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not merely one of degree, but of kind. The magnetism, and to add, if that were needed, magnetism of iron and other magnetics is confirmation to the researches of Faraday. characterized by polarity, that of diamag. He has found, that by placing a glass trough netics is devoid of any trace of polarity: on the poles of a powerful magnel, and fillthe particles of two bodies of the latter ing it with any fluid from which a precipiclass, when jointly under the influence of tate is slowly forming, the precipitate arthe magnetic forces, manifesting towards ranges itself in the magnetic curves ; cryseach other no action whatever, either of tallization, taking place under the same cirattraction or repulsion. It has long been cumstances, exhibits also the influence of known, moreover, that the magnetism of magnetism on the molecular arrangenients, iron is impaired by heat, and it has been all the crystals bending and arranging generally believed that a certain degree of themselves in the order of the magnetic heat entirely destroys this property, and curves. The experiment is beautifully that magnetics under such conditions be shown by filling the trough with a solution come, to ordinary test and observation, non- of nitrate of silver, and placing a globule of magnetic. Closer observation has, how- mercury on the glass, equidistant from the ever, shown to the author that they are still poles of the magnet ; the revived silver very different to other bodies, and that shoots out in all directions, in a very pleasthough inactive when hot, on common mag-ing arborescent form ; but it waintains, in nets or to common tests, they are not so ab- a striking manner, the curvilinear tendency, solutely, but retain a certain amount of and distinctly marks out the lines of inagmagnetic power whatever their tempera- netic direction. ture; and also that this power is the same Upon mature consideration of the remarkin character with that which they ordinarily able difference in the action of magnetism possess. With regard to air and gases, as upon bodies of the magnetic and diamagyet, magnetism appears to exert no percep- netic class, it has struck Dr. Faraday, and tible influence on them, examined and ex- it appears equally probable to us, that this perimented on in every way-rarefied, con- must be referred to an action on the moledensed, or in their ordinary state, these cules of the mass of the substances acted bodies appear to be utterly unaffected; but upon, by which they are thrown into the instant that vapors are reduced to the different conditions and affected accordliquid or solid form, they became either ingly. In this point of view, the results, • magnetic or diamagnetic. But there is an- when compared with those which are preother curious fact as connected with air, sented to us by a polarized ray, are very which is, that it appears to be either mag. striking; for then a remarkable difference netic or diamagnetic according to the me- is apparent. For there appears to be no dium in which it is suspended. Thus, if a difference between the action of magnetics glass tube containing air be suspended in or diamagnetics on a polarized ray; as, if water between the poles of the magnet, it transparent bodies be taken from the two acts as a magnetic, the water itself being a classes, -as, for instance, heavy glass or diamagnetic; if, on the contrary, the me- water from the diamagnetic, and a piece of dium in which the tube is placed be a solu- green glass or a solution of green vitriol tion of sulpbale of iron, of itself magnetic, from the magnetic class,—then a given line the air is at once active as a diamagnetic. of magnetic force will cause the repulsion Thus it would appear that air and vapors of the one and the attraction of the other ; hold a sort of neutral or zero point, from but this same line of force, which thus afwhich branch on the one side the mag. fects particles so differently, affects the ponetics, on the other the diamagnetics. Thuslarized ray, when passing through them, too do these two modes of action stand in precisely in the same manner in both cases ; the same general antithetical relation to one for the two bodies cause its rotation in the another as the positive and negative condi- same direction. tions of electricity, the northern and south And here we cannot avoid adverting to ern polarities of ordinary magnetism, or the the remarks made upon this part of the sublines of electric and of magnetic force in ject by M. Pouillei, who, as we have almagneto-electricity.
ready said, was one of the earliest on the Before entirely quitting this subject, we Continent to test and verify the expericannot omit noticing a discovery recently ments by which the important facis we made by Mr. Robert Hunt, which tends still have described were established. M. Poufurther to show the universal influence of|illet appears to object to the existence of
any connexion between the magnetic and " Theoretically, an explanation of the movediamagnetic action, and the influence ex ments of the diamagnetic bodies, and all the erted by the magnet on a polarized ray.
dynamic phenomena consequent upon the aclions of magnels on them, might be offered in
the supposition that magnetic induction caused “Admitting," he observes," with this phi- in them a contrary state to that which it prolosopher [Faraday] that all substances not duced in magnetic matter; i. e.—that is a parmagnetic in the manner of iron are diamag. icle of ea kind of matter were placed in the netic in the manner of bismuih, we are led to magnetic field, both would become magnetic, the immediate conclusion that, ihe optical ac- and each would have its axis parallel to the tion being concurrent with a certain mechani- resultant of magnetic force passing through it; cal action, it may at least be presumed that but that the particle of magnetic matter would this action takes place on the bodies, and not have its north and south poles opposite, or fadirectly and immediately on the light which cing towards the contrary poles of the inductraverses them."
ing magnet, whereas with the diamagnetic
particles the reverse would be the case; and Now, it so happens that Dr. Faraday has hence would result approximation in the one never even attempted to assert that mag- case, recession in the other. Upon Ampère's netism acted directly on light. “Neither theory, this view would be equivalent to the accepting or rejecting,” he says, “ the hy- supposition that, as currents are induced in
iron and nagnetics parallel to those existing pothesis of an ether, or the corpuscular or in the inducing magnet or battery wire, so, in any other view that may be entertained of bismuth, heavy glass, and diamagnetic bodies, the nature of light; and, as far as I can see, the currents induced are in the contrary direcnothing being really known of a ray of light tion. This would make the currents in diamore than of a line of magnetic or electric magnetics the same in direction as those which force, or even of a line of gravitating force,
are induced in diamagnetic conductors at the except as it and they are manisested in and those in magnetic bodies the same as those
commencement of the inducing current, and by substances ; f believe that in the experi- produced at the cessation of the same inducing ments I describe in the paper, light has current. No difficulty would occur as respects been magnetically affected, i. e. that that non-conducting magnetic and diamagnetic subwhich is magnetic in the forces of matter stances, because the hypothetical currents are has been affected, and in turn has affected supposed to exist, not in the mass, but round that which is truly magnetic in the force of the particles of the matter." light.”
It now only remains for us to consider Such, then, are the facts connected with the theory of this diamagnetic action. Con- this newly-discovered power of magnetism clusively as are the facts themselves estab- over all matter,-a power which doubtless Jished by the experiments which we have has its appointed office, and that, one that detailed, it is at the same time difficult and relates to the whole mass of the globe. almost dangerous to endeavor to form a The amount of this power in diamagnetic theory with our present imperfect know- substances seems to be very small, when ledge. For it is probable that, when its estimated by its dynamic effect; but, small nature is more intimately known to us, as it is, how vastly greater is this force, other effects produced by it, and other indi- even in dynamic results, than the mighty cators and measures of its powers, will come power of gravitation, which binds the to our knowledge; and, perhaps, even new whole universe together, when manifested classes of phenomena will serve not only to by masses of matter of equal magnitude ! make it manifest and indicate its operation, And let it not be forgotten, that it is to the but even to alter or enlarge our views con- persevering labors and vast genius of an cerning it. And yet, on the discovery of English philosopher that we are indebted any new class of facts such as those which for the development of these facts, and that are recorded in this paper, we conceive that these brilliant discoveries were not the offsome theory which shall satisfactorily ex- spring of accidental or fortuitous circumplain them is absolutely necessary to give stances, but the result of well-founded and precision to our ideas. That which has well-verified inductions and deductions. It been advanced by the author himself—the is true that, in this practical age, practical only one, by the way, which has been of- men may make the inquiry—'Where is the fered-appears to us the sole one by which practical utility of it?' To this, as yet, we we may account for this effect; and we, can give no reply; but it must also be reconsequently, quote it in the discoverer's membered that but a few years back, had own words :
the same question been put in reference to
electro-magnetic phenomena, there would
From the Foreign Quarterly Review. have been a similar inability to make answer. THE WRITINGS OF CHARLES SEALS. And yet, now, this power is used as the
FIELD. swift messenger of thought, and the undeviating measurer of time. In the electric 1. Der Legitime und die Republikaner telegraph of Wheatstone we have one of the (The Legitimate and the Republicans). most wonderful inventions of modern days, 2 vols. Zurich. 1833. realizing to their fullest extent the wildest 2. Transatlantische Reiseskizzen und dreams of the Arabian romances.
In the Christophorus Bärenhäuter (Transatlanelectrical clock, we have another instance tic Travelling Sketches). 2 vols. Zuof human ingenuity, in binding the ethereal rich. 1834. principle, gathered from the earth itself, to 3. Der Virey und die Aristocraten (The note upon a dial the revolutions it performs. Viceroy and the Aristocracy, or Mexico In the one case, by its excitement, time and in the year 1812). 3 vols. Zurich. 1835. space are annihilated ; in another, it slowly 4. Lebensbilder aus beiden Hemisphären and silently guides the seconds-beating pen (Pictures of Life in both Hemispheres). dulum. But, even supposing that the know 1st and 2d Vols. Zurich. 1835. ledge thus obtained will never be of prac-5. The same. Volumes 4 to 6, being the tical utility, surely it will not be argued by continuation of Transatlantic Travelling any one that therefore it is useless. Great Sketches. Zurich. 1-35-37. is the step we have thus advanced in our 6. Neue Land und See Bilder (New Picknowledge of the laws which govern the tures by Land and by Sea, being the conuniverse. A direct relation and depend tinuation of the 1st and 2d Volumes of ence between light and the magnetic and Lebensbilder aus beiden Hemisphären. electric forces is closely established; and 4 vols. Zurich. 1839-40. thus a great addition made to the facts and 7. Das Cajüten Buch (The Cabin Book, considerations which tend to prove that all or National Characterstics). 2 vols. natural forces are linked together, and have 1841. one common origin. And, moreover, we 8. Süden und Norden (South and North). have been made acquainted with a 3 vols. Stuttgart. 1842-3. force exerted on all matter, hitherto unknown and unsuspected. This property of It does not occur to the great Coromandiamagnetism, inherent in so many bodies tee monarch to whom a cunning slave-deal--the sea, lakes, rivers, trees, rocks, &c.-er presents a pinchbeck watch in exchange cannot be without its importance in the for a string of his sable subjects, to stickle regulation of the system of the universe, al- at the material or mechanism of the trinket. though it yet remains for further experi- His highness, although ignorant of Dent and mentalists to point out the great part it Geneva, may have some vague suspicion that plays.
G. T. F. better time-pieces are producible, and that
he is ‘selling off his ebony at an'enormous sacrifice;' but other buyers offer no better, and he, therefore, wisely, though unwittingly, follows Sancho's advice, takes what he can get, and is thankful. Verily the good English public represent King Sambo,
whilst the authors who attempt, through the SCRAPS For The Curious.--If a tallow candle medium of fiction, to portray the peculiarbe placed in a gun, and shot at a door, it will go ities of American life and character, resemthrough without sustaining any injury; and it a musket ball be fired into water, it will not only ble not a little the wily slave-dealer. Like rebound, but be flattened as if fired against a solid him, our crafty scribes present their counsubstance. A musket may be fired through a terfeits to purchasers who have no means of pane of glass, making the hole the size of the ball, detecting their value or testing their alloy ; thread, it will make no difference, and the thread like him ihey receive a fancy price for metal will not even vibrate. Cork, if sunk 200 feet in that is not sterling, although, fortunately for the ocean, will not rise on account of the pressure them, accepted as sterling, for want of the of the water. In the arctic regions, when the real material wherewith to compare it. thermometer is below zero, persons can converse more than a mile distant. Dr. Jamieson asserts
Who are the American writers under that he heard every word of a seaman at the dis- whose guidance we have humbly adopted tance of two miles.
such views as we have of Transatlantic life?
Passing over at once the amiable and ac- Cooper has established in the circulating complished Washington Irving, whose de- libraries. Mr. Cooper knows that they are lightful pen has been busier with the Old not. He acknowledges as much when he World than with the New, whose sympa- subjects his raw material to the discipline thies, social as well as literary, are strongly he has been accustomed to exercise on shipEuropean, and whose sketches, graceful and board. Without that discipline the dramatouching as they are, can hardly be said to ftis persona would have been too shocking illustrate the character of his countrymen and offensive for the public gaze. But the the foremost worthy that occurs to us—un- quarter-deck goes somewhat too far into the questionably the first that would present backwoods, when respect for rank, and for himself—is Mr. Fenimore Cooper, the au- the distinctions of society, is attributed to thor of the 'Pilot,' the American Sir Wal- men who never recognized but to despise ter. Now we have have never begrudged such fictitious superiority. What thoughtful Mr. Cooper the flattering designation claim- reader following Natty Bumpo, Mr. Cooped for him by his nation, so long as the nov- er's favorite hero, through all his various elist has kept us afloat. As a writer of nau- phases of hunter, pioneer, and trapper, can tical romance, Mr. Cooper demands our escape the recurring suspicion that Natty, highest respect. He was the founder of the interesting though he be, had no existstyle: he has rarely been equalled in it, cer- ence beyond the mind and creative fancy of tainly never surpassed. We cannot say the artist? Either we have been strangely that his sea manæuvres are approved by Na- misled by what we have hitherto deemed pier--we believe they are ridiculed by the authentic accounts, or the Leatherstocking marines: we care not a rope's end for his is no type of a class, no reality, but a mere misnaning of sails and cables; we will even creature of the imagination; more manly suffer him to steer his frigates in defiance of and agreeable, but not less spurious than the precedent and possibility. All that is es- mandiin savages of Chateaubriand. Nursential for the landsman is found, and in tured in the woods, the very child of freeabundance, in his books of the sea: the nau- dom, with the wide forest before him, and tical character which cannot be mistaken- his unerring rifle for bis companion, what the romance of ocean life which cannot fail American hunter ever submitted with the to charm. His sailors are alive with vigor. laudible patience of friend Bumpo, to imYou do not doubt for a moment that such prisonment, the stocks, and fifty similar inmen have been and are, and that they live, dignities? What native of the half-horse, speak, and act, as the master teaches you. half-alligator state of Kentucky so adinirably But strange as it may sound to the good be disciplined as Paul the Beehunter, that welllievers in the Wept of the Wish-ton-wish,' drilled sergeant of marines, anxiously antito the gentle and tender mourners of the fate cipating every beck and nod of the captain ? of the Last of the Mohicans,' Mr. Cooper But we cannot afford to dwell further upon resigns all right to the mantle of the Great the discrepancies of Mr. Cooper; we have Magician of the North, the moment he for- said enough to show that, although he may sakes the tarry jacket to wander with rifle be read with amusement, he must be followand moccasined feet beneath the shade of ed with caution, and listened to without imthe forest and through the waving herbage plicit faith. Another successful writer, Dr. of the prairie. Not that he ever did wander | Bird, uses a broad rough pencil, and his de-save in print-not that he ever did study lineations have both nature and truth. The the denizens of the backwoods whom he un productions of Dr. Bird are not generally dertakes to depict, save in the seclusion of known in this country, although one of his study, and under the influence of poetic them, almost universally read - we mean dreams and sweet hallucinations. The In-Nick of the Woods'- will not easily be fordians of these American novels, sentiment gotten. It contains two characters which, al and well-behaved as the Inuians of the to our thinking, have never been approached theatre, are not the savages of nature which by Cooper; Ralph Stackpole, the horsetravellers have found and faithfully de- stealer, and Nick himself, a Quaker, who, scribed. Trappers and hunters, notorious having witnessed the massacre of his wife ly the wildest and most reckless of white and children by a party of savages, doffs his Americans, rivalling and often surpassing coat, abjures his creed, and becomes the Intheir red associates in ferocity and a spirit dians' most inveterate persecutor. The maof hatred and rebellion to the laws, are not jority of Neale's novels are mere heavy rhapthe mild, heroic, docile creatures whom Mr. I sodies; Mrs. Clavers' sketches of settlers'
life are pleasing and probably correct as far, we have never, although we have looked as they go, Haliburton has handled with ad- out for them, met with any of the Amerimirable skill that transatlantic cockney, the can translations, and we incline to believe Yankee; but Yankees, although often erro- that none of them have come to this counneously considered by English men to be the try, unless casually, in a traveller's portstaple human produce of America, consti- manteau, or in a file of newspapers. tute in fact but a small fraction of the pop The intimate knowledge of American ulation of the United States, which are in- manners, feelings, and tone of conversation, habited by races of men exhibiting differen- the frequent use of English words and ces of character, feelings, and interests as phrases, invariably well applied, although great as any that exist between Scotchman sometimes misspelt by German printers, and Irishman, Yorkshireman and Londoner. and the author's occasional and happy adopAs to the English authors who have laid the tion of an English or American idiom, have scene of their novels in America, they are apparently, and not unnaturally, led some but feeble imitators of Cooper, comic cari- to suppose and assert that these books were caturists, or unfair assailants of a country originally written in English, and that the and people whom they have approached with German version was a translation. This prejudice or with insufficient opportunities we find expressly denied in the preface alfor observation and judgment. We confess ready quoted, which commences with the that, as a class, we do but slightly esteem author's thanks to the public of Germany them.
for their hospitable reception of a stranger It is our present object to introduce to who came amongst them, as he says, in our readers an author little known in this veritable Yankee fashion, seeking a new country, and whose vivid pictures of Amer- market for his produce. With the excepica and the Americans are, as we believe, tion, he proceeds to say, of a portion of the most successful that have yet been the . Legitimate and the Republican,' penned. During the last dozen years there published in English some twenty years have appeared in Germany a series of tales ago in Philadelphia—but totally altered and sketches of striking character, and ex- and reconstructed in its German dresshibiting genius of a high order. Strange and of one short chapter of the Travelto say, at a period when German, Swedish, ling Sketches” that first saw the light in and even Russian literature are so gener- an American newspaper, the whole of his ally ransacked, by our diligent translators, books are original German works. The of their more choice productions, no por- Travelling Sketches' were all first writtion of this series, with the exception of a ten in English, but published in German sew brief but well-selected fragments in the alone; the Viceroy. and the Aristocpages of a leading monthly periodical,* racy,' perhaps the most thoroughly and eshave been as yet done into English, at least sentially German, in idiom and construcin England. The Americans, it would tion, of all his works, was composed, we are appear, have long since discovered and told, in English, but printed in the Gerworked the rich vein. With the German man language only. public,' says the author referred to, in the Rare accomplishment, thus to handle preface to a second, and, in some instances, with equal facility two of the most difficult a third edition of his works, now publish-languages current in Europe, and to write ing, 'my books have made their way but indifferently in one or the other books of gradually. In America their success has first-rate ability; and satisfactory would it been very great, and they have been pub- be to trace the career and intellectual edulished in every form; in volumes, numbers, cation of one thus highly gifted. This we newspapers. I have now before me whole regret our inability to do. Two years ago basketsful of American periodicals, all more we could not have told even the name of or less filled with criticisms of my writings, this clever author; it was dimly guessed at some loading me with praise as boundless in Germany, but probably was unknown to as undeserved, others indulging in censure, any but his publishers and, perhaps, his and even in malicious abuse, equally exag- own immediate circle. It is to-day only gerated and unmerited.' We ourselves that he discards the shield of anonymous have long been well acquainted with these anthorship. 'I could wish,' he says, in works in their original German garb, but the preface above cited, 'to continue, in
humble imitation of the great Walter Scott, ** Blackwood's Magazine."
Washington Irving, and others, anonymous