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Number of horses measured........
... 66.04 2.47 Height at croup ........................ 66.62 2.48 From point of shoulder to quarter.....
69.75 2.61 From lowest point of chest to ground.
34.08 Circumference of arm ................
22.7 Circumference of cannon at center.....
10.16 .38 Circumference of foot at coronet....
18.83 Length of head ..
26.71 1.00 Width of forehead..
8.17 .30 Width of chest.....
20.93 Width across hips.............
86.24 3.23 Length of croup .............
24.5 .91 Dorsal angle of scapula to hip..
30.9 1.15 Length of shoulder...
......... 27.3 1.02 We must remember that like produces like, and any defect is almost sure to be transmitted, and if not noticed in the first generation it will crop out in some future generation, and it is no uncommon thing for certain characteristics to be carried along in the blood for ten generations or more and finally develop.
We should not follow fads too far. In other words, we should not sacrifice quality for something of much less importance in order to produce an animal that might, in a few cases, command a higher price. I believe sometimes we sacrifice quality for quantity; that is, we will do everything to get size and neglect other things of greater importance. It is also a fact that some breeders have preferred to breed to a horse of a certain color, of less quality, than to a horse of another color of the same breed. To be sure, I always like a horse of a good solid color, but I do not think it proper to sacrifice quality to produce an animal of no better color, but perhaps for the time being, a little more stylish. We should in the draft horse business profit from the breeder of the road or race horse and the cattle breeder, for we can always see the other fellow's faults sooner than our own..
To succeed in the draft horse business, as in any other, it is necessary to devote some time and study to it. Think how many farmers of today are raising horses that, if sold, would hardly pay for a year's keep. Those farmers, I venture to say, do not lose much sleep in studying the market, do not spend much time in attending farmers' institutes, and pay no attention whatever to the conformation of horses for different purposes.
The man in the draft horse business who studies the market as well as the horse and seeks to produce that which the market demands, has succeeded in the past, is succeeding at present and I believe will succeed in the future.
Mr. Frank Blackford, of Preble county: It is very much like a bachelor discussing children for me to discuss this question this morning, and yet it comes to me: Is the two thousand-pound horse the horse we want on our farms? Now, I question that. I question whether the
proposition, as given by the Senator, is the one which will meet the approbation, and meet the needs of the requirements of the ordinary farmer. I know we have horses in our territory that are just horses, and yet they accomplish more work, they stand up to the work better, and they are easier kept to do the work. In other words, they move easily, and don't consume a great deal of the energy in moving themselves as the two thousand-pound horse does. I question whether the two thousand-pound horse is the horse for the country. I question whether he is the horse for the farm, and the one that would be of the most use to us.
Senator Dunlap: Now, we always expect such talk. And we like to be prepared for it. I have been thinking about this for a whole weekhow to answer that question. I think I said in my paper that we should not sacrifice quality for quantity, but if a man gets just as good quality in a two thousand-pound horse as he gets in a fourteen-hundred pound horse, we are way ahead, because if we put the horse on the market we can get twice as much for it. There is a great difference in horses, in all animals, not excepting man. And one horse of a certain weight may do a great deal of work, or a certain amount of work, while another horse of a certain weight may do a great deal more work. I remember having on my farm a draft horse that weighed something like seventeen hundred pounds. I know that mare could do more work than any of the others on my farm. She had the vim and vigor. She was the kind that when she would move away from you, you could see the frogs of her four feet. Of course, if we have the big ones that drag around, they will break down more corn than they are worth. We want the kind that have the vim and vigor to them.
A member: I am no horse breeder, and do not know anything about it in a systematic way, but since the question has been spoken of by the member, I wish to say that on my farm I have one team of large mares. In ordinary work flesh they will weigh seventeen hundred pounds. Then I have another team that in ordinary work flesh will weigh about thirteen hundred pounds. They all have a bit of draft blood in them, especially the large mares. And we found this, that while we think the large animals are well built for strength and, in following the description of the gentleman, they fit pretty well the description that he makes. In a general way, we find this in the use of those two teams on the farm: In extremely warm weather the lighter horses are much more able to stand the heat, and when we put those teams on the plowed ground it seems as though the heavy horses wear so much more than the lighter horses. Of course, we believe when we have anything heavy to pull on solid ground, we find the heavy team is better than the lighter team for that work.
Mr. Worthy, of Licking county:. I happento have a team something similar to the team this gentleinan describes. I want to say that there is one thing about a draft horse, many are spoiled in the breaking. You take a big, heavy colt, and start him by the slowest horse you have, and when you have him broken you have a slow horse. Put him beside a fast walker, and gradually harden him up, and you will find that you do not have one of those sluggish horses. We have a team that weighs sixteen hundred pounds. I don't think there is a team in that section of the country where I live that will go the rounds they do with the plow. They don't rip around, but they go right around. Two years ago my son was hauling wheat. A gentleman from town was hauling wheat over the same route. Some of it was hard, and some was rough road. I asked this gentleman how much he was hauling. He said he had fifty-five bushels, and he would not haul that much again, and my son never hauled less than eighty or one hundred bushels at a time. We feed them just the same as we feed our other horses. As to breaking down corn, we did not have any trouble. I used to have this idea that a horse should be this way, so he could get up and go. I was in the cavalry three years, and I find the colts of that kind are always in demand. And I believe if we follow the gentleman's advice, and not be too particular about the feeding, and get something good, there is something in it for us.
Mr. P. Z. Blue, of Henry county: I would just say that I am a great lover of horses, and of heavy draft horses, and I agree with Brother Dunlap. I have horses that run all the way from fifteen hundred to seventeen hundred apiece, and my boys this summer would go into a corn field seventy rods long, and they would plow through an eighteen acre field every day; get on their plows, and when supper time came they had those eighteen acres through nicely, and when we go to counting up we find that we have all the corn on that gound we wanted. We take lighter teams, and I can't see any difference, so far as putting them on the plowed ground. And my Brother Dunlap, if they are built right, and are the right kind of horses, I don't care how big they are. When you go to sell them, they are the horses to bring the money; you can't get them too big.
Mr. A. H. Judy, of Darke county: If I get the drift of this, we are not discussing the foreign horse, we are discussing the draft horse for market. And the fact that all have agreed that big horses leave the farm and go into the markets and into the cities condenms them for farm use. If they are better for farm use than for city use, they would be kept on the farm; but that does not discount their worth as a source of profit at all. The draft horse in discussion, to my idea, is the horse for those to raise that want to raise horses on a farm to make money out of by selling. Now, my experience is this, that if we want to run a pump possibly a one and one-half or two-horse power engine is sufficient, but if we want to run a modern separator we want a twenty-horse power
engine. Now, it is the business that you want to apply your power to that will determine what kind of power you want. I don't see any need of the four thousand-pound team on the farm.
Mr. Callum, of Warren county: I would like to ask the Senator two questions: How niany misfits are there usually in breeding the draft horse? Second, does the draft horse have heart room compared to the ordinary horse of today?
Senator Dunlap: To the first question I would say, of course, there are as many misfits on the draft horse business as any other business.
Mr. Callum: What is the per cent.?
Senator Dunlap: I could not tell exactly the per cent. It would depend on the breeder. I think the modern draft horse has as much heart room as the scrub, and a good deal more, as the measurements that we have here, and other measurements I have looked up, would indicate.
Mr. Reuben Rankin, of Fayette: That brings to my mind a question that I thought of asking Mr. Dunlap. In the measurements that he speaks of there, the experiments, what was the observation with reference to the excessively large head, or the sinaller measurements in proportion to the great; what was the observation?
Senator Dunlap: Well, I have the figures in another place, and I don't happen to have them in my paper here. If you care to look at it closely you can see the measurement of each and every horse of those forty-three that were measured. I don't remember what those different measurements were, but in a general way, the big headed horse might be well proportioned otherwise, but the small headed horse might be proportioned otherwise.
Dr. W. I. Chamberlain: There is lots of difference in men. We have all noticed that a man with a big head is very well proportionea otherwise.
The President: The noon hour is here. Now, we have an announcement or two to make. By the direction of your worthy secretary, W. W. Miller, I make the announcement: Professor C. G. Hopkins, of the University of Illinois, has the second address on our program this afternoon. The secretary informs me that, on account of his failure to make his train in Cincinnati, Professor Hopkins cannot reach here until 4:05 this afternoon. He also tells me that this is the only hour that he can give us, so that all of the exercises of the afternoon will be expected to come before that hour. Although it will be quite late, if we wish to take advantage of the professor's address, we will have to remain until after 4:05. We will now recess.
AFTERNOON SESSION, January 10, 1904. The Institute was called to order by the President at 1:30 p. m. Music by the Cecilian Ladies' Quartette.
The President: It is in order now to appoint two committees to report the first thing tomorrow afternoon at 2 o'clock. The Committee on Resolutions will be: Dr. W. I. Chamberlain, George E. Scott and Lowell Roudebush.
The Committee on Nominations: Senator R. W. Dunlap, J. E. Strope.
Please to allow me to announce once more that Professor Hopkins, of the University of Illinois, who was to speak the second place on the program this afternoon, cannot be here until 4:05 this evening. We are confident that he will be here at that time. Secretary Miller so informs me. We will be well repaid when we hear the professor. One hour is the only time he can be with us. We will expect him a little after 4 o'clock. We should all remain to hear his discussion. The other persons on the program will come before that hour with their parts.
We have with us this afternoon a man who in his experience has been accounted among the best authorities of any who have practiced stock raising in Onio. I have been at his home, and it is a place where I delight to go. His name is John M. Jamison, of Roxabell, who will speak to us on the subject of lamb feeding. I would ask that, as Mr. Jamison proceeds with the paper, if you have any questions to please write them plainly, hand them in to me, and he will answer them at the close of his address. Most of you understand why I make the request, his hearing is defective.
I now have the pleasure of introducing to you Mr. John M. Jamison, of Roxabell, Ohio, who will speak to us on the subject of "Lamb Feeding.” (Applause.)
ADDRESS BY JOHN M. JAMISON.
Before the farmer or speculating feeder stocks up with lambs, the supply of feed should be in hand, or at least a sufficient quantity to make the undertaking a safe one.
In this paper I shall speak of the kinds of feed I am familiar with in southern central Ohio. To meet with the best success it is only necessary to have what can be grown on the farm-clover and alfalfa hay-one or both, although the latter is preferable-corn, and the weighage it gives as fodder, or stover, or silage. Good bright clover chaff threshed without rain, comes in excellent play as part feed, stored in racks in the lots and covered to keep dry. With silage I have had no experience, but I have no doubt but that it is an excellent feed when fed in connection with clover or alfalfa hay. Roots, mangels and turnips I found excellent feed, but abandoned their use on account of the labor required to produce, care for and feed them.