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dressed as a sister of charity. Sugar plums In private houses,

16,356 are formed into the figures of the Virgin

In the hospitals,

10,054 In military hospitals,

465 and the Saviour, and priests in their robes

In prisons,

185 are eaten in sweet chocolate, as images in Brought to the Morgue,

298 sugar are swallowed from the crust of a Executed, twelfth night cake. With all this external parade of the forms

27,360 of religion, there is at the same time scarcely a serious pretension to any real Thus it seems that of the total number of or deep feeling on the subject. Even persons who die in Paris, very nearly forty among women the matter begins and ends per cent. die in the hospitals. in ceremonials. In the actual practical The improvement of the general comconduct of life all this religion (if it can be forts of the poorer classes in France, which so denominated) exercises little or no influ- has taken place since the Revolution, com

Whether this arises from the fact bined with the extensive use of vaccination, that the national clergy do not constitute a is exhibited in its effects on the average duprominent section of good society in the ration of life. By the statistical returns it country, as is the case in England, we must appears that for the last twenty-seven years leave others to determine.

the ratio of the whole population, to the The statistics of the population of Paris, number of births, is 33.4 to 1, which gives published from year to year, disclose some the mean duration of life, during that curious facts which may aid in the discus- period, to be 33 years. By the tables of sion of such questions.

Duvilland, it appears that before the RevoIt appears from the statistical returns of lution the average duration of life was only last

year that the births which took place in 273 years, which gives an increase of 19 Paris, in the year 1844, were as follows: per cent. on the length of life since the

Revolution. Legitimate children

21,526 The proportion of the sexes among the Illegitimate children


children born, offers some curious and inTotal number of births 31,956

explicable circumstances, On taking the

returns of births from 1817 to 1843, it is These figures lead to the astounding found that the total number of boys born in conclusion that thirty-two and a-half per that interval was 13,477,489, while the cent. of the children born in the metropolis number of girls was 12,680,776; so that, of of France, are illegitimate !!

the whole number there are 61 per cent, It may be inquired in what condition of more boys than girls. life this enormous extent of concubinage

But let us examine separately the two prevails? Some light may be thrown on classes of legitimate and illegitimate chilthis question by examining the proportion dren. of the entire number of illegitimates which

It is found, that among legitimate chilare born in the bospitals, to which here the dren, 1063 boys are born for every 100 poorer classes almost invariably resort. girls; while among illegitimate children

It appears, then, that of the total number 104. boys are born for 100 girls. In the of illegitimates, there were

latter class, therefore, there are only four

per cent. more boys born than girls; while Born in private houses,


in the former there are nearly seven per Born in the hospitals,


cent. more of boys. 10,430

This ratio is not casual, for it has been

found to obtain, not only for different peFrom which it follows, that above fifty- riods of time and for different parts of five per cent. of this large proportion of France, but is equally found in other counnatural children belong to classes suffi- tries where exact siatistical records are ciently independent to provide for their kept. comforts in private domiciles.

It seems, then, that a greater proportion From birihs let us turn to deaths, and of boys are born among legitimate than we shall obtain a result scarcely less sur- among illegitimate children.

What strange prising. The total number of deaths which inferences this incontestably established took place in Paris, in the year 1844, was phenomenon leads to! Are we to infer as follows:

that the solemnization of marriage pro

In a

duces a specific physiological effect, varyinging literature and the arts, as well as poliin a determinate manner the sex of the tics and miscellaneous intelligence. offspring ? We must leave this curious certain sense it may be said to have a higher question to the faculty to explain. Mean-intellectual tone, and although no single while we must assure them that they are French journal can be truly said to be as absolutely excluded from taking refuge in perfect a vehicle of general intelligence as the doubtfulness of the fact itself. The one of the leading morning papers of Lonevidence is quite incontestable.

don, yet this deficiency is more than comIf the intellectual condition of the popu- pensated by the facility with which the lation of the French metropolis can be various journals are accessible. inferred from the amount of intellectual The feuilleton is a department of French food provided for them, and apparently en-journalism which has no corresponding joyed and voluntarily consumed, it must be branch in the English press. Here the admitted to have attained rather an high writings of many of the most eminent men standard. The first, most obvious, and of letters of the day, more especially the most abundant source of mental informa-authors of fiction, first are offered to the tion, is the daily press.

Journalism is world. Here are also found literary and carried to an extraordinary extent in Paris. dramatic criticism, reviews of the arts, and Not only is the number of newspapers con- a general record of the progress of mind. siderable, but the average circulation is The number of journals which thus form much greater than that of the London jour channels of popular information in Paris nals. They are issued at a much lower alone, is about forty; half that number beprice, and much more extensively read. ing daily papers for politics and general The annual subscription to the principal intelligence. daily papers is only forty francs, equal to The intellectual taste of the Parisians is thirty-two shillings, British. These papers manifested, in a striking manner, by the are published daily, including Sundays, and desire they show for attendance on pubconsequently their price is little more than lic lectures in every department of literaone penny. But small as this cost is, the ture and science. Such discourses are acParisian rarely incurs so much; nor would cessible gratuitously in various parts of a single journal satisfy his thirst for infor- Paris, and delivered by professors eminent mation. He requires to see the journals of in the various departments of knowledge. all parties, and to hear all sides of the ques. Among these ought to be especially mention. This object is attained easily, eco- tioned the lectures on astronomy delivered nomically, and agreeably, by the Cabinets throughout the season by Arago, at the de Lecture or reading rooms, above three royal observatory, and those on mechanical hundred of which are established in Paris. philosophy, given on Sundays, by the Baron The admission to these is three balfpence. Charles Dupin, at the Conservatoire des arts Here all the journals of Paris, great and et metiers. Each of these professors is atsmall, all the periodicals of the day, the tended by audiences of six or seven hunpopular romances and pamphlets, and other dred persons of both sexes and all ages, works of current interest, are provided.- from the youth of sixteen upwards. In many of the better class of these estab- Of all the class of public professors comlishments, the English and other foreign ing under the title of adult instructors, papers are found.

Every Parisian above Arago is, perhaps, the most remarkable, the rank of the mere working class resorts and we might even extend the comparison to these rooms, and makes himself au curant beyond the limits of France. The well on the subjects of the day. Besides these known felicity of Faraday gives him a high sources of daily information, he has his rank in this species of teaching. But he café, to which all Frenchmen resort morn- yields to Arago in the eloquence of laning or evening, and where all the princi-guage, and what may be called the literary pal journals are provided.

qualifications of the instructor. If Arago The aim and object of a Parisian jour- had not been a member of the Academy nal are somewhat different from those of of Sciences, he might have preferred a fair an English newspaper.

It is less the claim to admission to the Academy of Letvehicle of advertisements, or of mere gossip, ters (L'Academie Française). such as accidents and offences, than the As a member of the Chamber of Depulatter. It is more discursive, and affects ties, Arago has assumed his seat on the more the character of a review, embrac- extreme left, the place of republican opinions pushed to their extreme limit.— ple in France, is the drama. Whether the He is a violent politician, and will go every counteracting evils which attend theatrical length with his party. He rarely, however, entertainments preponderate over the means mounts the tribune; never except on ques- of mental improvement which they offer, is tions on which his peculiar acquirements a question on which some difference of are capable of throwing light. Whenever opinion will, no doubt, prevail. However he does, the chamber is hushed in the most this be decided, the state in France reprofound and respectful silence. There gards the drama as a national object, as are no interruptions, either of approbation the means of sustaining and fostering an or dissent, such as even the most eminent important branch of French literature, and, parliamentary speakers are accustomed to. in a word, as a department of les beaux arts, The members listen with inclined heads and as well entitled to protection and encourageinquiring countenances. The strangers' ment as painting or sculpture. galleries are filled with respectful and There are within the barriers of Paris anxious spectators and bearers. The sta- about twenty-four theatres, permanently ture of the savant is above the middle size, open; most of them nightly, including Sunhis bair is curled and flowing, and his fine day. Several of these are directly supportsouthern bust commands the attention. His ed by the state, receiving an annual subvenforehead and temples indicate force of will tion of greater or less amount, and being conand habits of meditation. The moment sequently subject, in some degree, to govhe opens the subject of his speech, he be ernment control. In defence of the moral comes the centre to which every look is effect of these places of public amusement, directed, and on which all attention is fixed. it must be said that none of them present If the question is complicated, it becomes the offensive and revolting scenes which are simple as he utters it. If it be technical, witnessed in the saloons and upper tiers of it is resolved into the most familiar. If it boxes of the English theatres. In fact, that be obscure, it becomes luminous. The class of persons who thus outrage decency, ignorant are astonished that what seemed in the place of public amusement in Engunintelligible has become suddenly self- land, dare not show themselves in any theaevident, and the dull are charmed with the tre in Paris. In that respect, at least, there consciousness of their awakened powers of is a wholesome stringency of police regulaperception. The gesture, the pantomime of tions. In the audience part of a Paris theaihe orator are captivating. Flashes of light tre there is, in fact, nothing to offend the seem to issue from his eyes, his mouth, and eye or the ear of the most fastidious moraleven from his fingers ! He varies and ist. relieves his discourse by the most lively The principal theatre of Paris, and that digressions and well-pointed anecdotes im- to which the state attaches the most impormediately arising out of the subject, which tance, is the Academie Royale de Musique, adorn without over-charging it. When he commonly called the grand opera. It is relates facts, his language has all the graces here that the art of dancing is cultivated; of simplicity; but when he unfolds the in connexion, however, with the higher class mysteries of science, and developes some of of opera. Notwithstanding that the prices the wonders of nature, his speech rises, his of admission are considerable, and the theastyle becomes elevated and figurative, and tre accommodates two thousand persons, his eloquence corresponds with the sublimi- and is generally filled, yet such is the splenty of his theme.

dor with which musical entertainments are The versatility of Arago, and his vast fund produced, that the entire receipts do not of peculiar information, always ready in his amount to any-thing near the expenses of memory, and available for felicitous appli- the establishnient. The annual subscripcation, remind us of the qualities of his tion allowed by the state to this school of friend Lord Brougham. Like the latter, music is above thirty-five thousand pounds Arago is a linguist, a politician, a man of sterling. letters. He is perpetual secretary of the A second theatre, called the Opera ComInstitute, in which office he has producedique, is also devoted exclusively to the adremarkable eloges of some of his most emi- vancement of music, and receives an annual nent contemporaries, among whom may be grant of £10,000. mentioned Volta, Fourriere and Watt. The

school of French dramatic litOne of the principal avowed instruments erature is the Theatre Français, where the for the intellectual advancement of the peo works of Racine, Corneille, Voltaire, Mo




liére, and the other great dramatic writers, tracts, and you are only required to find are kept continually before the public, sup- your own paper. The number of readers ported by the best living artists, among who avail themselves of this privilege is whom Mademoiselle Rachel at present holds enormous. the first place. This theatre is supported While means so ample are thus presented by an annual grant of £8,000, notwithstand for the improvement of the understanding, ing which it is now tottering on the brink opportunities for the cultivation of taste, and of dissolution, and must come to a suspension the refinement of the imagination, are not if the state do not intervene.

less profusely supplied, and still more eagerExclusive of these, all the other theatres ly and extensively enjoyed by all classes, are private enterprises, conducted indepen- including even the most humble of the opedently of government, and generally attend- ratives. To be convinced of this, we have ed with profitable results in a financial only to make a promenade of the magnifi

The character of the dramas repre- cent collection of Versailles, or of the musented at them is very various, and in some seuin of the Louvre, on any Sunday or holiinstances exceptionable on the score of day, when the working classes are free moral tendency ; not more so, however, Those who in London would be found at than those of the minor theatres in London. the gin-shop, or at the smoking bazaar, are

Among the means of intellectual advance here found familiarizing their eye with the ment enjoyed by the Parisians, we ought productions of Raffaelle, Titian, Paul Veronot to omit the mention of the public libra- nese, the Poussins, or Claude, or wanderries, of which above twenty are open to the ing among the antiquities of Italy, Greece, public daily. It is impossible to refrain and Egypt. It is not an overcharged estifrom contrasting these admirable institu- mate to state, that on every festival day, tions with similar public establishments in with favorable weather, not less than fifty London, not only as to the facilities which thousand of the lower orders of Paris enjoy they offer to the public, but as to the extent themselves in this manner. to which the public avail themselves of the benefits which they present.

If the number of daily readers at such institutions be any indication of the intellectual advance- LIFE OF MARY BEATRICE OF MODENA. ment of the people, then assuredly our French neighbors have greatly the advan- Lives of the Queens of England. By AGtage of us. To perceive this, it is only ne

NES STRICKLAND. Vol. IX. 8vo, pp. 4:29. cessary to look into the salle de lecture of the

Colburn. Bibliothéque Royale any morning, and call to your recollection the reading-room of the Nor requiring so much deeply learned and library at the British Museum. Is the dif- difficult research among the cramp, ancient ference to be ascribed to the different state black letter records, in the strange dialects of mental advancement of the people or to the of our early history, which is hardly withrestrictions imposed on the admission to the in the compass of female accomplishment use of the latter library? If this last be io (though a Dacier were the agent), Miss any extent the cause, the sooner these re- Strickland, coming down to the later times,

trictions are removed the better. In Paris bas (here especially) been fortunate in havthe public libraries are open without any ing her diligent labors rewarded by the restrictions whatever. You have no per- opening of a new and hitherto little, if at all, mission to ask, no introduction or recom-consulted sources of information. Her biomendation to seek, no qualification to attain graphy of Mary Beatrice of Modena, the —not even a name to acknowledge. What. Queen of James II., is accordingly one of ever be your condition, rank, coantry, lan- the best which we owe to her pen. With guage, or garb, you are free to enter these unconcealed Jacobite feelings, she has probinstitutions; write on a paper, which is pro-ed the statements of Burnet and other wrivided for you, the titles of the works you ters, the bitter opponents of James and his wish to consult or to study, and, without consort, the uncompromising enemies of further inquiry or delay, they are handed their religion, and the supporters of a revoto you by porters, who are in waiting for lution which drove them from the throne of the purpose; you have convenient seats ihese realms. That such parties would and tables in rooms well ventilated in sum- grossly inisrepresent them is but in human mer and warmed in winter, with ink for ex

A change of dynasty invariably im

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plies the monstrous character of that which ing of the community, she hastened back on has been overthrown. Macbeth, Richard, the wings of love and fear to St. Germains, Charles I., and James II., are but varied and found his majesty in great need of her types of the class; every foible and vice conjugal care and tenderness. She gives the

following simple and unaffected account of his exaggerated, and every merit and virtue de sufferings and her own distress

, in a confidennied. The vanquished are not immediately |tial letter to the abbess of Chaillot, dated 28th dangerous; the victorious are the dispen- of November: “Although I quilted you so sers of favors and rewards. But years roll hastily the other day, my dear mother, I do not on, when both are alike powerless for good repent of it, for the king was too ill for me to

have been absent from him. He was suror evil; and then Prince Posterity asserts his claim to some acquaintance with the prised, and very glad to see me arrive. He

has had very bad nights, and suffered much for truth. Opinions are balanced, facts are three or four days; but, God be thanked, he is canvassed, documentary evidence is con- getting better, and has had less sever for some sulied, private correspondence is retrieved days, and yesterday it was very slight. I am from the dust of muniment chests, compar- astonished that is was not worse, for the disisons are instituted, and philosophy in the ease has been very bad. Felix (one of Louis consideration of all the data is applied ; nature with that which the king his master had

XIV.'s surgeons) says that it was of the same and lo! another picture starts from the can- in the neck about two years ago. It suppuvass, just as in the elder productions of the raced three days ago, but the boil is not yet fine arts the skilful cleaner so osten discov- gone.” Thus we see that King James's malers the original beneath the counterfeit daub ady was not only painful, but loathsome-even which has been painted over it. Thus has the same affliction that was laid on Job, sore Miss Strickland made out a very different boils breaking out upon him. Yet his faithful portrait of Mary of Modena from ihat which consort, five-and-twenty years his junior, and

still one of the most beautiful women in Euhas been handed down from the Eighty- rope, attended on him day and night; and, uneight; and has also rubbed off as much as restrained by the cold ceremonial etiquettes of she could of the dirt with which the like- royalty, performed for him all the personal duness of her royal husband has been obscured. ties of a nurse, with the same tenderness and The antagonist in principle may in turn ac- sell-devotion with which the patient heroine cuse her of prejudice on the side of her sub- of domestic life occasionally smooths the pil

low of sickness and poverty in a cottage. ject: be it so; we are not in the humor to re

[She had been his wife above a quarter of a vive the political question of disputed succes. century, and borne five children to him!) sion, nor the polemical question of religious faith. Of these royal personages, it must This mention of Chaillot leads us to the truly be said, that they sacrificed all to their source whence Miss Strickland has derived honest convictions; and martyrs, at least, the most interesting new traits in her work. cannot be charged with selfish ambition and After the abdication, whilst living on the hypocrisy ;-of many of those who con- hospitality of Louis XIV., the piety and detrived their fall, and rose upon their ruin, votedness to the rites of the Romish Church it is impossible to say as much. Enough. grew and increased with the royal pair, till

With the bias to which we have alluded it finally all but absorbed their existence. the writer pursues her course from begin. The queen often retired to the monastery ning to end ; interspersing her narrative of Chaillot to perform her rigid devotions; with many flattering personal notes, and and besides her correspondence with the committing repetitions on some points (such abbess, which is preserved, one of the nuns, as the beauty of the queen, and the dispar- it seems, kept a diary of her sayings and ity of age between her and her husband) doings, to both of which Miss S. has had more frequently than could be needed. access. Through the liberal kindness of M. Thus, in regard to the latter circumstance, Guizot, she has also been freely admitted to we think it must be mentioned twenty consult the Archives au Royaume de France, times in the earlier pages of the volume, and the depository of many a curious and imporyet towards the conclusion we have it again tant revelation; and Edinburgh registers of and again—as when James was sick at St. events, and other contemporary channels, Germains, near the close of his days: have been traced to a considerable extent,

In the November of 1699, Mary Beatrice so as to unite the memoir into a very comwas alarmed, during one of her annual retreats plete whole; though two finishing chapters to Chaillot, by a rumor that the king her hus of her majesty's life are deferred to the next band was seriously indisposed. Without tar

volume. Of the Chaillot papers we are told rying for the ceremonies of a formal leave tak- I in the preface:

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