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effective for killing scale you must use one part of the solution to four parts of water. Solution costs one dollar a gallon. That is, every gallon of wash that you use would cost you twenty-five cents. - The manufacturer represents that it will be effective for use at the rate of one gallon of solution to forty gallons of water, which would make a very cheap remedy. I just make this suggestion in case any of you are thinking of trying this remedy. I would not advise it.
Mr. Peters: I would also like to ask if there is any objection to the first spraying being made when the trees are in full bloom, instead of just. after the bloom has fallen?
Mr. Burgess: Well, there is a question in regard to poisoning the bees, and there is some little difference of opinion in regard to that. I, personally, would wait until the blossoms have fallen. Of course, in spraying a large orchard it often occurs that some varieties have dropped their blossoms while others are in full bloonil, and that makes it difficult to spray when they have all dropped their blossoms, but I should prefer to wait until the bloom has fallen.
Mr. Peters: I have not a very large orchard at home, and we have been spraying for several years, and Mr. Stahl, of Quincy, Illinois, has recommended spraying while they are in full bloom. I have done it and had excellent results from it.
Mr. Burgess: You have not injured your fruit, Mr. Peters?
Mr. Peters: No, sir; in fact, I am about the only man around who has had very good fruit.
Mr. Cox, of Lawrence county: I would rather not spray while they are in bloom, but before they bloom, with the bordeaux mixture, and while I am about it I always put in some form of arsenic, to be sure to kill caterpillars that are eating the foliage. In regard to spraying, while they are in bloom, it may kill the blossoms to some extent, and it will knock off a great many of the blossoms. There have been experiments made by a great many of the experiment stations along that line, and in case the tree buds very full, and sets too large quantity of fruit, it will thin the fruit for you. If a man does not spray at all the apple scab will come along and thin them enough.
Mr. Dunlap, of Pickaway county: I would like to ask whether pear blight is more prevalent in rapid growing pear trees on cultivated land, oi on land that is not so much cultivated ?
Mr. Burgess: I don't know as I could give data as to that. I don't think I have any particular information on that phase of the subject.
Mr. Hinsdale, of Medina county: In the north end of the state we have had a good deal of trouble with twig blight in our apple orchards. Is that identical with pear blight? Is there any remedy for it?
Mr. Burgess: It is the same thing as pear blight, and the only remedy is to cut out the twigs as far as you can.
Mr. Peters, Franklin county: I would like to ask as to what kind of soil is the best for pear trees?
Mr. Burgess: Well, I don't know as I could give you a definite answer to that. In the northern part of the state where nursery stock is grown, I know they raise most excellent pear stock on heavy clay soil.
Mr. McDaniels, Franklin county: Speaking of the blight, I think it is not altogether fatal. Last summer, in my neigliborhood, I noticed a great many of the thistles and a great many of the weeds blighted. Something I never noticed before.
Mr. A. H. Judy, Darke county: I would just say that the United States Experiment Station has given tests along that line of the quality of the soil, and the accompanying effects of it upon the blight, and they. find that the poor soil is less inductive to blight than the rich soil. That shows that sometimes when we try to make our trees grow, we are harming them more than we are helping them.
Dr. Chamberlain: I don't like to have this association go on record as favoring spraying during blossoming time. The records and testimony of almost all scientific men show that you had better not do it. It does kill bees, and kill them badly, and I like to have my neighbor's bees help to fertilize my orchard. Another objection is that it does not do the work as good. I want the blossom fallen, and the apple with the calyx up ready to receive the poison, when it will do the most good, attendant with least harm. I don't believe in spraying while the blossoms are still on the tree. I like it better afterwards.
Music by the Cecilian Ladies' Quartette.
The President: The next subject is one which, while of general interest, will be more especially so to those who are interested in horses. The paper will be presented by one of our prosperous young farmers from Pickaway county. The people of that district have been delighted to place him in high honor, and we all know that during last year, as a member of the General Assembly, he did much to help forward that which was of general advantage to the farmers of the state. I take pleasure in introducing to you Senator R. W. Dunlap, who will speak on the subject, “The Modern Draft Horse."
ADDRESS BY R. W. DUNLAP.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:
I am not surprised that this subject is on the program for discussion, because the draft horse of today is a profitable animal. A few years ago he was not a profitable animal and we did not care to discuss him; he was not really worth talking about. No other horse was worth talking about. We were about as much disgusted with the horse a few years ago as the little boy was who had A gray mare to take care of. He found that it got rather monotonous to attend
to the old mare every night and morning. And one day he heard his father talking to his mother about a cofferdam. Well, he wanted to know of his father whether cofferdam was a swear word. His father said "No," and he went on to explain what it was. Then the boy said, “If cofferdam is not a swear word, I wish the old gray mare would cough her damn head off.”
Today, it is different, and we always like to talk about those things in which there is profit, and I believe we can spend a long time this morning in discussing what the draft horse is, and should be, perhaps.
A question would naturally arise in your mind, Is the modern draft horse any different from the ancient draft horse, or the draft horse of a few years ago? To answer this question we have only to inquire what was the draft horse of former years. I am yet young, but old enough to remember the time when the draft horse was not of the same make-up, conformation or type as the draft horse of today. An animal called a draft horse a few years past could not properly be called a draft horse now. A short time ago any horse that would weigh fourteen or fifteen pounds, awkward, big headed, lazy and good for no particular work, was classed as a draft horse by the laymen, and today in many places in Ohio this same notion prevails. Many men say, “I have a good draft horse, but cannot get those good prices I hear of and read about. I do not think raising draft horses pays, hence I will abandon the business and try something else." We have all heard such expressions. If we will become acquainted with the animals such men raise and force upon the market, we will find that they are not draft horses, neither are they road or coach horses, but quite likely a lot of misfits that belong to no particular class, and for which there is no market. Should not the farmer learn to produce that which the people want, what the market demands? What would you think of a merchant stocking up with a lot of inferior low-grade articles for which there was no market? I think you would consider him unwise and would say that he would certainly fail if he continued that practice. It is not difficult for us to recognize the folly of the merchant keeping articles for which there is no demand, but it is almost impossible to get some farmers to admit that it is just as unwise and unprofitable to keep unmarketable horses. There · may be some excuse for certain farmers raising what is known as the “general purpose horse," or the horse weighing 1,200 to 1,400 pounds, with no particular characteristics about him, and for which there is no popular demand.
I say there may be need for such a horse on some farms where the owner has the heart to use the same animal to draw the breaking plow, the harrow, the corn planter and the binder and mower six days in the week, and the buggy and carriage at night and on the seventh, where he does not object to working an animal all day at heavy work at which every minute of the time the animal must exert its full strength to accomplish its master's desire, or in case he enjoys taking the dust of every other driver on the road and likes to ride early Sunday morning in order to have plenty of time to get to church, and if he is willing to take a low price for the animal when he places it upon the market. I say under these circumstances, where we breed and raise horses to wear out on the farm, and don't mind wearing ourselves out at the same time, this horse may have a place. If, on the other hand, the owner prefers a horse that can draw the plow ten or twelve hours each day without exerting his full strength each moment of that time, and a kind that takes only four to do the same amount of work that five or six smaller ones would do, and do it easier to the animals and owner as well, the kind that the other fellow always wants and for which he is always willing to pay a very liberal price, the kind that does not take much, if any, more food to produce, he must in this case
abandon the misfit and seek to produce the draft horse of as near the modern type as is possible.
It might be well to describe at this time what should be the conformation of the modern draft horse. I suppose all of you have attended our State Fair and seen these modern draft horses on exhibition. If you have spent some time in the horse ring, you have observed that the up-to-date draft borse is one that stands close to the ground with short legs and broad base. The feet are well apart, with space enough for another foot of the same size to be placed between them. The back of this animal will be somewhat shorter than that of the speed horse. It is with the hind legs that he propels himself, and thus it can be easily seen that since the collar is on the shoulder the whole weight of the load is drawn by the back. Therefore, it must be short, broad and well muscled. The shoulder of this horse is long, well-shaped, so as to give a good base to the collar. It should be more nearly perpendicular than that of the speed horse. However, sloping shoulders are often found in our best draft horses. The hocks of this horse will show rather a narrow angle because it is by this that a greater leverage is given and he is able to move heavy loads.
The body is massive, low set, ample, very muscular and cylindrical. He will have solid, large and broad bones and limbs, and the limbs well-formed and properly placed under his body. He will have large, healthy, well-formed hoofs, heels well separated, frog strong, healthy and quite hard, good physiognomy, plenty of style and action, ardor and endurance. He must have a short, rather straight pastern in order to do the heavy work required of him. His weight should be in the neighborhood of a ton. If he weighs a little more or a little less, but is good otherwise, he will not be long without an owner.
You ask what breed this animal should be. I say that he can be of any. draft breed. Each has special characteristics which commend it to the admirers of different breeds. It is not necessary at this time to favor one and condemn the others, for all breeds sell alike when the animals are of the right kind.
It is quite easy to describe the animal we would like to produce, but to produce him is another thing. The question is, Why are there not more good horses on the market today? Is it because the service fees of good stallions are too high? This may be the reason, and I believe it is in many instances. I think many times the stallion owners are responsible for so many inferior horses. Often the fee asked is more than the average farmer with the average mare feels he can afford to pay. What should the fee be? This I cannot answer. In one locality where good draft mares are found a fee of $20 for the service of a good registered draft stallion to insure a living colt would be considered right and proper, while in another locality, where inferior mares are kept and farming is not so profitable, it would be considered too high. Quite often the service fee is more than $20 and a good colt is not insured. This price very often . is the cause of owners of good mares breeding to inferior animals and getting poor colts. I think many times stallion owners are in too big a hurry to get back the high purchase price which they are compelled to pay for the stallion, and they take what is considered a short cut and charge quite a high fee.
Would it not be more profitable to the owner of the stallion (no doubt it, would be to the owner of the mare and better for the community) if a smaller fee were asked? I am inclined to think the increased patronage would in very many communities pay for the horse sooner. A word more for the stallion. I find that most of our better stallions throughout the state are sold by the im. porter or breeder to companies organized by an agent of the importer or breeder. This very often is unsatisfactory to all concerned. Each member of that com
pany too often thinks just how the horse should be managed and if it is not handled his way he thinks it wrong, and if the horse does not pay a big dividend the first year, trouble arises that never grows less. Most stallions sold by importers .carry a large amount of fat. They are in the very best condition possible to get them to show well. If they have any defects in the conformation of the body, it is usually covered by fat. Fat will cover defects in horses about as well as in cattle. These stallions very often fall into hands that do not understand changing the stallion from a show animal to a breeding animal, and the consequence is he is often worthless the first year and sometimes the second, and occasionally is never of any value. In choosing a sire to produce a modern draft horse, I would much prefer the one that has been in service a few years to the one fresh from the importer. I would prefer the stallion which has had moderate work throughout the year when not on the stand, and is in moderate flesh, to the one that has been housed the whole year and is covered with fat. The colt is larger and stronger from the former than from the latter, and is almost sure to make a better horse. The exact conformation of the stallion I would use to produce the modern draft horse would depend somewhat upon the mare I had to breed. If I had a rather long-limbed, long-coupled dam, I would choose a sire the reverse; that is, one short-limbed and well coupled. We must not forget, as so many are prone to do, that the dam is just as important, if not more important, a factor in producing a good horse as the sire. We can not, as many hope to do, breed any kind of a broken down, crippled and diseased mare of any or no breed to even a grand champion draft stallion and get a horse that will top the market. We must remember that like produces like, and a defect is almost sure to be transmitted to the young. If not . noticed in the first cross, it may crop out in some future one.
To get the best, let us select the mare that has size, quality and is sound in every respect.
The high service fee and inferior stallions may be the cause of many worthless horses, but the mares of Ohio are certainly responsible for many, many more. It is a lamentable fact that Ohio has comparatively few good draft mares, mares suitable to produce the modern draft gelding, such as our big packers, brewers, merchants and others are more than willing to buy at long prices. If we can only devise some means to rapidly improve our mares, we would soon have good horses in Ohio, as we have good cattle, sheep and hogs. To be sure, it costs more to produce good horses than it does to produce good cattle, sheep and hogs, but I am sure the profit is greater and we are well repaid for the extra expense and effort.
Before bringing this paper to a close, and perhaps it might be of interest and benefit as well, I will call your attention in as short a time as possible, to a few measurements that are usually uniform in most all the well-conformed draft horses. I am well aware that a person can not become an expert judge by the facts I am going to present, or by any amount of study or book knowledge he may acquire; nothing will take the place of artistic instinct and actual practice in judging animal conformation. However, I do believe that there are some elementary principles which can be readily learned that will greatly aid the artistic instinct, and greatly help in obtaining practical experience in judging. To show the possibilities of good results in this study, I wish to call your attention to some measurements made by Mr. J. B. Crabb, of our Ohio State University, in the measurements of forty-six horses, mostly three-year-old stallions. He compared the head to other parts of the body, and found results as follows: