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25. At Edinburgh, Major James Ballantyne of guid, minister of Evie and Rendal, Orkney, in the Holylee.

27th year of his age. At Falkirk, Mr Robert Taylor.

16. At Crieff, Mrs Elizabeth Arnot, rclict of Mr 26. At Mary's Place, Stockbridge, Mrs Susan James Amot, merchant there. Sangster, wife of Mr John Parker, Solicitor Su - At Portobello, Elizabeth, third daughter of preme Courts.

Mr D. Cowan, Canongate, Edinburgh, aged ten - At Edinburgh, the Rev. Robert Doig, one of years. the ministers of the parish of St Nicholas, Aber - At Edinburgh, Mr James Richardson, surdeen, in the 56th year of his age, and 34th of his geon and druggist. ministry.

- At Greenock, at an advanced age, Mr Tho- At Ashmore, Robert Gordon, Esq. of Ash mas Potts, writer there, and formerly writer in more, younger of Invernettie.

Kelso. - Ai Edinburgh, the Hon. Miss Bethia Hamil 17. At Leith, Peter F. Hay, son of Mr John ton.

Hay, ship-owner. - At Manse of Wamphrey, the Rev. Mr Joseph - At Meadowside, near Strathaven, James Kirkpatrick, in the 75th year of his age, and 47th Miller, Esq. advocate. of his ministry.

- At Rockhill, Argyllshire, Mrs M‘Lachlan, - Her Grace the Duchess of Gordon, after a sep. of M'Lachlan, in the 91st year of her age. most severe illness of above a twelvemonth.

- At No. 9, Queen Street, Edinburgh, aged 4 28. At Edinburgh, Susan, youngest daughter of years, Jemima, fifth daughter of Mr William Bell, the late Major Hamilton Maxwell of Ardwell. W.S. - At Dun House, Miss Erskine of Dun.

18. Mrs Heugh, relict of John Heugh, of Gart29. At her house, Hope Street, Miss Blair.

cows, Esq. 30. At London, on the 30th ult. Mr Wm. Sharp, 19. At Edinburgh, William Calder, Esq. late an eminent engraver.

Lord Provost of this City, much and deeply re- At Kilconquhar, Fife, Mrs Magdalene Lizars,

gretted. wife of Mr John Brewster, printer, Society, Edin - Mrs Susanna Davidson, wife of William burgh.

Kirkaldy, Esq. merchant in Dundee. 31. At his house, Park Street, John Brown, Esq. 20. At London, Thomas Trevor Hampden,

Tweedie Crawford, infant daughter of Mr Viscount Hamdpen and Baron Trevor of BromDouglas, writer to the signet, Drummond place. ham.

Aug. 1. At Scotscraig House, William Dalgliesh, - At Dalnaspidal, Blair Atholl, Lieut.-Colonel Esq. of Scotscraig.

George Johnston, brother to the Right Hon. Lady - At Manse of Irongray, Mrs Ann Campbell, Gray. wife of the Rev. Dr Dow, minister of Irongtay. 22: At Inverleith Mains, Mr George Lauder, - At Burnhouse, Joseph Calder, Esq.

farmer. -At Burntisland, Mr Andrew Hutchison, town - Ai Sourhope, Mr James Shiell, tenant there, clerk.

aged 73 years. - At Manchester, Alexander Livingstone, a na - At Addingstone, Agnes, third daughter of tive of Haddington, aged 98 years. In the early John Simson, Esq. of Blainslie. part of his life he served a pumber of years in the 23. At Blairlogie, Stirlingshire, Miss Emilia Scotch Greys, during the German war. He had Husband Baird, daughter of the Very Rev. Dr G. two horses shot under him at the memorable bat. H. Baird, Principal of the University of Edin, tle of Minden. He was a pensioner of Chelsea burgh. Hospital upwards of fifty years.

24. At Edinburgh, Miss Elizabeth Dickson, 2. At Godstone, Surrey, Alexander Waugh, North St Andrew's Street. A.M. minister of the Scots Church, Miles'- Lane, ' -- At Edinburgh, Mr Robert Douglas, late of London; and son of the Rev. Dr Waugh, mini- the Advocates' Library. ster of the Scots Church, Wells Street.

- At Duntrune, Mrs Stirling Grahame. - At his house, Richmond Hill, near Aber - At the residence of his son, in the Vale of deen, Thomas M.Combie, of Easter Skene, Esq. Neath, the Right Hon. Earl of Dwaraven, aged

4. Al Orrard, Perthshire, Mrs Richardson, wife of the late James Richardson, Esq. of Pitfour 25. At Haly burton, Berwickshire, after a few Castle.

days' illness, Mr John Fairbairn, long tenant there, 5. At St Mary's Cottage Trinity, Mrs John and author of a " Treatise on Sheep-Farming, Linning.

by a Lammermuir Farmer." 7. At Edinburgh, Mrs Jessie Hamilton, wife of 26. At Bankhead, South Oucensferry, Captain John Glassford Hopkirk, Esq. W.S. in the 28th William Gordon, second son of the late James year of her age.

Gordon, Esq. of Rosieburn. 8. At Marseilles, whither he had gone for the - In Argyll Square, Janet, the wife of William recovery of his health, the celebrated German phi Wallace, Professor of Mathematics in the Uni. lologer, Frederick Wolf, in his 66th year. . versity of Edinburgh.

9. At Bath, Major-General William Augustine 28. 'At Pentonville, after a short illness, Mr Prevost, C.B. son of the late Major-General, and Alex. Greig, in his (9th year. brother of the late Lieut.-General Sir George Pre 29. At her house, Ann Street, St Bernard's, vost, Bart.

Mrs Jcan Spalding, eldest daughter of the late - At Juniper Green, Colinton, Lieutenant Alexander Spalding Gordon, Esq. of Holm and Henry Rymer, R.N.

Shirmers, and relict of James Fraser, Esq. of 10. At his house, Cornhill, near Perth, Lau Gorthleck, W.S. rence Robertson, Esq. in the 6th year of his age. - At Edinburgh, James Butter, Esq. W.S.

- In Laurieston Lane, Francis, the only son of - At St John's Hill, James Sutherland Bruce, Leonard Horner, Esq.

son of the late Mr Wm. Bruce, banker in Edin11. At Aberdeen, Miss Jane Allan Kidd, daugh burgh. ter of the Rev. Dr Kidd.

- At Edinburgh, Elizabeth, cldest daughter of - At Edinburgh, Maria Jane Craigie, eldest the late William Cumming, Esq. of Riga. daughter of Captain Edmund Craigie, of the Ilun. 30. At Crai leith Hill, Elizabeth Grahame, East India Company's service.

youngest daughter of Mr William Bonar. 13. At Edinburgh, Mrs Christian Godsinan, re Lately, On his passage to Europe for the recolict of the late Ebenezer Marshal, minister of very of health, Ensign George Huntly Gordon, of Cockpen.

the Hon. East India Company's Service, youngest - in Upper-Gower Street, London, Lucy Eli son of Lieutenant-General Gordon Cumıning Skene zabeth, wife of Lord Maurice Drummond.

of Pitlurg and Dyce. 14. At Glasgow, Dr William Buchanan, late - At Lyons, whither he had proceeded for the surgeon of the 82d regiment of foot.

benefit of his health, Mr Abraham Montefiori, the 13. At Burnside, George Rodger, Esq. of Burn brother of M. Rothschild, aged 38. side, in the 70th year of his age.

Suddenly, off Algiers, Mr William Rogers, mas - At Druminond Place, Edinburgh, the Rev. ter of his Majesty's ship Glasgow. James Duguid, third son of the Rev, John Du

72.

Printed by James Ballantync and Company, Edinburgh..

BLACKWOOD'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

No. XCIII.

OCTOBER, 1824.

Vol. XVI.

HORÆ GERMANICÆ.

No. XIX. Goetz von Berlichingen, a Tragedy, by Goethe. This tragedy was a very early pro- ther the opinion we expressed was, or duction of the author. It was his first was not, one of exaggerated praise. appearance upon the stage ;-his first In order to judge of this piece, howattempt to embody the result of those ever, it is not a whit more necessary studies, wbich, from the dawn of his that we should examine itself, than manhood, had occupied the largest por- that we should endeavour, in so far as is tion of his intellect.

possible, to throw ourselves back into Never, perhaps, was the first dra- the time when it made its appearance. matic work of any author more deci. And, in truth, it is no easy matter to dedly entitled to the praise of origina- throw ourselves from this time into lity. Few, very few, mature works of that. What were the most popular any genius are more resplendently in- works of literature in those days, stinct with the spirit of energy. It is the works that exerted the widest inno wonder, therefore, that some signal fluence that enjoyed the most Euroerrors of taste were, at the moment of pean reputation that gave the tone of its appearance, altogether overlooked thought-that, by turns, echoed and that it was hailed with all the enthu- dictated the feelings of the largest porsiasm of unchastised applause--that it tions of society? There cannot be a covered its author with honour, at the question that these were the writings time unrivalled and that, from that of VOLTAIRE, and his numerous folday to this, the influence of its success lowers, in France and out of France. may be read in broad and indelible The German literature of the period characters all over the surface of the was, in spite of national pride and perliterature which it had reanimated. sonal pique, saturated with the spirit That such are the qualities, and that of the great Revolutionary Cynic. In such were the effects of Goethe's first this spirit even WIELAND wrote poedrama, we have, in a former paper of try. The translator of Lucian changed this series, bad occasion to state gene- but little of his character when he rally. We now purpose to examine composed the beautiful cantos of his Goet: ron Berlichingen somewhat more Oberon ; there was more of the Prinat length, and to give our readers some cess of Babylon in them, than of the specimens of the materials of which it Midsummer Night's Dream. Heris constructed, and of the style in der, indeed, had followed the footsteps which it is composed, in order that of Lessing, and the only really excel. they may judge for themselves, whe- lent criticism even of that time in GerVOL. XVI.

3 B

many was hostile to the French school; alike, and he warred equally against but what were a few private scholars all. He hated the despotism of the and professors, dispersed over the ob- French king, and he assaulted all Eu. scure and powerless states of Germany, ropean government. He despised the when opposed to the influence of the cruelmummeries of the half-heathenizonly intellectual prince of whom Ger. ed Christianity he saw in operation immany could boast, reigning in a capi- mediately around him, and he declared tal upon which the eyes of all Europe war against the Bible. Through the were fixed, drawing around him every- feeble points of manners, he stabbed at thing that was most likely to adorn the eternal foundations of morals ;the monarchy he might be said to have Pretence and Purity, Cunning and created, and exerting all his immense Wisdom, all were alike the objects influence, personal and regal, in favour thank God, not the victims-of His imof that literature, the spirit of which, partial rancour. although even his lynx eyes could not His grand error was, that he could see it, was not less fixedly and irrecon- not distinguish between the systems cilably at variance with his own in- themselves, which he found in operaterests and those of his crown, than tion, and the adventitious'absurdities with all the best and dearest interests which he found attached to these sysof Germany, of Europe, of Christen tems. He determined, therefore, indom? The star of Frederick blazed an stead of lopping off unseemly excresevil portent in the intellectual sky of cences, to make root and branch work Germany; its meteor-like splendour, of it. He found all the bad things though of the earth earthy," was suf- which he hated or despised existing ficient to diin for a time the more dis- amidst nations professing a certain retant and scattered vessels of purer and ligion, and accustomed to live under more stedfast light.

certain forms of government;—the Even the gigantic mind of Johnson, fundamental principles of that religion, such are the effects of contemporary therefore, and the whole substructure spleen, could not enter the lists against of recollections and reverence on which Voltaire, without denying the great, these governments apparently rested ness of his genius. It is pitiable their strength, were to be assailed with enough to perceive that this folly still every art which his ingenuity could lingers among some who ought to be devise, and his pertinacity direct. His above it; but what such people say ambition was to effect a thorough renow has certainly no influence upon volution in the political and in the rethe general feelings of men. Posterity ligious feelings and principles of the is, as usual, just; and they who are European mind; and it was no diffiin the best condition to render a rea- cult matter for him, having once formson for their aversion to Voltaire, are ed this audacious scheme, to perceive, the readiest also to admit, that were that his first and great object must be nothing but mere power of intellect to to destroy altogether our respect for be taken into account, there are but our own ancestors. The institutions very few names on record among man which he abhorred were all derived kind, entitled to be placed upon a level from them. They were consecrated in with his. He had the daring to de. the eyes of living men, by the belief sign and to commence a warfare, to that they had come down from the which even LUTHER's was but child's wise and the noble dead ;-our oracles play; and he brought to its service a were also our monuments. perseverance the most audacious and An European antiquity was in his undaunted, and weapons and skill the eyes the badge of all abomination. most varied and the most exquisite that We moderns were treading blindly in ever were exerted simultaneously for the footsteps of generations which we an unholy and an unhappy cause. ought altogether to despise. His buThat in the government of France, and siness was to persuade us, that the the religion of Rome, he found many mists of the dark ages were only besubjects of just reprehension, who can ginning to be dispelled ; that it was deny? But these merely furnished this reserved for him and his contemporaArchimedes with a resting-place, from ries to have the glory of first beholdwhich to bend his myriad engines ing the real dawn of truth and light; against the whole system and fabric and that nothing but bigotry and inof European thought. He hated all terest could possibly withstand the

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influence of the blaze which his bold deriding, the ingenuity and vigour of
hand had been destined to reveal. his Proteus antagonist.
- He was, among other things, at the This haughty opposition, however,
pains to write a history of the whole was entirely a philosophical one, and
world, with the express and single that was not enough to set against a
purpose of enforcing these new ideas. system which had not disdained to as-
In this book, and in the more ponder- sault everything that is imaginative,
ous Dictionnaire Philosophique, there through imagination itself, as well as
was no one institution subsisting any- through other channels. But others
where among the peoples of Christen- fortunately arose to supply that in
dom which he did not assault through which both the plans and the powers
those in whom he supposed it to have of Johnson were deficient. The pub-
originated, and by respect for the me- lication of Percy's Reliqués gave a new
mory of whom he supposed it to be in turn to the imaginative literature of
any measure maintained. Everywhere England. That work certainly had
he found or feigned some vile trick of great influence in Germany also. But
interest or ignorance to come in place its business there was not to originate,
of some revered foundation of charity but to encourage ; for, before its trea-
or wisdom. Priesthood, monarchy, no- sures were opened, the comprehensive
bility, were so many aliases for the do- genius of Goethe had already struck
mination of impudence, hypocrisy, and the kindred note by this very drama.
fraud. Dexterous was he in the ma. If it had been otherwise, we had still
nagement of his weapons, and deadly been abundantly repaid ; for a trans-
the extent to which his cruel paradox lation of Goetz von Berlichingen was
for a time prevailed. Plays and ro- the first publication of Sir Walter
mances were written to insinuate the Scott; and it is not perhaps too much
same poison into minds or moods of to say, that as but for Percy we might
the most opposite descriptions, to have had no Minstrelsy of the Scottish
blend it with the sympathies of the Border, so, but for Goethe, the genius
serious, as well as the mirth of the jo- of the most successful author of our
cular. It was worked up in imposing time might have taken some direction
forms for the would-be-wise-it was less fortunate, in every point of view,
mixed in wine for men, and in milk than that, the triumph of which is now
for babes. The ambition of the proud before us.
in mind the scorn of the unsatisfied The wise, no less than magnificent,
evil-the secret yearnings of the luxu- design which Goethe too soon abandon-
rious---for each of these elements he ed, and which the other great poet has
had his appropriate viand. He at once so splendidly pursued, was the only one
enlisted the bad passions on his side; through which there could be any just
and, by his skilfulness in the arts of hope of opposing, in the hearts of mo-
deceit and perversion, he was ena dern men, the influence of those new
bled also to entrap beneath his banner doctrines by which the revolutionary
not a little of what was meant to be literature of France had appealed so
good.

powerfully to the self-love of its geThe massive intellect and the pro neration. The main-spring of this ridigious intluence of Dr Johnson form val engine was a noble disbelief in the ed a rampart against the influx of these possibility of men's soon or easily pernicious notions for which England losing all sympathy for those who had can never cease to be grateful. Hume, gone before them. Its object was the Tory though he was, did more against vindication of the past-not the vindius, than for us. Gibbon was Voltaire's cation of its errors--not the denial of partisan, as far as it was possible for a its evils--but the assertion of the fact man of his personal virtue and great that the old times had their good also erudition to be so. Even Robertson that our fathers were neither the stooped to be his apologist. Johnson fools nor the slaves it suited the audaalone stoo:l firm, cased in the armour city of living conceit to represent them of knowledge, of wisdom, and of pride; -that we were sprung from noble and and opposing a resistance which cer- virtuous races, and ought to imitate tainly would not have been the less their virtues and amend their errors, effectual, had he conciliated, in some but not draw a broad line of separameasure, the judgment of the lookers- tion between us and them-nor hug on, by confessing, instead of eternally the flattering unction, that it was a

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nobler and a better part to demolish himself was one of the knightly freeand rebuild than to preserve and em booters of old Germany-one of those bellish.

petty barons, wbo, by means of broIn Germany, all things considered, therhoods established within theirown it is not perhaps to be wondered at that rank, contrived to set at defiance the the chief characteristic of the new spi- power of the greater authorities of the rit had been, from the very beginning empire, even when that power was exof its influence, a savage hatred and erted apparently for worthy purposes. scorn for the institution of nobility. This, however, was perhaps the necesThe abuses which had grown around sary result of their being systematicalthat institution in Germany were great ly, and as a class of men, accustomed, --and unhappily they have not yet and indeed very often compelled, to been corrected, except in a few por- make common cause against princely tions of the old empire. It was ob- and imperial ambition. We must take vious, however, to Goethe, and to the evil with the good in all things. every man capable of taking a calm These noble robbers laid abbeys and and philosophical view of the subject, free towns under contribution; but they that this institution was far too deep- more than repaid this, both to the ly inwoven into the whole frame and clergy and the commonalty, by that fabric of society in that country, to ad- spirit of daring which they nourished, mit of its being pulled down without and in which they gloried; that high peril of the most deadly effects upon its and haughty soul of independence national character—the root of all real which animated them to the great and good, and the source of all really phi- perpetual struggle which they alone losophical expectation of good. This had the power of maintaining, and to poet, therefore, undertook to vindicate withdraw them from which, all the the old chivalry, which was every day blandishments and temptations of assailed in every form of banter-he courtly intrigue and proffered favour undertook to make men sympathize were continually exerted. once more with the reverence which But perhaps enough of all this distheir fathers had felt for the frank and quisition-in which we are by no means lofty virtues of the old German Baron- certain, after all, that there may age; that body, which, in despite of not have been a good deal of over-reall the sneers of ungrateful posterity, fining upon things. Let us come to had stood, throughout a long course of the play itself, or rather to the transtroubled ages, the eternal barrier be- lation of it, which was published in tween the prince and the people, fight, London “ by Walter Scott, Esq. Ad. ing the battles of both, and preventing vocate, Edinburgh!" (such is the style the one from the active, the other from of the title-page,) in 1799; and which, the passive curse of despotism. He never having been reprinted, has long undertook to meet in the teeth the in- since become, according to an old sulting array, of which “ Guerre aur phrase of ours, “ as good as MS.” The Chateaux was the war-cry;

He un tone of the preface to this version is dertook to shew that the place which very modest.—The writer talks of the men envied had been won; and with obligations he has been under to "a great and consummate art he under- gentleman of high literary eminence," took to do all this, without betraying for revising his performance. This, we openly what was the purpose he had suppose, was that clever and audacious in view-he undertook to insinuate, plagiarist of the Germans, Monk Lewis, not to declaim-he appealed to the to whose Tales of Terror Mr Scott conhearts of men, not doubting that his tributed not long afterwards his two doctrine would from thence find its splendid ballads, Glenfinlas, and the own way to their heads.

Eve of St John, pieces which at once There was great art as well as bold- established his reputation, and effecness in the selection of the period, and tually lowered that of his eminent of the hero of this dramatic attempt. friend's Alonzo the Brave, et hoc geThe poet has taken a time of the ut nus omne, with which, until then, the most turbulence and confusion-ex- public had been marvellously contentactly one of those periods which had ed. We are rather surprised, that, if been most frequently decried as made it were but for the curiosity of the up of nothing but brutal ignorance on thing, Mr J. Bell, of Oxford Street, the one side, and brutal oppression on the publisher of this translation, or the other. Goetz von Berlichingen his representative, whoever that may

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