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tinued success cannot be expected unless the most improved measures are adopted in dealing with the many problems which he encounters. The orchard must be managed in such a way as to produce crops of perfect fruit without reducing the vitality of the trees or exhausting the fertility of the soil. If any of the essential conditions for the best development of the crop is overlooked, loss is sure to follow.
One of the chief causes for the loss of vitality of trees is due to the attacks of insect pests and plant diseases and the annual losses resulting from them are enormous. The spraying of orchards for the control of these pests has been practiced so successfully by the leading fruit growers of this country that it would seem entirely unnecessary, at such a meeting as this, to present facts to show that it is a profitable and essential undertaking.
Conditions in Ohio have not developed to such an extent that extensive spraying operations are attempted for the protection of other property, but the time will come when serious attention must be given to protecting the trees and ornamental shrubbery in cities and towns from the increasing number of pests that attack them, and when owners realize the importance of this work active spraying will be undertaken. The San Jose scale is already doing serious damage to fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs in many cities in this state, and during the past year the elm leaf beetle, which is very destructive in the eastern states, has been found in the city of Dayton. These facts simply indicate the situation and bear out the assertion that spraying will have more general application in the future.
The pests that the fruit grower must combat are legion, and, as most of them exist in several different stages, which are widely dissimilar, it is often difficult to detect the particular one that is doing the injury. In many cases comparatively simple remedies may be applied, and the pest is sometimes of such a nature that spraying would be absolutely useless. For instance, it has been found impossible to combat peach yellows or pear blight, both of which are diseases, by means of spraying, while black knot that attacks the plum and cherry can be controlled by cutting off and burning the affected parts. Such diseases as rot, mildew, scab and leaf spot, which affect many horticultural crops, can be controlled by spraying, if it is applied at the proper time. Bordeaux mixture is the standard fungicide, and is an invaluable remedy for plant diseases.
Among the insects of the orchard, two distinct types must be recognized; namely, those that feed upon the tissue of the host and those that suck the sap. Poison sprays are of little value for destroying the latter, because they do not eat the tissue, and no practical means have yet been discovered for poisoning the sap of the plant in order to destroy these pests. They must be destroyed by the application of a contact insecticide. This class of insects has been responsible for the preparation of all manner of remedies to be applied to the trunks of the trees, in order that they may be absorbed by the sap, and thus destroy pests of every description. Truly marvelous results have been obtained, according to the stories told by the agents for these delusions, and they have been remarkably successful as a means of securing revenue for the owners. Thousands of dollars have been obtained from the public in this manner.
It must be understood, however, that insects exist in several distinct stages, some of which it is wholly impractical to combat, and that the entomologist must often work out the complete life cycle of the pest before a satisfactory remedy can be advised. Such work takes time and often requires patient study and observation, and, in order to facilitate such investigations, large sums of money are spent annually by the Federal Government and State institutions. 22 -0. S. B. of A.
The essential qualities of a good insecticide are that it will kill the insects without injuring the trees, and that it is cheap and can be easily applied. This statement, which is apparently simple in itself, covers the entire field of insecticidal investigations. Poisons, such as paris green, or better still, arsenate of lead, which is sold under the trade name of disparene, should be used against insects that eat the foliage or the fruit. The former, if used, should be applied at the rate of one pound to one hundred and fifty gallons of water, and if the sample is of good quality a greater strength can be used without injuring the foliage. The latter is a more satisfactory poison, although more expensive, and it is usually applied at the rate of three pounds to fifty gallons of water. Stronger solutions do not injure foliage. It is advisable to add bordeaux mixture to the poison spray in order to check fungus diseases. Summer treatment for sucking insects, such as plant lice, should consist of diluted kerosene emulsion or whale oil soap mixture, used at the rate of one pound to four gallons of water. As a winter wash for San Jose scale, the lime and sulfur wash has no equal. This is made by boiling together fifty pounds of sulfur with fifty pounds of stone lime, while the latter is slacking, and diluting the mixture with water to make one hundred and fifty gallons of wash. Boiling must continue for one hour, or until a dark, yellowish-brown liquid results.
Most orchard crops have their distinctive pests, hence it is impossible to give an ironclad rule for treating all kinds of trees. Some fruit growers consider only the result of the work of orchard pests, and do not pay enough attention to ascertaining the cause of the trouble. In order to spray intelligently, it is necessary to know the character of the pest, or pests, which do the damage, so that proper remedies can be applied at the right time. If an apple orchard is sprayed with poison when the leaves are small, in order to destroy the canker worm, it must not be expected that this will prevent the fruit from becoming wormy, as this is caused by the codling moth, an entirely different insect, and more treatments are required to hold it in check.
Among the pests that are doing the greatest damage in Ohio orchards may be mentioned the San Jose scale, codling moth, plum curculio, canker worm, peach borer, peach yellows, pear blight, peach leaf curl, apple scab, plum rot and shot-hole fungus that attacks the leaves of the plum and cherry. Many other pests are seriously injurious locally, and special measures must be taken to hold them in control. All of these pests, except the peach borer and such diseases as have been previously referred to, can be controlled by systematic spraying.
The attention which any fruit grower pays to spraying is an index of the general care taken of his orchard, for the reason that if he is sufficiently interested to spray thoroughly at the proper time, regardless of other farm work which appears to be necessary, he will also give careful attention to the other orchard operations.
Ohio is one of the largest fruit growing states of the Union. According to the census of 1900 the value of her fruits was $8,901,220, and this amount was exceeded by only three states, namely, California, New York and Pennsylvania. In apple production she was exceeded only by New York and Pennsylvania, and yet Ohio is essentially a state of small orchards. As far as is known to the writer, no great five hundred or one thousand acre commercial orchards exist.
From the agricultural statistics reported by county auditors, and published by the Ohio Department of Agriculture, it will be found that from 1899, tie year that the census was taken, to 1903, the area planted to fruit has decreased seventy-four thousand one hundred and forty-one acres, and of this
shrinkage sixty-six thousand seven hundred and forty-three acres have been devoted to growing apples. These figures show that rapid decadence of small orchards throughout the state, and the following summary of reports received from the Assistant Inspectors of the Division of Nursery and Orchard Inspection during the spring of 1904, relative to the amount of spraying that was being done by owners of small apple orchards in many different parts of the state, will serve to justify the statement already made that spraying is an index of the general care that is given orchards. Of three hundred and six owners that were interviewed, only nineteen per cent. sprayed regularly, and they were growing good crops. Of those remaining, sixty-seven per cent. did not spray, six per cent. had sprayed once and failed, and a similar percentage of growers had sprayed with satisfactory results in the past, but now neglect to do so. Unsprayed orchards were in all stages of decline and it was evident that some of them would be cut down before the end of the season.
The future of orcharding in Ohio will depend on systematic spraying, coupled with careful planting and cultural methods, and will be governed by the great law of the "survival of the fittest." Small growers must be interested by educational means and demonstration work in the field. The best scientific information obtainable can be secured by any farmer, for the asking, from the great National and State Agricultural Institutions, but success in carrying on the actual operations depends upon the individual.
The President: I have been instructed to insist that each person in speaking arise, give his name and the county he is from, so that the report will be made intelligible when written out.
Mr. A. H. Judy, Darke county: Did I understand you to say that by spraying you could prevent pear blight?
Mr. Burgess: No, sir. There is no way of preventing pear blight. As soon as the blight appears on the trees, the limbs should be cut out below the blighted portion and burned at once.
Mr. Dobbins, Greene county: How many times would you advise us to spray?
Mr. Burgess: I would advise spraying at least three times, and it would not do any harm to put in an extra spraying, spraying first as soon as the blossoms are falling, while the apple is standing upright with the calyx open. The second spraying apply a week or ten days later. If you apply four sprayings, apply your third spraying ten days or two weeks later, and the fourth spraying between the middle and the last of July, depending on the locality in the state. You should spray a little earlier in southern Ohio than in northern Ohio. The last spraying is for the control of the second brood of the codling moth.
Mr. Lunn, of Warren: What is the pear blight?
Mr. Burgess: The pear blight is a bacterial disease. There is no known remedy.
Mr. Lunn: How is it communicated ?
Mr. Burgess: That is a difficult question to answer. It has been, and it is, a very difficult question to settle satisfactorily. It may be communicated by insects. I think some authorities have demonstrated that
under certain conditions it can be communicated by insects flying from one tree to another.
Mr. Seeley: I had a small elm tree that I set out in front of my house among other trees to fill a vacant space. The last two years I noticed a little knot come on the leaves, and after a while it resulted in the flying insect, and the idea came that if they stayed there I would spray them at the right time, and it would destroy them. The other elm trees around the house are not affected that way.
Mr. Burgess: The insect which you referred to I presume is a gall insect, a small four-winged fly, which deposits an egg inside of the tissue, and when it hatches, the growth is stimulated. Spraying would not be effective in that case.
Mr. Seeley: How about taking them off ; pruning them off ?
Mr. Burgess: If you could send me some samples next summer, 1 would be glad to determine the insect for you.
Mr. Hope, Meigs county: I have quite a large apple orchard, and I would like to ask you about spraying, please. I understand you to say, spray the first time after the blossoms drop. Is that correct, the first time?
Mr. Burgess: Are you troubled with apple scab on your trees?
Mr. Hope: I don't think we are. I am not posted enough to know all of the names and qualities of the insects.
Mr. Burgess: Under your conditions I would recommend that you spray with bordeaux mixture early, before the buds burst, then give a spraying with bordeaux mixture and arsenate of lead as soon as the blossoms fall; the third spraying a week or ten days after. And if you are going to omit any spraying for the codling moth, don't omit the last one in July.
A member: I would like to ask if trees which are threatened with this blight, and are about to be destroyed by this blight, if you would recommend digging them up.
Mr. Burgess: I would recommend digging them up, but I don't think I would want to set trees in their place right away. I would rather put them somewhere else, and not immediately transplant.
Mr. D. T. Blackburn, Scioto county: In our section we are troubled by the peach borer, commonly called. Have you some remedy? It works on the apple.
Mr. Burgess: Did I understand you to say the peach borer works on the apple? Are you not confounding the peach borer with the apple borer?
Mr. Blackburn: No, sir; they are there, and they both work there in our section.
Mr. Burgess: For the peach borer, the best remedy that has been tried is to take out the borers and kill them, or to thrust a wire into the burrow and crush the worms, although some growers have found that where the line and sulfur wash was used it seemed to deter the adults from depositing their eggs. Now, the same thing might apply to the apple borer. I am not entirely convinced as to the identity of the two species. If you could send me some samples, I would like to have them very much.
The President: What is your treatment of the tree after you remove the borer?
Mr. Burgess: It is well enough to bind the tree up if you could put some clay and bind it around the wound so it would hold. That would be satisfactory. A great many do not do anything more than to pick out the borers.
Mr. U. T. Cox, Lawrence county: I understood you to say that arsenate of lead would not injure the foliage. If I remember, Professor Green has said that he had some trouble in using it. When four or five applications are made, it seems that it injures the leaves and makes them fall.
- Mr. Burgess: Didn't he use bordeaux inixture with the arsenate of lead?
Mr. Cox: I guess he did.
Mr. Burgess: If arsenate of lead is used it will not burn the leaves, if the aresnate is used alone without the bordeaux mixture.
Mr. Lowell Roudebush, Clermont county: I have made a few experiments in using arsenate of lead or disparene at the rate of ten pounds to fifty gallons, or one pound to five gallons, and where used alone I have never found any injurious effects on the foliage, and I would agree with Mr. Burgess that either the arsenate of lead was home made or that it was used in connection with the bordeaux mixture, one or the other.
Mr. Peters, Pickaway county: I would like to ask Mr. Burgess if he has any experience in spraying with soda solution instead of the bordeaux mixture? It is something similar to the bordeaux, using blue vitriol and soda. Did you ever have any experience ?
Mr. Burgess: I have never had any experience with that. In regard to advertised remedies, I would like to say just one word, and that is, fruit growers should be cautious and adopt them only after they have been tested, and I might add something which I said at a recent meeting of the State Horticultural Society, at Chillicothe, concerning “Con-Sol,” remedy for San Jose scale. It has been widely advertised throughout this state, and the eastern states, and in the eastern states, especially, there has been a great deal of it sold. I learned two weeks ago that it is claimed to be a concentrated solution of lime and sulfur wash. 1 learned, as I say, that it had been tested by the chemists of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, and that it is what it is claimed to be. But it has been tested in the orchards and found that in order to be