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Contented ? What ? - For all his grandeur Love like a tender flower must pine and still,

wither. Be thankful to capricious destiny, Man's heart, even though Fiesko's were That in some kindly mood has kneaded up,

that heart, From mouldering trophies of the past, a Has not for two conflicting tyrant powers, man,

At one time space enough. Now would'st Like Giovanni Luigi Fiesko ?

thou lay No-no—Leonora ! -I am far too proud, Thy head upon my bosom, but thou hear'st To take that as a gift, which for myself Rebellious vassals storming at thy gate. I can with powerful arm obtain ;-and Smiling, I'd rest in my true lover's arms, therefore,

But with a despot's faltering heart he hears Ere one day more hath dawn'd, I shall The rustling of a murderer's step behind consign

The costly hangings of th' imperial hall, My borrow'd plumes back to th' ancestral And flies from room to room." Nay, dark grave.

mistrust Levagna's Counts from henceforth are ex At length destroys all household unity,

And if Leonora to thy parch'd lip holds From that hour shall the princes date their The cool refreshing cup, thou dar’st not rise.

drink, Leon. (lost in her own wild thoughts.) But deem'st that with the blandishments I see him overpower'd by deadly wounds;

of love See the dull silent bearers bring towards She brings thee poison !

Fies. (Much agitated.) Hideous dreams! My husband's bloody corse !--that cannon

No more! shot,

I cannot now recede; the bridge whereon That first that fell amid his friendly band, I came so far is broken from behind me. Hath struck him to the heart !

Leon. And this were all ? Oh, deeds Fies. Be quiet, child ;

alone, Fiesko, 'Twill not be so !

Are here irrevocable. (Tenderly and half Leon. So confidently, then,

ironical.) In past days, Fiesko dares to challenge Providence ! Have you not sworn that Leonora's beauty And if among a thousand,—thousand From proud ambition's paths had quite chances,

misled you ? "Twere possible, it might be true, and I Flatterer ! these vows were false, or her Might lose my husband !--Oh, Fiesko, think,

Have early faded. Question thine own Heaven is at stake ; and if a billion prizes

heart, Were to be drawn, and but one blank for IT'ho is to blame? all,

(Ardently, and embracing him.) Yet would you dare this fearful lottery ! Come,-come to me once more ! Heaven is at stake, -your soul's eternal Be yet a man ! Renounce these fearful weal,

schemes, And is not every venture on such game, And love shall be thy recompense. If such Rebellion 'gainst your God ?

Affection cannot still thy restless mood, Fies. Be unconcerned.

Trust me, the crown will prove yet more Fortune and I are friends ;-but OF ALL

deceitful. DANGERS,

Come, I shall learn by rote each wish of THE DEADLIEST IS FAINT-HEARTED

thine, COWARDICE ;

Will in one kiss blend all the charms of And Grandeur from her votaries must have

love, homage.

That in his silken bands I may for ever Leon. Grandeur, Fiesko ? oh that with Hold thee, too venturous runaway! (In my heart

tears.) If 'twere Your spirit bears so little sympathy ! But to make one poor being happy, one, Mark, I shall trust to that which you call Who but upon thy bosom lives in heaven, fortune.

Say, should not this alone fill every void Say you have conquer'd ; woe's me, then, Within thy restless heart? of all

Fies. (Overcome.) Oh, Leonora, On earth, the poorest, most unhappy wife! What have you done? How shall I meet You fail-then I am lost!-Worse, if you

the looks triumph.

Of those who now will claim my promises ? Here is no choice, Fiesko must be duke, Leon. (joyfully.) Oh, dearest, let us fly Or perish ; but when I embrace the duke,

from hence, cast off I lose for evermore my dearest husband. At once all pomp and idle pageantry, Fies. Leonora, now you speak in mys. In tranquil woods and fields live but for teries.

love! Leon. No, no. Mid the cold sphere Clear as the Heaven's unchanging azure around a throne,

vault, VOL. XVI.


poor charms

Our souls will be no more with sorrow have agreed, that in order to the comdimm'd,

pletion of a perfect tragedy, it must, But like a sparkling pleasant stream, our however objectionable in other relives

spects, be suffered to remain as it now Roll onward to the Giver of all good.

stands. Our ideas are different, howLeonora's supplications are here in ever. We think the fifth act might terrupted by the expected cannon-shot, be sufficiently tragical, and yet admit the signal of the conspirators, seve of such changes as would obviate the ral of whom now rush into the apart censures to which its plan is at prement, exclaiming, that “ the hour is sent liable. come,” and Fiesko determines to go In the few extracts that we have with them. Hereupon Leonora faints, given, some instances occur where and Fiesko waits only to see her again strict literality might have been adheopen her eyes, and attended by her red to without strengthening the geconfidantes, Sophia and Rosabella; neral impression, and this, accordingthen rushes out with his companions. ly, has not been done; for example, This ends the fourth act.

in Leonora's allusion, in the last line Were we to analyse the fifth, als of her eloquent supplication, to the most as many columns would be re flötende quelle," (musical fountain.) quired as we have allowed to the four But, in fact, such accuracy has never preceding. It involves the accidental been aimed at in the hasty sketches of death of Leonora, and closes with the which our “ Horæ Germanica” have suicide of Fiesko. Several critics in consisted, (of which, by the by, we Germany have objected to the manner

intend for the future a regular conof Leonora's death, yet most of them tinuation.)


Essay III.- Part I.

on the real nature and utility of what are called facts in Political Economy : -are they such as to supersede the necessity of establishing it on general principles, and reducing it to the form of a science ?

It was a frequent and favourite remark of the late Dr Cullen, that there are more false facts current in the world, than false theories, and a similar observation occurs more than once, in the Novum Organon. “ Men of learning,” says Bacon, in one passage, “ are too often led, from indolence or credulity, to avail themselves of mere rumours or whispers of experience, as confirmations, and sometimes as the very ground. work of their philosophy ; ascribing to them the same authority as if they rested on legitimate testimony. Like to a government which should regulate its measures, not by the official information received from its own accredited ambassadors, but by the gossipping of news-mongers in the streets. Such, in truth, is the manner in which the interests of philosophy, as far as experience is concerned, have hitherto been administered. Nothing is to be found which has been duly investigated; nothing which has been verified by a careful examination of proofs ; nothing which has been reduced to the standard of weight or measure.”-STEWART's Elements, Vol. II. p. 441-2, 4to Edit.

Quin et factis ipsis, licet humani animi pignora sint certissima, non prorsus tamen fidendum, nisi diligente ac attente pensitatis prius illorum et magnitudine et proprietate.--Bacon, De Augment. Scient. Lib. viii. c. 2.

Ita finitima sunt falsa veris, ut in precipitem locum non debeat se sapiens committere.Cicer. Qures. Acad. Lib. iv. c. 21.

I have no great faith in Political Arithmetic.-ADAM SMITH, Wealth of Nations. Vol. II. p. 310. 8vo Edit. 1799.

Rash and unwarranted conclusions ence, therefore, we ought to be most are perhaps in no investigations more carefully and continually on our guard, frequent and dangerous, than in those especially as they often steal upon us which relate to Political Economy. unawares, or insinuate themselves inAgainst their occurrence and inflús to our opinions or reasonings, under

the guise of well-founded and indis a powerful and general ascendancy, putable truths.

no theory or opinion will be long ada This caution is more particularly hered to, which does not rest on facts, necessary and salutary, when opposite or which can be proved to be contraand conflicting opinions are under our dicted by them. `Among the ancient examination and judgments having philosophers, facts were disregarded, succeeded in proving satisfactorily and theories were produced and establishunequivocally, that one set of opinions ed without the smallest reference to are erroneous, we naturally and almost them ; things were supposed to exist, imperceptibly permit the opposite set or, if really existing, were supposed, to glide into our minds, and to take without any proof, to operate in that firm and permanent possession there. manner, which would account for the It is well though quaintly remarked phenomenon under investigation. In by the author of “ New and Old Prin many cases, mere words, to which no ciples of Trade compared,” that almost possible meaning could be fixed, were every Scylla in Politics has a Charybdis substituted for causes, or first princiin its neighbourhood ; and that we ples. Philosophy, and the progress of must remember in vitium ducit culpa the human mind and of society in all fuga, si caret arte.

that concerns their real good, were To hasty and superficial reasoners thus checked. Bacon changed all this it might seem, that, because we have entirely and essentially; he taught and succeeded in proving that the most proved that observation and experipopular and celebrated Political Eco ence alone can conduct us, through nomists have failed in establishing facts, to the laws of nature, which we that science on sound and unexcep- may, after we understand thein, aptionable principles, and in explaining ply to our benefit. what has occurred, and pointing out Bacon was right; but we must not what ought to be done in the economy be deceived by names. We cannot of nations-Political Economy would possibly have any safe guides to sciresist all attempts to be moulded into ence but facts; but we must not call a science-Philosophy possessed no

those facts which are not such ; we power over it-it did not admit of must not confound words, or prejubeing reduced to first principles-and dices, or inferences, with facts, nor that what are called practical, or mat- place any reliance upon such facts as ter-of-fact men, were the only safe are not viewed in every possible light guards and instructors in whatever re under a great variety of circumstanlated to it.

ces, and in all their connexions and Hasty and superficial reasoners will consequences. be the more apt and disposed to ad What is the real value and use of mit these conclusions, because they the testimony of practical or matterfind a powerful ally in almost every of-fact men, in questions relating to mind, in the prepossession which is so Political Economy? Are their testigenerally entertained in favour of what mony, experience, and advice, so enis called experience and fact, when set lightened, sound, and universally apin opposition to what is called theory plicable, as to supersede the necessity and speculation. To all general rea of establishing and applying philososoning, however sound may be the phical principles to this subject? If principles from which it sets out, how- they are, we need not undertake to ever regular and connected the grada. prove that Political Economy can be tions and links of argument, drawn reduced to a science. A preliminary from those principles, and conducted investigation will therefore be proper to a legitimate conclusionit is deem- and necessary, in which we shall exaed quite sufficient to oppose what is mine the claims of practical men to called a fact, or to appeal to experi- guide us through all the mazes and ence ; few, after this, will venture to difficulties of Political Economy. The maintain the speculative opinion. difference between practical and spe

Perhaps no stronger illustration culative opinions in Political Econoand proof of the evil influence of mere my, is well and fairly pointed out in words in checking the progress of truth the following passage of Mr Stewcan be given, than that to which we art: have just alluded ; since the Baconian They who have turned their atmethod of induction has gained such tention, during the last century, to in

quiries connected with population, na- mind, than the political arithmetician tional wealth, and other collateral sub- is aware, when he boasts that he is jects, may be divided into two classes: exempt from their influence. Hemust to the one of which we may, for the possess a very superficial and limited sake of distinction, give the title of acquaintance with mankind, who does Political Arithmeticians, or Statistical not perceive, that on all subjects where Collectors; to the other, that of Po- their interest is concerned, or which litical Philosophers. The former are are surrounded with a variety of cirgenerally supposed to have the evi. cumstances, prejudice or theory either dence of experience in their favour, renders facts imperfectly or erroneousand seldom fail to arrogate to them- ly seen, or prevents them from being selves exclusively the merit of tread, stated exactly as they exist and appear. ing closely in the footsteps of Bacon. The remarks of Mr Stewart apply In comparison with them, the latter with equal propriety and force to pracare considered as little better than vi, tical Political Economy, as to medisionaries, or,' at least, entitled to no cine. “ So deeply rooted in the consticredit whatever, when their conclu- tution of the human mind, is that dissions are at variance with the details position on which philosophy is graftof statistics."

ed, that the simplest narrative of the In opposition to these claims, he most illiterate observer, involves more goes on to state generally the real or less of hypothesis: Nay, in general, merits of those two classes :" It it will be found, that in proportion to may with confidence be asserted, that, his ignorance, the greater is the numin so far as those branches of knowa ber of conjectural principles involved ledge have any real value, it must rest in his statements. on a basis of well-ascertained facts; A village apothecary, and, if posand that the difference between them sible, in a still greater degree, an exconsists only in the different nature of perienced nurse, is seldom able to dethe facts with which they are respec scribe the plainest case, without emtively conversant. The facts accumu ploying a phraseology, of which every lated by the statistical collector, are word is a theory; whereas, a simple merely particular results, which other and genuine specification of the phemen have seldom an opportunity of nomena which mark a particular disverifying, or of disproving; and which, ease; a specification unsophisticated to those who consider them in an in- by fancy, or by preconceived opinions, sulated state, can never afford any im. may be regarded as unequivocal eviportant information. The facts which dence of a mind trained by long and the political philosopher proposes to successful study, to the most difficult investigate, are exposed to the exami- of all arts, that of the faithful internation of all mankind ; and while they pretation of nature.”—P. 443. enable him, like the general laws of The statements of the political physics, to ascertain numberless par. arithmetician, therefore, and what he ticulars by sympathetic reasoning, they calls the results of his own observafurnish the means of estimating the tions, and experience, and inquiries, credibility of evidence resting on the drawn aside as they are by interest or testimony of individual observers."— theory, on this ground alone, are cerElements of Philosophy, Vol. II. c. 4. tainly undeserving of the character § 5. p. 447-8. 4to edit.

and claims which they assume, and But it will be necessary to examine cannot be permitted to supersede the more closely and minutely, the real va- investigations of the political philosolue of the facts, as they are styled, of the pher. political arithmetician, in order that But it may be urged, that those who we may ascertain whether his labours are practically engaged in commerce, ought to supersede those of the political are more worthy of our confidence as philosopher. The political arithmeti- instructors and guides in Political cian boasts that he rests on facts alone, Economy; and that the facts which and does not permit himself to be they have accumulated during a life swayed or prejudiced by general rea- of personal observation and experience, soning or theory; and that, therefore, must be not only well-founded, but he is the only safe guide in Political also directly and profitably applicable Economy. But theory or prejudice to the most difficult and complicated enters more frequently into the human cases of this science.

· This, however, we suspect will be parallels, that frequently they run found far from the truth.' In the first counter one to the other; although place, few men engaged in commerce most men, by their education and buare acquainted with any branch of it siness, having fixed their eye and aim except that which they themselves wholly upon the former, do usually follow: in the second place, the small confound these two in their thoughts number whose thoughts and interests and discourses on trade, or else misare directed to commercial objects on take the former for the latter." a large scale, seldom or never possess Adam Smith has a similar remark. a deep and extensive insight in -“ The merchants kuow perfectly to human nature. It seems, there well in what manner to enrich them. fore, impossible to meet with merely selves; it was their business to know practical men, who can instruct us it; but in what manner it enriched from their own observation and expe- their country was no part of their burience in the fundamental principles siness."-Smith's Wealth of Nations, of commerce. Let us, however, exa Vol. II. p. 8, 4to edition. mine of what worth and utility they But facts, to be useful, must be will be as guides in their own parti- stated not only impartially, and with cular department. The object of Po a full and clear display of their inlitical Economy, as a science, is the fluence on the wealth of the commu. increase of wealth and prosperity of nity at large, but they must also be communities at large, not of any class traced to their remote and permanent or portion of them, at the expense of consequences. In this respect, we another. The object of the commer- shall find the facts of practical men of cial man is to benefit himself: he little value or utility; they do not looks no farther; he decides on the look wide enough, and they do not propriety, the prudence, or the wis- look far enough; their individual indom of every plan and measure, ac terest does not require such a view, cording as it is advantageous to the and therefore they do not take it. line of business he pursues, and, more But the interest of society absolutely especially, according as it is advanta- requires not only an extensive view on geous to himself individually. all sides, but a penetrating and long

Hence, navigation and corn-laws, view to remote and permanent conbounties, prohibition of foreign goods, sequences. or heavy duties upon them, have not What is the consequence of an inonly been defended, but extolled as crease in the circulating medium of a beneficial; and facts are appealed to in country ? To this question, very opsupport of this opinion, in opposition posite answers will be given by practo what is sneeringly called specula- tical men, and each answer will aptive notions on Political Economy. peal to facts ; but if we examine these Here, then, is one fertile source of facts, we shall find, that they either fallacy in the facts of practical men; do not take in all the circumstances, they state the fact and consequence of (a source of error we shall afterwards any measure, but not the whole fact advert to,) or they are not traced in and consequence; the fact and con- all their consequences. sequence as they affect their own in Those who maintain that an ina terest, or the interest of that particu- crease in the circulating medium does lar branch of trade in which they are not enhance prices, nor add to proengaged, but not as they affect the na- duce, state the facts in support of tional interest. They know and feel their opinion in the following manthat they are benefited by the measure, but they are ignorant, and they They admit, that the first and imdo not inquire, whether, while they mediate effect of an increased circuare benefited, by their very benefit, lating medium is to enhance the price others, and the nation at large, are in- of the article on which it is expended ; jured.

but this effect, they allege, is coun“ In all his meditations upon these teracted by a diminution of demand, principles,"

observes Child, in his Dis- occasioned by that enhanced price. course on Trade, “ the reader should The price of meat rises 25 per cent in warily distinguish between the profit consequence of more money than usual of the merchant and the gain of the being applied to its purchase ; this kingdom, which are so far from being is one part of the fact; but, on the


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