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of leaves, seeds, plants, inferior animals; lying far behind us: and we resting at and gradually ascending through separate Faido, a Swiss village, near the awful rocks organs of the human frame, up to the and mountains, the everlasting snows and whole structure of that wonderful creation, roaring cataracts, of the Great Saint exquisitely presented, as in recent death. Gothard : hearing the Italian tongue for Few admonitions of our frail mortality can the last time on this journey : let us part be more solemn, and more sad, or strike so from Italy, with all its miseries and wrongs, home upon the heart, as the counterfeits of affectionately, in our admiration of the Youth and Beauty that are lying there, beauties, natural and artificial, of which it upon their beds, in their last sleep. is full to overflowing, and in our tender

Beyond the walls, the whole sweet valley ness towards a people naturally well disof the Arno, the convent of Fiessole, the posed, and patient, and sweet tempered. Tower of Galileo, Boccaccio's house, old Years of neglect, oppression, and misrule, villas and retreats; innumerable spots of have been at work, to change their nature interest, all glowing in a landscape of sur- and reduce their spirit; miserable jealouspassing beauty steeped in the richest light; ies, fomented by petty Princes to whom are spread before us. Returning from so union destruction, and division much brightness, how solemn and how strength, have been a canker at the root grand the streets again, with their great, of their nationality, and have barbarized dark, mournful palaces, and many legends : their language; but the good that was in not of siege, and war, and might, and Iron them ever, is in them yet, and a noble peoHand alone, but of the triumphal growth ple may be, one day, raised up from these of peaceful Arts and Sciences !

ashes. Let us entertain that hope! And What light is shed upon the world, at this let us not remember Italy the less regardday, from amidst these rugged Palaces of fully, because, in every fragment of her Florence! Here, open to all comers, in fallen Temples, and every stone of her their beautiful and calm retreats, the an- deserted palaces and prisons, she helps to cient Sculptors are immortal, side by side inculcate the lesson that the wheel of with Michael Angelo, Canova, Titian, Time is rolling for an end, and that the Rembrandt, Raphael, Poets, Historians, world is, in all great essentials, better, Philosophers—those illustrious men of his gentler, more forbearing, and more hopetory, beside whom its crowned heads and ful, as it rolls ! harnessed warriors show so poor and small, and are so soon forgotten. Here, the imperishable part of noble minds survives, placid and equal, when strongholds of assault and defence are overthrown ; when the tyranny of the many, or the few, or both, is but a tale; when Pride and Power

POTATOES. - Dr. Lindley, at the head of the

Horticultural Society, read two communications, so much cloistered dust. The fire and stated the results of experiments made on within the stern streets and among the the propagation of potatoes from seeds, which had massive Palaces and Towers, kindled by been suggested for the purpose of producing a rays from Heaven, is still burning brightly, more healthy future source of supply, from the when the flickering of war is extinguish- probable present exhaustion of the stock. Such

anticipations, it was thought might lead to dised and the household fires of generations appointment, and the experience of one case in have decayed; as thousands upon thou- particular showed that little reliance could be sands of faces, rigid with the strife and placed upon it, as the seeds of the season 1844, passion of the hour, have faded out of the before the disease had appeared, produced 80 poold Squares and public haunts, while the the haulms were not in the first case affected.

tatoes which were very much diseased, although nameless Florentine Lady, preserved from all the evidence on the subject was, however, oblivion by a Painter's hand, yet lives on, very conflicting ; for whereas in this country the in enduring grace and youth.

results of the experiments were very unsatisfactoLet us look back on Florence while we ry, the reverse was the case in Prussia, where

crops may, and when its shining Dome is seen from seeds, with most satisfactory results both in

of excellent quality had been procured no more, go travelling through cheerful the greater quantity as well as the superior qualiTuscany, with a bright remembrance of it; ty of the produce. So satisfied were the Prusfor Italy will be the fairer for the recollec- sian Government of the results of these experi

ments, that they had given instruction to purtion. The summer time being come : and chase seed wherever it could be obtained.- Lit. Genoa, and Milan, and the Lake of Como Gaz.

1

are

From the Dublin University Magazine.

immediately followed by three characters,

expressing the nature of the morning, the THE OLDEST OF ALL ALMANACKS. day itself, and the evening—as prosperous,

indifferent, or adverse. The character deAn old almanack is proverbially a value- noting good fortune is written in black ink, less document; and yet a person can scarce- the other two generally in red—a curious ly peruse a very old one without finding instance of the difference between Egyptian something in it to interest, if not to instruct and European notions in many respects; him. An“ old almanack," however, and with us it would have been the reverse. even a “very old almanack," may mean Most days have the same character throughvery different things in the mouths of dif- out, but there are exceptions. Thus we ferent persons. Some would call a Watson's read—“ Thoth 25 G. G. M.;" i. e., good, Almanack of the reign of George II. a very good, middling; implying that the evening old one; and there are many Irishmen who was rather unlucky; and a caution is added, would find good amusement for an idle“ do not go out of doors at the time of hour, not indeed in the calendar itself, but evening.” After the day has been thus in its accompaniments. One of William briefly characterized, observations are made, Lilly's Ephemerises, two hundred years old, sometimes very briefly, at other times at with its predictions of future events, de considerable length, which may be classed duced from planetary configurations and under three heads. Some relate to the eclipses, would be interesting as an alına- religious ceremonies to be performed on the nack; and a still greater degree of curi- day in question, or to the mystic events osity would be excited by one of the cheap supposed to have happened on it. These Dutch almanacks, which our ancestors used are in many cases not easily separated; three hundred years ago; or by one of the and the latter is sometimes mentioned as a illuminated manuscripts, which, two hun- reason for the former. Other observations dred years before that, announced the festi- are in the nature of cautions against doing vals and the weather to the few who, in certain things on certain days, or of enthose days, could command such a luxury. couragements to do them; and others, again, Most persons would consider such a manu- are predictions of the fate of children who script as this a very old almanack indeed; may be born on that day. and yet it is a mere thing of yesterday by T'hese are not what we should now-a-days the side of that of which we are now going call astrological predictions. There is no to speak. There is in the British Museum allusion in the almanack to the positions of an almanack, which wants but a little of the moon or of the planets, which the Egypbeing 3000 years old; which, having been tians did not take into account in their calused as his monitor by some Egyptian of culations of lucky and unlucky days; and in the olden time, was buried with him; and truth there could be no such allusion conhas been dug up in this all-exploring age, sistently with the nature of the almanack; unrolled, displayed to the public, copied in as it was not, like those to which we are facsimile for the benefit of the student, and, accustomed, intended to last for a single in fine, read—to a great extent at least. year, but for a quaternion, or period of four

This almanack is, like other Egyptian years. manuscripts, written on papyrus. It is in In order to explain this observation, it columns; and of these twenty-five are will be necessary to describe the Egyptian wholly or partially preserved. The portion mode of computing time. In the early of the year which these contain begins with period of their history, the Egyptians used the 19th of Thoth, the first month, and ends a year, the commencement of which was with the 13th of Pachon, or the 253d day determined by some phenomenon connected

This day, however, is men- with the sun's annual course; in the first tioned pretty high up in the twenty-fourth instance, probably, by the cessation of the column, the remainder of it and the twenty- inundation. To this year the hieroglyphififth being illegible. It is probable, then, cal names of the months were adapted, that thirty-eight columns or thereabouts which represent physical characters, such contained the whole almanack; unless, as would belong to the months of a year indeed, which is not unlikely, there was beginning about a month after the aui nsome additional matter at the beginning ornal equinox; and which could not.rvica end. The days are named in red ink ; and been given at a time when the yearas tik the figure, which terminates the name, is wandering one, as it was in latewwn,

of the year.

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let

The intercalation of a three hundred and ( long before Christ was this? That, too, sixty-sixth day, which sometimes took place may be answered from the almanack; and in the fourth and sometimes in the fifth it appears to us, on very sure grounds, year, and which, in the absence of an au- though we anticipate dissent on the part of thorative national calendar, would occur in those Egyptian chronologers, who are vying different years, in different parts of Egypt, with one another as to how far the reigns of was found to be productive of, so much the several kings may be carried back. In inconvenience, that it was abolished by a the quaternion which commenced in what law, which the kings were required to would be, after the Julian reckoning, Noswear that they would observe; and thence-vember, 1767, B. C., the summer solstice forward the commencement of the year be- fell, according to astronomical calculation, gan to wander through the different sea- on the 5th of Pachon, or the 245th day of sons; returning to its original or normal the Egyptian year. This was about the position, when the months would correspond time when the months were in their normal in character to their hieroglyphic names, in position; and was, therefore, about the time about fifteen hundred years. Now, of the when the wandering year originated. We festivals which were observed by the Egyp- take the quaternion to have commenced in tians, some were connected with certain this year, because the quaternions of the seasons of the year; and the consequence canicular cycle certainly commenced in of this alteration in the calendar was that 1323, B. c.; and there can be little or no they fell on different days of the year in doubt that the two sets of quaternions different years.

For four years in succes- coincided. If, now, the day of the Egypsion one of these festivals fell on a certain tian year on which the summer solstice was day, suppose the first of Thoth ; in the next computed to fall be noted in this almanack, four, it fell on the second; then on the we have only to count the number of days third, and so on. Other festivals, on the between the 5th of Pachon and it, multiply contrary, retained their position in the this nuinber by four, and subtract the promonth, whether that month sell in the duct from 1767; and we shall at once have spring or in the autumn. These fixed and the date before Christ of the first year of the moveable feasts would be continually inter- quaternion. Whether the origin of the fering with one another, and a calendar was wandering year was actually in 1767, B. C., needed by the Egyptian to instruct him on or four, eight, or twelve years earlier or later, what days each was to be celebrated, and makes no difference in this calculation.also, according to his notions, what good or In the latter case, indeed, the solstice would ill fortune might result from their different have fallen at the origin, one, two, or three combinations. Such a calendar would serve years later than the day named; and would, for four years; and there is every reason to in 1767, B. C., as in all preceding years, think, that it never served for more; but have fallen on the same nominal day of the that the Egyptian almanack-makers regu- year; but whatever number of years was larly carried forward the moveable feasts at taken from the epoch of the wandering the end of a quaternion ; thus making them year, the same would have to be taken from to go round the year in 1460 years, though the subtrahend; so that the remainder, or the equinoxes and solstices would in reality date of the almanack before Christ, could take about 1500 years to complete this not be affected. Now, the day of the comcircuit.

puted summer solstice is virtually given in Such being the nature of an Egyptian the almanack. It is expressly stated by almanack, our readers will now be inclined Champollion, that the palaces of both the to ask for what quaternion was that now Memnonium and Medinet Habou contain before us composed ? This question may bas-reliefs, representing the panegyry of the be understood in two senses; and in one summer solstice; and that one of the prinof them it is easily answered. At the back cipal features in these sculptures was the of the almanack, there is a date of the 28th coronation of Horus. Mystical birds are Pharmuthi, in the fifty-sixth year of Rame-despatched to the four quarters of the ses the Great.

heaven, and are told to tell the gods of those The almanack, therefore, was intended quarters, that • Horus, the son of Isis and fog, use in the four years following this, Osiris, has assumed the crowns of Upper or Imencing with the 57th of Rameses, and Lower Egypt; and that (his earthly

sixty-second year is the date of a type) King Rameses has assumed the crowns in the British Museum. But how of Upper and Lower Egypt." In accor

win.

Labana,

dance with this, on the ceiling in the sout; yet no incense was to be burned, and Memnonium, where the several months are no hunting or fowling to be carried on. represented with their normal characters, There were other restrictions; and it is in the coronation of the king, as Horus, is rep- the end foretold that any child born that resented as falling in the month Pachon, the day will not live. On the following day, normal month of the summer solstice. We the child that should be born would have a think, then, that no doubt ought to exist as to prosperous life. The 25th, already noticed the connection between the summer solstice as prosperous in the two first portions of the and the mystical cornation of Horus. It is, day, and middling in the evening, was the however, noted in this almanack, under the day of the exode of the Lioness to the East14th Paophi, or 44th day of the year, “G. G. ern mountain. It was to be a day of eatG. This is the day of the assumption of the ing of beef and drinking of wine; and crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt by offerings were to be made to Osiris. On Horus."

this day, we suspect that in the present The solstice had then advanced from the quaternion a collision of a fixed and a 245th day of the year to the 44th of the moveable feast took place. The lioness of following year, or 164 days, from 1767 B. Memphis, whose exode, that is, the carryc. which gives 1111 B. C., as the year when ing of her statue from the temple and back the quaternion commenced. From this it again, is mentioned as to take place on this follows that the first year of Rameses the day, was not the goddess of Bubastis, as all Great began in 1167 B. c.; and as it is ex- recent writers on Egyptian mythology have pressly stated in an inscription at Silsilis made her. The name of the latter was that his 31st year, and of course his first Bast, and she was cat-headed. The Pekhe, year, was the year of the great festival of or lioness, whose proper name appears to thirty years; which implies that the inter- have been Menhi, is clearly distinguished val between the epoch of the calendar and from her in this almanack. The word Pethe commencement of his reign was an ex- khe is etymologically connected with fähe, act multiple of thirty years; we have thus a the German name for a female wild beast; new argument for the epoch of the calendar and possibly with an English word, which being in 1767 B. C., and not in any of the we should be sorry to apply to so veneraneighboring years. On this subject, we ble a goddess. The 26th of Thoth is bad will only add, that it would not at all avail throughout. “Do nothing at all this day. the advocates of a more extended chronol. This is the day of the combat of Horus and ogy to suppose that the actual solstice was Typhon.” It is added that three days and intended to be indicated in the calendar three nights were to be passed as travellers, rather than one computed by quaternions. in commemoration of the wanderings of The actual solstice would not fall on the Isis. From this and other passages in the 14th Paophi until about twenty years after almanack, it is plain that the legend of the date above mentioned.

Osiris, Typhon, Isis, and Horus, was reIt would be highly desirable that some ceived by the Egyptians in the age of the other almanack, intended for a different great Rameses; contrary to what some quaternion, should be compared with this. have conjectured on account of the honors It would then clearly appear, which of the paid at this time to Typhon. The honors Egyptian festivals were attached to certain paid to this god were probably confined to days of particular months; and which, be- the military caste. He was the god of war, ing connected with certain seasons, wan- identified with the Phænician Baal, and dered through the different months. It is like him symbolized by an ass, and reprevery probable that some such almanack may sented in the form, or at least with the head, exist among the yet unexamined treasures of that animal. The father of Rameses the of many European museums. The owner Great bore a name implying devotion to of the present almanack had, no doubt, him, Setei, the attached to Set ; which the others; and nothing is more likely than that priests who prepared his sepulchre changed they were buried with him along with this, io Osirei, the attached to Osiris. This and that they have found their way to some was, no doubt, by his own desire. He was or other of the great collections of papyri. willing enough to be a votary of the benefi

We will now give a few specimens of the cent god after his death; but while he entries made in this almanack in connex-lived he would be a warrior, in the service ion with different days. The 23d of of the malevolent devil! So long this Thoth is marked as a fortunate day through- / warlike family retained the crown, the

name of Set was held in honor ; but after ( Phamenoth was “the day of the Exode of their fall, the priests showed their aversion Neith in Sais. They see the good things to it by defacing it wherever they found it. of the night at the third hour.” Probably, as on the Flaminian obelisk, and on the this was the feast of lamps which Herodostatue of Setei II, in the British Museum. tus mentions, ii. 62. T'he assembly, he On the following day, persons are directed says, at Sais is held by night. They susnot to pursue any game, it being one of the pend before their houses, in the open air, days of Horus and Typhon; i. e. the com lamps filled with oil, mixed with salt, over bat between them was still going on. Offer- which a wick floats and burns through the ings, it is said, should be made to their right. This, we may suppose, was lighted names on this day. On the 28th of Thoth at the third hour. Herodotus says, that on a remark is made, which occurs very fre- this night all Egypt was illuminated ; as quently. “If thou seest any thing at all those who did not attend the feast observed this day, it will be fortunate." The 4th of this part of the ceremony at their dwellings. Paophi was particularly unfortunate. A | The 18th of this month is marked as the journey was not to be commenced; and a panegyry of Netpe, the 23d of Horus, and child that might be born would die on that the 28th of Osiris. The 5th of Pachon very day. A person born on the 23d was that of Osiris, the Lord of Tattou. Paophi would be killed by a crocodile, and But we must not exhaust the patience of on the 27th, by a serpent. One born on our readers. Enough has been said to show the 28th, would have a happy end. The the nature of this almanack; and while it 13th of Athyr was the day of the exode of remains the only one of its kind no inforIsis. A person born on the 14th would die mation of any value can be expected from by the sword. The 28th, a middling day it, beyond the fact, which we have set out throughout, was the exode of Bast; a child with establishing, the true date of the reign then born would die within the year. The of Rameses the Great. This, we think, 21st was throughout fortunate. It was the it fixes on sure grounds; and, in that reday of the panegyry, or festive assembly of spect, but in that only, it is an important as Mu the son of Ra, i. e. Light, the son of well as a curious document. the Sun. It was the day when Mu and Neith were together in the cabin of the barge of the sun. The second of Chesac was a fortunate day throughout. Every thing would turn out well. All the gods

From the Foreign Quarterly Review. and goddesses were rejoicing in the celes

PORTUGAL AND ITS RULERS. tial panegyries. The 4th of Tybi was another fortunate day. A child then born 1. A. B. da Costa Cabral. Apontamenwould die a prince of the people. This is tos Historicos. 8vo. Lisboa, 1844, 2 a proof that the Egyptians were not, as tom. generally supposed, restricted to the rank or 2. Portugal. Recordaçoes do Anno 1842. profession to which they were born. Oc- Pelo Principe Lichnowsky. Traducido casionally, they might rise to an elevated do Allemao. 12mn. Lisboa, 1844. rank. The 12th of Tybi was middling 3. Hanlem, Haje, e AlManhà. 12mo. throughout. Persons were cautioned against Lisboa, 1842 looking at a rat on this day. On the 17th 4. Algunas Consideraçoes Politicos. 12mo. persons were not to wash themselves with

Lisboa, 1844. water. The 20th Tybi was another exode 5. Costa Cabral em Relevo. 12mo. Lisof Bast, two months from the preceding

boa, 1844. one; and was, like it, a middling day 6. Discurso de Senr. Deputado Manuel throughout. Nothing was to be done the Passos. 12mo. Lisboa, 1845. whole day. The 1st of Mechir was a for- 7. Quadro Politico Historico e Biogra- . tunate day to its close. The gods and god- phico do Parlemento de 1842. 12mo. desses had a panegyry on it. The ilth Lisboa, 1846. was a good day throughout. It was the day of the panegyry of Neith at Sais. The The publications above referred to, are 14th is marked “ B.G.G. Don't go out of calculated to cause some mistrust in the doors before daylight. This is the day of nature of those organic changes which looking at the crocodiles pursued by Ty- have taken place in the Peninsula, during phon before the great boat.” The 5th the last quarter of a century. We rise

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