominions, we glory in Beatrice Galindo and the doctress, Isabel Losa. There were also elevated to the doctorship in the sixteenth century Teresa de Jesus (whose fame is recognized even in our day by the Christian world), Isabel of Cordova, Louisa Medrano, who was a professor in Salamanca as Francesca Lebriju was in Alicata. Isabel Foya was permitted to preach in the Cathedral at Barcelona, notwithstanding the advice of St. Paul “that the women keep silence in the churches." Isadore of Guzman and Lacenda in the seventeenth century taught as a doctress in the University of Alicata; and in our own days the names of Cecilia Bohl and of Gertrude Avellareda magnify the glory of their sex. Notwithstanding these cases, the majority of the women remain in great ignorance, and in the last century their education was confined to lessons at home, but few colleges being accessible to them, and those only on religious foundations.
The good King Charles commenced to agitate this question. Let us hear his contemporary, Peter Alonzo Rodrigo, in his report of the public schools for girls and boys : “The Supreme Council had taken the most honorable measures in educational matters in view of the surprising progress made in a free school for the teaching of poor girls, established and carried forward with the approbation of the same council, in the suburb of Mira el Rio, and his majesty decreed, March 7, 1783, that it appeared fitting to him to have established in the schools in Madrid the same rules, in order to constitute the women who devoted themselves to the work of teaching these girls a respectable class, who may be able to inspire in their scholars good maxims at the same time that they were instructing them in the duties proper for their sex.” The king deigned to approve this reg ulation in view of the decree given in Aronjuez on the 11th of May of the same year (1783), and in consequence of which they established thirty-two free schools in Madrid : the principal object of this very commendable institution being to encourage through all the provinces of the kingdom the good education of all the girls and young women in the rudiments of the Catholic faith, in the rules of good works, in the excellence of the virtues, and in the labors proper for their sex, to which, as a consequence, must follow the best customs and dexterity in their labors and the better government of their houses.
Dial. In August, 1846, she went to Europe, visiting Scotland and England, where she made the acquaintance of Wordsworth, De Quincy, Thomas Carlyle, and other of the leading masters in literature,-spending some time in Paris, where she met the distinguished persons in literary and art circles. In May, 1847, she went to Rome, where she resided during a period of great political agitation. She was a great admirer of Mazzini, regarding him as her “ideal patriot," "standing alone in Italy” “on a sunny height far above the stature of other men.” During the memorable siege of Rome in 1849 she spent most of her time daily in the hospitals. She had been privately married to a young Italian nobleman-Ossoli, -whose acquaintance she made in the spring of 1847, during her first visit in Rome Her married life was full of anxiety ; her constnnt fear o harm for her husband and son during this stormy period of Italy's history was most absorbing.
The last months of her life in Italy were months of self-sacrifice ; wounded soldiers and rude peasants knew her generous heart, and thought of her as “a mild saint and ministering angel.” After some years spent in Italy, during a period when the grand struggle for freedom had been made and failed, she decided to return to her native land, where, she says in a letter written to her mother at Florence, May 14, 1850, “I will believe I shall be welcome with my treasures, - my husband and my child."
She sailed from Leghorn, May, 17, 1850, in a merchant-vessel, and, after a long and tedious passage, reached the coast of New Jersey in thick weather, July 18, 1850. The strong evening breeze became a gale, and the bark “Elizabeth " struck on Fire Island Beach at 4 o'clock, July 19. Margaret, her husband and child were all lost. The bodies of Margaret and her husband were never found. Angelo, her son's body, was recovered, and was first buried at Fire Island, but afterward his body was removed to Mount Auburn, where alone lies the only one of “ her treasures that ever reached her native land. The verdict of all who knew her well is, that she was worthy of the honor and the reverence due to the memory of one of America's most notable women.
ENGLAND.— Over-pressure in Schools.— The agitation of the subject of over-pressure in the English Board Schools continues. Under the influence of public opinion, as manifested in several large meetings, and the reiterated statements of medical men, Parliament and the School Boards have taken the matter into consideration. A special committee appointed by the London Board have addressed a memorial to the Education Department, praying that their lordships will discontinue the examinations in reading, writing, counting, needle-work, and knitting for infants until the completion of their fifth year, and that the code shall be so amended that the grants for "infants "may depend only on their aptness and intelligence in physical exercises, songs, and appropriate and varied kindergarten occupations. The needlework requirements for all grades are condemned with respect both to the quantity and quality of the work called for. Two voluminous reports on the subject of over-pressure have recently been issued by the Birmingham and Leeds School Boards. The Birmingham report is evidently intended to show that the code is not responsible for undue pressure, but the fact is not clearly established. The committee of the Leeds Board report that, so far as children are concerned, the inquiry has failed to substantiate in any form the charges of over-pressure in public elementary school-work. With reference to pupil-teachers and candidates, the committee call attention to the fact that, until the recent appointment of the Board medical officer, there has been no adequate medical examination or test of the physical fitness of this class of persons. The statistics of absence do not warrant the opinion that teachers suffer more from physical weakness than any other portion of the adult working population. It should be observed that the Leeds teachers are free from the strain of pay. ment upon results, being paid for their service by fixed salaries.
Women at Oxford.—The vote of the Convocation of the University of Oxford, allowing women to enter for “ certain honor-examinations” of the University, is a great triumph for the cause of woman's education.
Report of the Commission on Technical Education. The long-looked for report of the Royal Commission on Technical Education is a remarkable volume, replete with information and practical suggestion. It presents a detailed account of the means of technical education upon the continent of Europe and in our own country, discusses the relation of general elementary instruction to the development of industrial aptitude, and sets forth a body of important and far-reaching conclusions. The Commissioners see no cause in their researches abroad and at home to advocate any radical change in the policy of their own country. They approve the lines upon which technical education is now proceeding in Great Britain, and recommend a more vigorous application of the principles adopted. Drawing and natural science ought, they maintain, to be indispensable subjects in elementary schools. Among specific subjects to be taught out of school hours they recommend the introduction of the use of tools for wood and iron-working. They advise that the facts and principles of agriculture be made obligatory in the upper standards of rural schools. They point out the need of more efficient instruction in -cience and art in the training colleges for teachers, and the importance of imparting a more practical character to the work of the Science and Art Department. The Commissioners lay great stress upon the advantages enjoyed by American working. men in the universal diffusion of elementary instruction in this country.
The Department of Education in the International Health Exhibit is proving a great success. The most interesting display is reported to be that of Belgium.
There are upwards of eight hundred students in attendance at the classes of the Technical College, Bradford, England, which has been open about fifteen months. A movement has been started by the college authorities for the formation of a society of textile colorists to promote the study of the theory of dyeing, an art that has been much neglected in England.
Prussia.— Fortbildungschulen (Review Schools). — The Prussian Minister of Public Instruction and Worship has recently issued a decree relative to the industrial review schools. On account of the great interest felt in these schools which enable mechanics and tradesmen to make ficiencies, of which they have become aware in the prosecution of their business, the authorities are urged to develop already-existing schools, to organize new ones, and to call the attention of city authorities and societies to the provisions of the decree. It has been found necessary to reduce the original - viz., eight hours a week, — to six, most schools having found four or six hours a week the utmost practicable. The decree ordains that hereafter the instruction shall be confined to those subjects which most nearly concern the needs of small tradesmen and handicraftsmen,-namely, to German, arithmetic, and the elements of geometry and drawing. Persons engaged in trades that require little or no practical knowledge of drawing can omit that branch, — for all others, four hours a week are to be devoted to it whenever practicable. An extension of the course is ordered where the resources are sufficient. In this more extended course, mechanics and physics are to be added to the mathematical section; modeling is to be combined with free-hand and mechanical' drawing, and special instruction is to be given in drawing for each branch of mechanical handicraft. For young persons desiring to enter commercial business, foreign languages and geography are added.
Russia.—The journal of the Minister of Public Instruction publishes the following statistics of the University of Moscow for 1881: The number
of scholars, which, at the beginning of the year, was 2,413, increased by January 1, 1882, to 2,430. As is usual in Russian universities, the faculty of medicine attracted the largest number,-viz., 1,397 ; the course in law was followed by 451 students; the faculty of physical science and mathematics had 131 students in the first section, and 254 in the second ; 190 students were enrolled in the faculty of history and philology. The scholarships, fees remitted, etc., represent a total of 175,000 roubles (above $115,000), at the service of poor students in the University. The teaching force, professors, lecturers, etc., numbered 103 persons. The budget of the University appropriated by the crown was 475,994 roubles (about $313,000); of this sum 243,623 roubles went for salaries. The library numbered 177,276 volumes and 13,164 journals, papers, etc.
DENMARK.-Manual Training - The system of manual training established in Denmark by Adolf von Clauson-Kaas has recently been the subject of a report by a German commission. In 1866 von Clauson's method attracted attention in Copenhagen ; he was made school-inspector of practical work, with authority to introduce his system into the city schools. In 1873 the General Danish Household Industry Society was formed at the capital, and became the center of smaller local societies throughout the kingdom. The course of instruction which von Clauson carries on in his own house in Copenhagen illustrates his scheme. The time-list shows eight hours' work a day for a course of six weeks, equally divided among the following : Weaving, carving, brush-making, bookbinding, joiner's work, and scroll-saw work. The commission observe that it is not clear how this series exhibits the progress from the easy to the difficult, from the simple to the complex, more than to another; nor does it appear that the program is closely adhered to. On the other hand, it is evident that an industrious student can learn the elements of different kinds of hand-work in the school in the short space of six weeks, particularly if he start with a degree of acquired skill in manipulation. With reference to introducing this work into ordinary schools comparatively little has been accomplished. The government has gone so far as to offer some aid to districts that should introduce the system, but few have accepted the offer. In the Danish household industrial schools, established under the auspices of the society previously mentioned, only simple scroll-saw work and wood-working are carried on. The schools of Copenhagen attempt more.
It was the opinion of statesmen, whom the commissioners interrogated, that household industry was not likely to take root in the Danish schools.
SWITZERLAND.—The report of public education in Switzerland, prepared at the instance of the Government for the Zurich Exposition, is the most complete representation ever published. It covers the year 1881, and comprehends all classes of institutions from infant schools and kindergartens to the universities. Geneva is the only canton in which kindergartens have