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similar devices which excluded shadows, mortified that his mother, as he believed her to and other such unpleasing accidents—be, should be arranged in the work as the wife Lady Pentweazle, when big with the pur: whom his' father had held and exercised
of another, and especially of a chief over pose of "calling up a look," which should take mankind by storm,
authority. The colloquy became interesting,
- were gentle and until, at last, some excitement, on the part of easily-contented customers compared with Mahaskah, grew out of it. On hearing it rethe Braves and the Medicine men, whom peated by the agent that he inust be mistaken, the founders of the school of American Art Mahaskah turned and looked him in the face, have been called upon to immortalize. Mr. saying, 'Did you ever know the child that Catlin, in his“ Leiters and Notes," gave us the board on which he was strapped, and the
loved its mother, and had seen her, that forgot some whimsical and touching details of the back on which he had been carried, or the knee “ relations” which the court painter of the on which he had been nursed, or the breast Indians has to hold with his sitters. Who which had given him lise ?! So firmly conhas forgotten the anecdote of the Chief who vinced was he that this was the picture of his came to the artist's tent, with an offer of mother, and so resolved that she should not six horses, and as much treasure besides as remain by the side of Shaumonekusse, that he the magician chose to exact, so he might said, I will not leave this rooni, until my bear away the portrait of his dead daugh-the name of " Eagle of Delight. The agent
mother's name, Rantchewaime, is marked over ter? The portraying of a Sioux chief, of the work complied with this demand, when Mah-to-cheeja, “the Little Bear”-in pro- his agitation, which had become great, subsifile, led to yet more serious results. Mr. ded, and he appeared contented. Looking Catlin had to pack up his brushes and run once more at the painting, he turned from it, to save his scalp; since Shonka, “the saying, “ If it had not been for WaucondaDog," found out that the “ Little Bear," mony (the name he gave to the agent of the thus presented, was "only half a man?” work, which means walking god, so called, be
cause he attributed the taking of these likeThe Red Men, as we have seen, do not love nesses to him,) I would have kissed her, but jests. The Dog's taunt bred an affray Waucondamony made me ashamed.' which cost the Lilile Bear his life. The “Soon after ihis interview, the party went to volumes before us afford us an addition to King's Gallery, where are copies of many of the above store of anecdotes ; which, ere these likenesses, and among them are both the we part from them, we shall extract :
* Eagle of Delight' and the Female flying though conscious that it makes against us, the portrait of the •Flying Pigeon," he ex
Pigeon. The moment Mahaskah's eye caught and for those who consider the Squaw a claimed, " That is my mother, that is her face, less suffering woman than the Mrs. Can- I know her now, I am ashamed again. He dles, Mrs. Grundys, and Mrs. Partingtons immediately asked to have a copy of it, as also of our streets and squares, and village of the 'Eagle of Delight, wife of Shaumone
kusse, saying of the last, The Oitoe chief will greens.
be so glad to see his squaw, that he will give
me one hundred horses for it.'» " It happened,” says the memorialist of Young Mahaskah, the son of the Female fly
There are others, more competent judges ing Pigeon," when Mahaskah was at Washinglon, that the agent of this work was there of art than simple Mahaskah, will occur to alsu. ** As he turned over the leaves bearing every reader with whom (no offence to their the likenesses of many of those Indians of the connoisseurships) “the fan” makes the Far West, who were known to the party, likeness. Mahaskah would pronounce their names with It will be easily gathered from the above the same promptitude as if the originals were hasty notes and illustrations, that to comalive and before him. Among these was the ment upon the entire contents of these vollikeness of his father. He looked at it with a composure bordering on indifference. On be umes would lead the critic beyond all reaing asked if he did not know his father, he an- sonable limits. Having given a fair sample, swered, pointing to the portrait, “That is my we must here pause. A parting word is, father. He was asked ir he was not glad to perhaps, required to assure certain excellent see him. He replied, 'It was enough for me persons, that because we have treated this to know that my father was a brave man, and work crotchet-wise, rather than in the cut had a big heart, and died an honorable death and dry “Encyclopedia” sashion; no disin doing the will of my Great Father.'
The porirait of the Eagle of Ve- respect to it has been meant. On the conlight, wife of Shaumonekusse, the Oitoe chief, trary, there are certain subjects more vividly was then shown to him. “That,' he said, 'is brought home to us by familiar treatment my mother. The agent assured him he was and comparison, than by dissertations ex mistaken. He became indignant, and seemed | cathedra : and this is among them. The
BY THOMAS DE QUINCEY.
book is a most interesting collection of raw editor is probably thinking of Taylor the materials, out of which a school of imagi- Platonist, who was far more distinguished native art might be constructed; but to for absurdity, and is now equally illustrious lecture upon them, appealing the while to for obscurity. But that either of these " the principle of the pyramid,” would be Taylors, or both, or even nine of them, actto impugn our own common sense, and not ing with the unanimity of one man, erer to assist either teachers or people. We re- could have founded “ a sect,” is so entirely gard it as a valuable addition to the Amer- preposterous, that the accomplished editor ican's library :-and as full of suggestion must pardon my stopping for half a minute to all persons who love to look around and to laugh. The writer, whom Sir James inforward as well as to linger with fond rev-dicated, was probably“ Walking Stewart ;" erence among the traditions of the Past. a most interesting man whom personally I
knew; eloquent in conversation ; contemplative, if that is possible, in excess ; crazy beyond all reach of hellebore; three Anti
cyræ would not have cured him ; yet subFrom Tait's Magazine.
lime and divinely benignant in his visiona
riness; the man who, as a pedestrian travGLANCE AT THE WORKS OF SIR JAMES eller, had seen more of the earth's surface, MACKINTOSH.
and communicated more extensively with the children of the earth, than any man be
fore or since; the writer also who published The Miscellaneous Works of the Right starts) than any Englishman, except per
more books (all intelligible by fits and Hon. Sir James Mackintosh. Edited
haps Richard Baxter, who is said to have by Robert James Mackintosh, Esq. In published three hundred and sixty-five, plus Three Volumes, 8vo. London: Long- one, the extra one being probably meant for man & Co.
leap-year. Walking Stewart answers enThis collection comprehends, with one tirely to the description of Sir James's exception, (viz., the History of England, unknown philosopher ; his character was which is published separately), all that is of most "singular;" his style tending alpermanent value in the writings of Sir James ways to the “unintelligible;" his privacy, Mackintosh. The editor is the writer's in the midst of eternal publication, most son; and he, confident in powers for higher absolute; his disposition to martyrdom, had things, has not very carefully executed the any body attempted it, ready and cheerful ; minor duties of his undertaking. He has and as the “founder of a sect,” considering contributed valuable notes;
but he has his intense cloudiness, I am not at all sure overlooked some important errors of the but he might have answered as well as the press, and he has made separate errors of Grecian Heracleitus, as Spinosa the Jew, his own.
At page 387, vol. ii., Charles or even as Schelling the Teutonic ProfesVII. is described as King of Sweden, mean- sor. His plantations were quite as thriving ing clearly King of Denmark. At page as theirs; but the three foreigners fell upon 557, of the same volume, Sir James, having happier times, or at least (as regards the referred to “ a writer now alive in England," last of them) upon a soil more kindly, and as one who had "published doctrines not a climate more hopeful for metaphysical dissimilar to those which Madame de Staël growths. Not only has the editor done that ascribes to Schelling," the editor suggests which he ought not to have done, but too that probably the person in his eye was Mr. often he has left undone that which he ought William Taylor of Norwich. This is the to have done. The political tracts of the most unaccountable of blunders. Mr. Tay-third volume require abundant explanations lor of Norwich was among the earliest Eng. to the readers of this generation; and yet lish students of German, and so far his the notes are rare as well as slight. name connects itself naturally with a notice There is no need, at this time of day, to of the De l'Allemagne. But, on the other take the altitude, intellectually, of Sir Jas. hand, he never trespassed into the fields of Mackintosh. His position in public life metaphysics. He did not present any “al- was that of Burke; he stood as a mediator lurements” in a “ singular character,” nor between the world of philosophy and the in "an unintelligil style ;"neither was world of moving politics. The interest in he the author of any “paradoxes." The the two men was the same in kind, but dif
ferently balanced. As a statesman, Burke (pleading, cannot have too much of it; let had prodigiously the advantage; not only them perish, as regards history and reputathrough the unrivalled elasticity of his in- tion, by the arts which they practised. tellect, which in that respect was an intel- King Christian, the Seventh of Denmark, lect absolutely sui generis, but because his came over to London early in the reign of philosophy was of a nature to express and George the Third :incarnate itself in political speculation. On the other hand, Sir James was far better
.--. It was in the golden prime
Of good Haroun Alraschid." qualified, by nature as well as by training, for the culture of pure abstract metaphysics. He came by contract, to fall in love with It is sometimes made a matter of regret that
our Princess Matilda. But he had the misBurke should have missed the Professor's fortune to be “imbecile,” which is a word chair which he sought. This is injudicious; of vague meaning ; in fact, he was partially as an academic lecturer on philosophy, or a
an idiot, and, at times, a refractory madspeculator in ontological novelties, Burke
It has been remarked, in connexion would have failed. Not so Mackintosh. As with Mr. Galt's excellent novels, that at one to him, the regret would be reasonable; by time, (of course not the present time,) too detaching him from the cares of public bu- large a proportion of the Scottish lairds siness, a chair of philosophy would have were secretly, and in ways best known to widened the sphere of those higher specu- their households, daft; and in such a delations which, under his management, couid not have been less than permanently profit would certainly, by course of law, have been
gree, that, if not born gentlemen, they able to the world.
cognosced.* Perhaps the same tendency, To review so extensive a collection is and developed in part by the same defects clearly impossible within any short com- of training, at that time affected the royal
I content myself with a flying glance houses of Europe. Christian VII., if, inat those papers which are likely to prove stead of being a king, he had been a Scottish the most interesting.
laborer, would certainly have been "cognosced.” Amongst other eccentricities, that recoiled eventually upon others, he in
sisted on his friend's thumping him, kicking MACKINTOSII ON STRUENSEE.
him, knocking him down, and scratching The case of Count Struensee is to this to do so, then he accused him of high trea
him severely; and, if his friend declined hour wrapped in some degree of darkness; son. Really you had difficult cards to play but, even under those circumstances of with this daft laird of Copenhagen. If you darkness, it is full of instruction. The positively refused to thump him, then you doubts respect Struensee himself, and the were a rebel; an absolute monarch had inunhappy young queen, Matilda ; were they sisted on your doing a thing, and you had criminal in the way alleged by their profili mutinously disobeyed. If you ihumped gate enemies?
So far there is a cloud of him, and 'soundly, (which was the course mystery resting on the case; but, as to taken by his friend Brandt,) then you were those enemies, as to the baseness of their
a traitor; you had assaulted the Lord's anmotives, and the lawlessness of their acts, ointed, and were liable to question from the there is no doubt at all, and no shadow of ler majestatis. To London did this madmystery. This being so, it being absolute man come; perhaps on the principle laid ly certain that the accusers were the vilest down by the grave-digger in Hamlet—that of intriguers, and unworthy of belief, fora in England all men are mad; so that madmoment, when at any point they passed the
ness is not much remarked. The king saw boundary line of judicial proof, certified to London ; and London saw him. But a Christendom by public oaths of neutral par- black day it was for some people, when he ties,-it follows, that the accused are every where entitled to the benefit of any doubt,
*“ Cognosced."-A term well known to Scotany jealousy, any umbrage, suspicion, or tish law, and therefore to Roman law. It means possibility, against the charge which has judicially reviewed and reported, no matter in rearisen, shall arise, or ought to arise, in the ference to what. But, in common conversation, brain of the most hair-splitting special it has come elliptically to mean-duly returned as
an idiot. Cognosco, it must be remembered, is pleader. They, that ruined better people the appropriate word, in classical Latin, for judiihan themselves by the wickedest of special cial review and investigation.
first set his face towards St. James's. The gems and frauds in the conspirators. The poor young princess Matilda, sister to case seems to tell its own story. It was George III., and then only seventeen years thought necessary to include Matilda in the old, became his unhappy wife; and Struen- ruin of Struensee, because else there was see, a young physician, whom he had pick- no certainty of his ruin; and upon that deed up at Altona, about the same time re- pended not only the prosperity of the inceived the fatal distinction of becoming his trigue, but the safety of the intriguers. The favorite, and his minister. The frail per- destruction recoiled upon themselves, if the sonal tenure of such a situation, dependent young queen regained the king's ear. But on the caprices of a man, imbecile, equally this could be prevented certainly by nothas regarded intellect and as regarded ener- ing short of her removal for ever from the gy of will, suggested to a cabal of court court. And that could be accomplished rivals the obvious means for overthrowing only by a successful charge of adultery. and supplanting the favorite. To possess Else, besides other consequences, the cabal themselves suddenly of the king's person, feared the summary interposition of Engwas to possess themselves of the state au- land. But of adultery, as they had no thority. Five minutes sufficed to use this proof, or vestige of a proof, it became neauthority for the arrest of Struensee,- cessary to invent one, by obtaining a conafter which, as a matter of course, followed fession from the queen herself. And this his close confinement, with circumstances was obtained by practising on her credulity, of cruelty, now banished every where, even and her womanly feelings of compassion for from the treatment of felons; to that suc- the unfortunate. She was told by the ceeded his pretended trial, his pretended knaves about her, that an acknowledgment penitence, his pretended confession, and, of guilt would save the life of the perishing finally, his execution.
minister. Sir James Mackintosh notices the exter- There is something in this atrocious nal grounds of suspicion applying to the falsehood as to Struensee, a part of the story publications against Struensee, and partic- which is not denied by any party, remindularly the doubtful position in respect to the ing one of the famous anecdote about Colconspirators of Dr. Munter, the spiritual onel Kirke, in connexion with Monmouth's assistant of the prisoner. This man was rebellion ; a fable no doubt in his case, but employed by the government; was he not realized by the Danish conspirators. They used as a decoy, and a calumniating traitor ? won their poor victim to what she abhorred, That point is still dark. He certainly pub- by a promise that could have offered no lished what he had no right to publish. Sir temptation except to a generous nature; James is disposed, on the other hand, to and, having thus gained their villainous obfind internal marks of sincerity in the doc- ject, they did not even counterfeit an effort tor's account of his conversations with to fulfil the promise. A confession obtained Struensee. But were not these in their under circumstances like these, would very nature confidential ? And Sir James weigh little with the just and the considerhimself remarks, that nobody knows what ate. But where is the proof that the queen became latterly of Munter himself; so that did make such a confession ? No body of the vouchers for his veracity, which might state-commissioners ever received any thing have been found in subsequent respectabil- of the kind from her own hands; nothing ity of life, are entirely wanting. General remains to attest it but the two first letters Falkenskiold's Memoirs make us acquainted of her naine, having written which, she is with the artifices used to obtain from the unhappy young queen a confession of adul- * Sir J. M , though manifestly inclined to adopt terous intercourse with Struensee. And, weakens the case by saying-“ If General Falk
this account of the pretended confession, a little if these artifices had been even unknown enskiold was rightly informed," as though the into us, it must strike every body, that such a validation of the confession were conditional upon con session being so gratuitously mischiev- the accuracy of the General. But in fact, it'his
account were withdrawn, the conspirators are in ous to the queen, is not likely to have been
a still worse position; for the unfinished signamade by her, in any case, where she was ture, confessedly completed surreptitiously by free from coercion, or free from gross delu- some alien hand, points strongly towards a phy. sion. Equally on the hypothesis of her sical compulsion exercised upon the queen,guilt or her innocence, the poor lady could
such as had given way, and naturally would give have had no rational motive for inculpating letters had been extorted by forcibly guiding her
way, under a violent struggle, after one or iwo herself, except such as would imply strata- hand.
said to have fainted away ; but who wrote charges and scandals; charges that arose the words above her fraction of a signature, in self-interest, and scandals that were prowithout which the signature is unmeaning, pagated by malice. and when they were written, whether before The moral of the story seems to lie in its or after that fractional signature, nothing exposure of the ruins and the absolute survives to show. Besides, if Munter's ac- chaos worked by a pure despotism. All count of penitential confessions in prison hangs by the thread of the sovereign's per(many of which argue rather the abject de- sonal character. Here is a stranger to the pression from a bread-and-water diet, and land suddenly raised from the dust into a from savage ill-treatment, than any sincere station of absolute control over the destinies or natural compunction) are to be received of the people. His rise, so sudden and unagainst Struensee, much more ought we to merited, calls forth rival adventurers ; and receive the dying declarations of the young an ancient kingdom becomes a prize for a queen; for these were open to no suspi- handful of desperate fortune-hunters. Is cions of fraud. Three years after her pre- there no great interest in the country that tended confession, she declared to her spir- might rally itself, and show front against itual attendant, M. Roques, that, although this insufferable insult? There is none. conscious of imprudences, she never had Had the case arisen in the old despotisms been criminal. This was her solemn de- of France or of Spain, it could have been claration, in the midst of voluntary peniten- redressed; for each of them possessed antial expressions, and at a moment when she cient political institutions that would perknew herself to be dying. Strange indeed, haps have revived themselves under such a considering her youth, and her unhappy provocation. But in Denmark there were position amongst enemies, knaves, and a no similar resources. The body of the lunatic husband, if she had not fallen into people, having no political functions, some imprudences.
through any mode of representation, were Meantime, Sir James Mackintosh is al- utterly without interest in public affairs ; most certainly wrong in his view of the they had no will to move. The aristocracourse adopted by the English government. cy had no power, unless in concert with the He imagines thai, from mere excess of in- king. And the king was a lunatic. All disposition to all warlike movements at that centred, therefore, in half a dozen ruffians time, this government shrank from effectual and their creatures; and the decencies of interference. But evidently the case was public justice, the interests of the innocent, one for diplomatic management. And in with the honors of an ancient throne, went that way it was effectually conducted to the to wreck in their private brawls. best possible solution, by the British ambassador, Sir Robert Murray, who frightened the guilty intriguers out of their wits. Once satisfied that nothing would be at- MACKINTOSA'S DISSERTATION ON THE PROtempted against the life of the queen, England had no motive for farther interference, nor any grounds to go upon. She could
This is the most valuable of all the twennot have said, “I declare war against you, because you have called a daughter of ty-eight tracts here collected. At the outEngland by the foul name of adulteress." set, however, (p. 10,) it shocks the sense of The case was too delicate, and too doubt- just logic not a little to find Sir James layful. Even now, after some light has been ing down the distinction between the Moral
and the Physical Sciences, as though "the obtained, the grounds for a legal judgment are insufficient on either side ; then, they purpose of the Physical were to answer the were much more so. The English govern-Moral to answer the question- What ought
question- What is ? the purpose of the ment must also have been entirely controlled, in such a case, by the private wishes of
to be ? Yet at p. 233, Sir James himself the royal family; and it was a natural feel- makes it the praise* of a modern writer, ing for them, when no prospect existed of a affections rather physiologically than eth
that he professes to have treated the moral fair judicial inquiry, amongst those, who ically; as parts of our mental constitution, in fighting against the queen, would be fighting for their own lives, to retire from a feud
* “ The praise;" and even the special or sepa. that could only terminate in fixing the rate praise of that writer; which is far indeed attention of Europe upon the miserable from being true.
GRESS OF ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY.