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from the perusal of them pained, and be ed narrowly each other's gains, and were wildered in our opinions with respect to evidently connected politically for one obthe advantages of constitutional govern ject only—the promotion of their private ment-or at least of constitutional govern- interests. In the desperate disorder of the ment as administered in Spain and Portu- finances, the young sovereign found it diffigal of late years. We inquire after the cult to get his wants supplied. When he condition of the people, their material inte-called on Fouquet, the Intendant of Firests, the state of religion, of commerce, nance, for money, the latter was wont to and of agriculture, of letters and of arts; reply, Sire, the exchequer is exhausted, and we do not find that any of those things but perhaps his eminence the cardinal will have been bettered by the changes that lend you what you want. The riches of have taken place in the form of govern- Fouquet, however, were then daily augment.
menting, and he could well afford to acAre we to infer then, that absolute gov- commodate his sovereign, which he freernment is better than representative ? Be- quently did, without troubling the cardinal, fore we come to that conclusion, it would while the national resources were becoming be well to ascertain the nature of the gov- daily more exhausted. ernments called representative, which have In like manner in Portugal, the credit of existed in the Peninsula since 1820; and the late minister of finance stood so much it may be, we shall find that representation higher than that of the government, that he in all of them was ' a mockery, a delusion, has often had occasion to endorse bills of and a snare,' a privilege, monopolized by the treasury for the public service, which one class, and that the worst class of all, without his personal security would have namely, the employés (empleados, emprega- been worthless. He had a large stake in dos publicos.)
the funds, and was interested in the mainThe history of the late administration in tenance of public credit. But men who Portugal affords a striking example of the accumulate wealth suddenly are often smitburla which scheming politicians make of ten with an infatuation fatal to its preserconstitutional liberty, and, what is well vation. The very means that were taken worthy of observation, the facilities for pre- to uphold public credit, while malversation varication and malversation in office which existed in every department of the state the system, miscalled representative, af- over which the Cabrals had any control, fords to men of unclean hands and of loose were ruinous to the treasury, and tended to principles in official situations. Western bring about a state of things, when it would Europe has offered no parallel in recent require a legislature made up of
governtimes for the barefaced effrontery with ment employés to impose, and an army in which official peculation and venality have every province to collect, the amount of heen practised during the last four years in taxes rendered necessary by the vices of Portugal, where it was not one individual the administration. alone of a ministry, but the majority of its Fouquet, at the time we have referred to, members, who made either stock-jobbing, was investing largely his governmental or contract selling, or patronage vending, gains in lands and houses. The account the great business of their public lives; then given of his doings would serve, with and notwithstanding the notoriety of such slight modifications, for those of the Capractices, carried on year after year, they brals. Fouquet, in 1661, had fitted up, at enjoyed the favor of the court up to the a cost of eighteen millions of francs, a latest moment, to an extent unequalled by sumptuous chateau, in which he entertainany former administration.
ed the whole French court, at a inagnifiIn the minority of Louis XV. there was cent fête, the splendor of which was the a state of things in France, which some admiration of his royal and noble guests, what resembled that lately existing in Por- well acquainted though they were with the tugal. The revenues of the state were late humble circumstances of the intendant. eaten up by speculating scheming minis- But here the parallel ceases. The palace ters and subordinate officials. Immense building, castle buying, wealth amassing, fortunes were suddenly acquired, and com-court banqueting of the Cabrals, all tended mensurate injuries inflicted on the public to the consolidation of their power. On service. The peculating ministers pulled the other hand, the young sovereign of admirably together, never differing about France, though he had not much gratitude,public measures; but in private they watch- as a guest, had some understanding of his
position as a sovereign, of his dignity, and a well-wisher of the cause of the young of his duty to the state. In the course of queen. a fortnight after the banquet, the intendant He had sent in a similar memorial to the was not only in disgrace, but in a prison. judicial Miguelite authorities of Oporto, He was arrested the 5th of September fol- when Dom Miguel seized on the crown in lowing, and the only cause assigned for the 1828, setting forth his absolute principles. royal displeasure was the extravagance and This official document, formally attested by ostentation, unsuited to the legitimate re- the judicial authorities of Oporto, with its sources of a servant of the crown, which accompanying depositions bearing witness had been displayed at the entertainments to the anti-constitutional principles of Dom referred to. He was sent to the Bastille, Joze, exists to this day, and is of undisputtried and found guilty of peculation and ed authority. The memorial, dated 18 malversation in office, and condemned to August, 1828, is to the following effect : perpetual imprisonment. He died in a fortress on the frontier, after a confinement of
“ The advocate bachelor, Joze Bernado da eighteen years.
His official accomplices Silva Cabral, in the court of Relaçao, of Oporwere made to disgorge the plundered wealth to, &c., &c., states, firstly, that the supplicant
, of the state into the treasury, the amount and the throne, and so much so, that, in 1823,
, of which spoil was enormous. Such of he was the first, when the Senhor Dom Miguel them as had bought houses, palaces, or stood forth, who raised the cry of fidelity, in Jands, were deprived of their ill-gotten ac- Nellas, in the council of Senhorim. Secondly, quisitions. Wherever they were found that the supplicant neither intervened, nor they were seized and prosecuted.
could intervene in any way in the revolution Peculators in Portugal are more fortunate, vor of the queen).
of the 16th of May, in the present year (in fathey make purses, they maintain power by
"The supplicant entreats to be permitted to means of the repute of riches, no matter justify his statements with the necessary how acquired, and when they can make no proof's," &c., &c. more, or the nation can bear no more oppression, they retain the spoil, and pass for
Then follow the attestations, officially remen of energy and ability; or, if the out- gistered, of several persons as to Dom Joze's cry against them is very strong, they have loyalty to Dom Miguel, his great attachonly to go over the bar of Lisbon, and all ment to the magnanimous monarch Dom their accounts with the nation are settled. Miguel,' in the words of one of them. 'They go out of office with all the honors of
Dom Joze, soon after he had become a a war for wealth, with flying colors, bag liberal, was appointed to a magisterial office and baggage, their titles and titulos, orders in Oporto, and an event happened in the and inscriptions in the fives and fours, and meantime, which caused an unpleasant imthe highest favor of their gracious sover- pression against the new liberal
. An old eign.
Miguelite canon (Guimaraes), who had reAt the expiration of four years the des- mained in Oporto, and was reputed a very potism of the Cabrals over Portugal broke wealthy man, had concealed in his house a down.
very large sum of money, information of This government sprang out of a rebel- which had been communicated to the aulion planned by a disgraced employé, the thorities
. The seizure of this old man and elder Cabral (Joze Bernado da Silva Ca- his suspicious property was intrusted to Dom bral) in 1842, and executed by the younger Joze, and it was made by his agents. An brother, Antonio da Costa Cabral (then unaccountable loss, amounting to about Minister of Justice), who set the novel ex- 5001.
, took place between the period of the ample of abandoning his portfolio, to up
seizure of the property and its being deset the government of which he was posited in the hands of the authorities. The member.
money found, amounted to twenty contos. Joze Bernado Cabral had been a zealous Explanations were called for, and none satpartisan of Dom Miguel's, had proclaimed isfactory were given. Dom Joze was dishim at Nellas, and adhered to his fortunes missed from the magistracy by Dom Pedro, till his fall. Then he passed over to the tri- the 13th of April, 1833. umphant side, sent in a written declaration of
The decree for his dismissal is to this efhis loyalty to the queen, and had the ability
fect:to persuade Dom Pedro, that all through the “It is my pleasure, in the name of the reign of Dom Miguel he had been in secret |Queen, to exonerate the Advocate Joze de
Bernado Silva Cabral from the office of ma-1 It is only to be added that if the effects gistrate, pro tempore (juiz do crime), of the described in the inventory attached to the barrier of St. Catherine, to which he was nominated the 13th of February last. Dated sequester were the only objects which com13th of April, 1833.
posed the museum of this clergyman, for“(Signed), Dom Pedro, Duke of Braganza. eigners could have had little to admire in it, (Countersigned), Joze da Silva Carvalho.”– and the idea was false that was formed of Chron. Constit. of Oporto, No. 95.
its riches. The 29th of April, 1834, the
Judge Disembargador of the Regent CarIn the month of July following, he con- doza pronounced a sentence in favour of trived to obtain an inferior employment, the supplicant, against the Corregidor Dom namely, that of corregidor of the barrier of Joze, thereby confirming the allegations of the Roçio in Lisbon. He was not long in the former, which were as follows : that office, however, before he was again in Dom Joze had come to the house of the detrouble, on account of his zeal against sus ceased clergyman, accompanied by a large pected priests possessed of property. posse of his agents, to take cognizance of the
In October, 1833, legal proceedings were various embezzlements effected there durinstituted against him on a charge which ing the imprisonment of the deceased, and may be comprehended from the following while the property was under charge of his extracts from two official documents per- depository ; and that instead of taking the taining to the preliminary proceedings in necessary steps, his inquiries of the supplithis case, viz., the Relação aggravo, or cant were, if his relative was not of an unsupplication addressed to Dom Pedro, and sound mind, which supplicant denied there the accordao, or report of the judges of Re- were any grounds for supposing to be the laçao, signed by four of them. The former case, whereas he believed that the object is to this effect:
of the corregidor was only to nullify the
accusation made to him, “ Senhor A. J. Oliveira da Silva complains Another later judical document, the evito your majesty against the corregidor of the dence of the servant of the deceased, taken district of the Roçio, Joze Bernado da Silva 23rd of May, 1834, details a number of Cabral, for the acts committed by him respect- facts, on which he grounds his profound ing the sequestration and embezzlement of the conviction—that the imprisonment of the effects of the beneficed clergyman, Oliveira da Silva Cardoza, on the 28th of September last." deceased priest had been concerted in order
to admit of those robberies being made which Divested of the jargon of the law, it goes
were abetted by the corregidor. That a
certain lame bachelor of law was the assison to state :
tant of the corregidor in all the proceedings “That the clergyman Da Silva was a peace against his master, the chief agent in able man, much over seventy years of age, breaking open all the locks of his cabinet, who, on account of infirmities, was unable to &c. That his old master was a very retired quit his house. He was reputed a man possess man, treating only of the matters of his ed of much ready money, precious stones, and
never meddling in politics. rarities, and had formed a museum of the lat.
That ter, which was well known to be visited by all
a compadre of deceased, of the name strangers who arrived in Portugal. The re- of Cabral, was the person that concocted pute of these riches and precious objects caused the scheme against his master, and had his misfortune, for it was supposed that they made the denunciation against him and his might even exceed in value those of the Canon property. Guimaraens of the city of Oporto. On the 7th of September, without any regard for his ad- on the 17th of September, the Corregidor
It appears by another document, that, , vanced age and heavy infirmities, he was drag of the Rocio consented to his prisoner's reged from his house, and with his servants thrown into a dungeon of the Limoeiro gaol; moval to his own house on bail, having a and this was done without any legal forms, for sentinel posted in sight of his house, and the subsequent process showed that there had at his expense. been no depositions against him till the 19th The indulgence was of little worth, for and 20th of September, twelve or thirteen days (the fear occasioned by these proceedings, after his arrest, and the seizure of all his pro- and the sufferings of his confineinent, so perty. The effects were first illegally placed in deposit with an officer of justice, Manuel da affected this old infirm man that he died Passos Machado, called a proprietor of land, on the 21st of September, fourteen days one of the officers who conducted the clergy- after his unjust arrest by Senhor Joze Caman to gaol !!!"
bral. A decree was then issued that the
sequester should subsist nothwithstanding Ida Costa Cabral, was born at Algodres in the death of the culprit.
Beira Alta in 1803. His father, though in The Accordao of the four judges declares humble circumstances, contrived to eduthat the plaintiff was wronged by the Corre- cate his sons at the university of Coimbra. gidor of the Roçio on both the grounds stated Antonio and his brother Joze were brought by the former; for it was manifest the defen- up to the legal profession ; both possessed dant had acted without legal process with talents, great energy and activity, ambirespect to the sequester, and on a charge of tion, and an utter want of principle. Andisaffection attempted to be supported tonio was appointed to a magisterial situagainst the deceased, which never could be ation in Penella in the time of the Regency considered as bringing him within the de- of Dom Pedro, after having emigrated and scription of persons specified in the decree resided during Dom Miguel's reign in Belof the 30th of the preceding August. gium. On his return he enrolled himself For these and other reasons the judges in the battalion of students, and attached gave their decision in favor of the plaintiff himself to the Minister of Dom Pedro, on the 14th of October, 1833. 'It was Silva Carvalho, whose servant he became clear the process in itself was faulty, the in all servile obsequiousness. He obtained sequester untenable, and consequently the from him the appointment of Judge of the proceeding a wrong.'
Relaçao of the Azores. There he was This scandalous act of malversation and elected a deputy for St. Michaels, and in oppression, the imprisonment of an old 1836, he commenced his political career in sickly man of seventy years of age, on a Portugal, as a furious democratic member trumped up charge of disaffection to the of a revolutionary club called the Camilla state, the plunder of his property, and the Club, composed of men of known violent terrifying to death of the old man who was opinions. He contributed largely to effect the victim of this atrocious conspiracy, the revolution of 1836, which set aside the went unpunished. Nay, in a few years its charter of Dom Pedro of 1826, and rose commission was no impediment to the per- to office on the tumultuous waves of that petrators filling the highest offices of the revolution. state.
For perfidy to all parties, there appears This dismissed officer was subsequently to be nothing like his conduct to be met appointed by the Queen to the high post with in the career of any living politician. of Civil Governor of Lisbon, and one of He was not long in the Cortes before he the Lords of the Treasury; in February, declared himself against his patron, Silva 1846, he was made a Councillor of State, Carvalho, whom eight years later be turned and Minister of Justice and Religion, by out of his place of president of the Suher present majesty, or rather her majesty preme Tribunal of Justice. The cause of was compelled by her Minister of the In- this hostility was a fraternal one: Carvalho terior, the brother of Dom Joze, to appoint would not reappoint his dismissed brother him, nay, even two months ago, to delegate Joze to the magistracy. He'next attached to him powers of a regal kind, with author- himself to an influential public man, Vieira ity over all officers in the kingdom, civil de Castro, by whose aid he got returned and military. This energetic gentleman for a continental place, which was then a gained an entire ascendency over those very important matter to him. Not long high and influential persons at the palace afterwards he became the persecutor to the who take upon themselves the gravest res- death of this same Vieira Castro. ponsibilities of the state, with very weak It was after he had entered the Cortes a judgments for guidance or control in any second time that he became the favorite serious emergencies.
demagogue of a revolutionary party, and The new court favorite was cried up by was the idol of that club whose frenzy exall the organs and agents of government tended even to plans of assassination, nay as a man of extraordinary energy and ta- of regicide; plans deliberately laid before lent; but though endowed with good abili- it by Senhor Antonio Cabral. The Marat ties he was totally destitute of prudence, of Lisbon, however, was destined to be full of ungovernable violence, ever eagerly converted into something between a Richebent on gain, and singularly heedless of lieu and a Law of South Sea celebrity. public opinion with respect to the means He was brought into the ministry by Bomof acquiring it.
fim, and was the bitter enemy of the Ca. The younger brother, Antonio Bernadotistas, (especially of the Marshals Terceira
and Saldanha, in their rebellion of 1837,), even had the air of measures of revenge. intrigued against Bomfim, by whom he had His influence at court, especially over the been brought into the ministry, heated the king, became strong-strong enough for public mind against the government, and him in 1842, to hazard a revolution without eventually, when the people proceeded to apprehending the consequences of treason. violence, had them mowed down by the He had, for his encouragement, the high exmilitary. A considerable number of his ample of his majesty in 1837, when his horses former democratic associates of the arsenal were put at the disposition of the two marfaction were slaughtered in the Roçio-shals, then in rebellion against the queen's square, in Lisbon. Ministry after ministry government. He left his ministerial post to was formed and broke down. Senhor An- make a revolution, to upset the constitution tonio Cabral had the art to embroil his col- of 18:38, and re-establish the Charter of leagues, and was especially active and suc- Dom Pedro which he had helped to abolish cessful in his intrigues against every public in 1836. He succeeded; his new minisman by whom he had been brought into no-terial reign began in February, 1842, tice, or in any wise benefited. It is needless and it lasted upwards of four years. In to say that his enemies were numerous; but that period he suspended the constitution in proportion as he grew unpopular with three times, and caused the queen to affix her his friends and the public, he became a signature thirteen times to ordinances in favorite at court.
violation of the written charter which is Having as usual betrayed his latest bene- the fundamental law of the state. factor, Bomfim, on the 7th of March, 1838, These things were looked upon at the and caused his fall (just as he had ousted court, and by the majority of the Cortes, as his friend Soares Caldeira from his office acts of energy not quite formal, indeed, but in the police, and placed himself in his expedient; the acts of a strong ministry stead), his political ascendency was no lon- that had the army at its back—that susger a matter of doubt. Thus far success- tained order and public credit. The enful, he turned altogether against his old ergy beyond the law brought law and order, democratic associates, and showed no mer- however, into disrepute; a revolt took cy to them when they attempted to carry place in 1843, and the strong government out even the least reprehensible of his own had great difficulty in putting it down. doctrines. Some of his lessons were in- The finances from the day this minister deed of a very atrocious kind, if the ac- came into power, became more and more counts, not of two or three, but of several sembarrassed. The stocks, however, were of his confidential friends err not. On one supported for the time being but by ruinous occasion he is said to have counselled the means- -by an organized system of loan members of the Camilla Club to make making, anticipation of revenue, and stockaway with three public men, the Count jobbing operations carried on with monopoBomfim, Julio Sanches, and the Baron list companies of capitalists created exRibeira Saborosa. It would be easy,' he pressly for dealings with government, and said, 'to make an entrance into the house contracts with it of an exclusive kivd-for of the first-named of these persons by the which in several instances enormous sums, window from a neighboring wall; the in what is called empenhas, were paid to house of the second could be got into by two individuals of the government (the the roof, which was low and easily reached; Cabrals). Venality had reached such a and that of the third was to be entered by pitch, that the prices of contracts became buying the tenant of the first story, and familiar topics. The tobacco, the soap,
the from the window of it passing to the sec- powder, and the road contracts were reguond.' This ingenious device however was larly bought and sold in this manner; and too atrocious for his associates, and was not sums were paid for them varying in amount put into practice. The only motive for from twenty to fifty contos, that is, from planning it was, that those liberals did not 45001. to 12,2501. sterling each. Nay, in go far enough in their liberalism, for the one instance 100 contos were offered for a fervid patriotism of this red-hot demagogue contract, and refused as too small a sum. of 1836.
The terrible evil of this great public imIn his parliamentary and ministerial ca- morality was that officials in subordinate reer, he mingled too much of his passions situations took advantage of the notoriety of with his public proceedings, petty animosi- this fact to obtain money of applicants for ties guided his politics, his acts of justice places. The disposal of offices in the pro