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PREFACE

TO THE FIFTH EDITION.

In preparing this edition for the press, the compiler has sought to render his work more complete by adding Part VIII., supplementary to what appeared in the former editions, and particularly adapted to the wants of the more advanced students in common schools or academies. It will be found to embrace some of the more important and practical instructions found in works on Logic, and which properly belong to a complete treatise on the Art of Composition.

The whole work has been carefully revised, but it was found necessary to make only a very few alterations, and those so slight, chiefly corrections of typographical errors, that no inconvenience will be experienced in using this edi. tion with any of the former.

The compiler would take the liberty to add, that after a trial of one year in the institution under his care, during which several classes, in the different departments, have been carried through the work, it has been found peculiarly well adapted to the important objects for

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which it was compiled. He believes it is not too much to say, that it not only embraces, but presents in a more convenient method and form, the best portions, at least the most useful, of the works of Blair, Whateley, Beattie, Campbell, and Watts, while it comprehends, besides, the Practical Exercises, the History of the English Language and Literature, and the selections from British and American Poets, with critical notices, which did not enter into the plan of any of the above works.

As now enlarged, the work will, it is hoped, be deemed worthy of a general introduction into academies, while it has not thereby lost, in any degree, its adaptedness to the wants of common schools, especially in the improved condition to which they are advancing from year to year.

Watertown, January 2, 1846.

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V. ARRANGEMENT OF SENTENCES.

SECT. I. Variety of Arrangement

II. Variety of Arrangement (continued)

III. Variety of Arrangement (continued)

IV, Expression of Ideas

V. Expression of Ideas (continued)

VI. Expression of Ideas (continued)

VII. Expression of Ideas (continued)

PART II.

I. STYLE.-II. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE.

PRELIMINARY CHAPTERS.

CHAP. I. Of Language, and its Origin

II. Alphabetic Writing

III. Materials Anciently used in Writing ·

V. Scarcity of Books in former Times

34

34

35

35

38
30
361

37

38

39

40

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CHAP. V. Composition

VI. Genius

42

VII. Taste.

43

VIII. SECT. I. Beauty and Sublimity in Nature

46

II. Beautiful and Sublime in Writing

50

I. STYLE.

IX. Of Style and Idiom

51

x. Of different kinds of Style .

52

XI. Perspicuity :

53

XII. Purity :

54

XIII. Propriety

56

XIV. Precision

59

XV. Perspicuity in the Structure of Sentences

61

XVI. Of Clearness

62

XVII. Of Unity

65

XVIII. Of Strength.

68

XIX. Of Harmony

71

XX. Of Sound united to the Sense

74

XXI. Choice of Words with a View to Energy and Vivacity 76

XXII. Critical Examination of Sentences

II. OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE.

XXIII. Of Figurative Language

78

XXIV. Of Simile

80

XXV. Of Metaphor

82

XXVI. Of Allegory.

86

XXVII. Of Personification

88

XXVIII. Of Apostrophe

90

XXIX. Of Metonymy and Synecdoche

92

XXX. Of Climax and Enuineration

93

XXXI. Of Antithesis

95

XXXII. Of Hyperbole and Irony

97

XXXIII. Or Interrogation and Exclamation

100

XXXIV. Of Vision and Alliteration

101

XXXV. Of additional Secondary Tropes .

102

XXXVI. Of Miscellaneous Figures of Speech

XXXVII. Of Allusions

XXXVIII. Of Wit

108

XXXIX. Critical Examination of Passages containing Figurative

Language.

111

XL. Of the more General Rules for Composition

111

PART III.

OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF COMPOSITION.

General Statements

CHAP. I. Of Letters

114

SECT. I. On Letter-writing

114

II. Letter-writing (continued)

. 117

III. Specimens of Letter-writing

Il. Of Dialogue and Enigmas

129

III. Of History

IV. Essays and Philosophy

133

V, SECT. I. Orations

13.1

II Criticisms on Everett, Webster, Calhoun, and Clav 136

104

. 105

.

.

148
• 150
152

161
163

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CH. VI. Of Novels

142

VII. Of Blank Verse and Rhyme

144

VIII. Of the Structure of Verse

146

IX. Of Varieties of Verse

X. Of Poetic Pauses

XI. Of Pastoral and Descriptive Poetry

XII. Of Didactic and Lyric Poetry

153

SECT. II. Examples of English Lyrics

135

XIII. Of Epic Poetry

159

Of

Oramatic

Poetry

159

XV. Of Hymns, Elegy, &c.

XVI. Of the Sonnet

XVII. The Literary Merit and Style of the English Bible

165

XVIII. The Form of Bible Poetry

168

PART IV.

OF ORIGINAL COMPOSITION.

CHAP. I. Selection of proper Subjects .

172

II. Narrative Essays

174

III. Descriptive Essays

175

IV. Descriptive Essays (continued)

175

V. Miscellaneous Essays

176

VJ. Miscellaneous Essays (continued)

177

PART V.

HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

CHAP. I. Of different Languages .

180

II. Of the Primitive Languages of Europe :

181

III. Of the English Language

182

IV. Of the early History of the English Language

184

V. The Effect on it of the Saxon Conquest

185

VI. The Effect on it of the Danish Conquest

187

VII. The Effect on it of the Norman Conquest

188

VIII. Or the Modern History of our Language

190

IX. The same Subject continued .

X. Of Periodical Literature

193

XI The component Parts of the English Language

194

PART VI.

MODERN BRITISH LITERATURE.

CAAP. I. English Literature under the Tudors and the first Stuarts 197

II. English Literature from the Restoration to the Reign of

George III.

198

III. English Literature of the present Age

199

IV. English Novels and Romances

V, The English Periodical Press

vi. English Philosophers and Critics of the present Century

BRITISH POETS.

Criticisms and Specimens.

VI Sect. I. Shakspeare

207

II. Milton

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