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wealth, culture and enterprise far surpasses Russia proper. Rye is the largest cereal crop, being the chief breadstuff of the country.

In good seasons Russia exports about one hundred million bushels of wheat, supplying three-fourths of the export crop to Europe. The other important agricultural products are flax and hemp, tobacco, potatoes and beet root. The beet industry supplies the entire sugar demand of the empire and furnishes enormous amounts for exports to all countries bordering on the Black Sea. Under a minister of instruction much attention is being given to public schools. The present aim is to provide the country with a sufficient number of rural schools for all. No compulsory laws are needed to force the children to attend school.

On our way home we visited Austria, Bohemia, Germany, Holland and England. Each country, like the others mentioned, has its own peculiarities, in climate, beauties, customs, advantages, and disadvantages. Where do we find everything perfect or all the best surroundings to carry on agricultural pursuits ? Considering all things, I think our own country, our own state, our own section, has more advantages and less to contend with than any other country of which I know.



[Read at the Farmers' Institute held at Castalia, Erie County, January 16

and 17, 1905.)

In the early days of our country's history, when the persecuted and down-trodden from every nation and every clime came rushing to the unsettled shores of our now glorious union, so long ago as when the sound of the Indians' war whoop and the howling of the wolves were heard at every cabin door from the rocky coasts of Maine to the fertile valleys of California, yes, even then the word America stood for opportunity. Every hope, every ambition, every cherished thought that had swayed the minds and hearts of men for centuries was to be realized in the one word, America.

Little did the early settlers think three hundred years ago when they were laying in blood the foundation of a country destined by Almighty God to be the mightiest one on earth that in the genrations to come opportunity would still be the watchword that should lead millions to its shores.

When Columbus braved the dangers of an unknown sea he did far more than discover a new world; he paved the way to freedom; he left the world a heritage as enduring as the ocean that he crossed. For years and years the Puritans longed for a home where they might have religious freedom; the same longing fired the enthusiasm of the Pennsylvania Quakers, and of the Maryland Catholics; a desire for riches brought over the settlers of Virginia; a desire to find a land where the poor are not persecuted for their debts brought to Georgia the followers of Oglethorpe. Some came to find a home where they might worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience; some came to get rich; others came merely for the love of adventure, but all came to realize their ambitions, to broaden their lives, to found homes for themselves and their posterity in a land destined to become a leader among the nations, the fairest of countries under God's blue dome.

As we look about us and think of the wonderful inventions made during modern times and as we marvel at the rapid march of civilization, we cannot help but take a backward look to compare the present with the past, to contrast as it were, the lives we lead today surrounded by all the blessings of man's ingenuity and skill with the lives of our ancestors a half century ago.

Very truthfully has it been written by a recent writer that "nothing in this world worth having is won for the asking; and the best is fought for, and bled for, and died for."

Now the question to which I would call your attention today is: Do we appreciate these blessings of life and liberty for which our ancestors fought, and bled, and died? Or do we simply take it for granted that this age is the grandest in the world's history without stopping to realize how much of sacrifice and privation these blessings cost? Are we utilizing our advantages and opportunities to self-improvement and are we being benefited by them to the best of our ability?

One of the poets has beautifully said:

“Heaven is not reached by a single bound,

But we build the ladder by which we rise

From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies,
Mounting its summit round by round.”

The founders of this nation did not build it in a day, nor in a year, nor in many years; the pilgrim fathers, the quakers, the cavaliers, and the thousands of earnest, conscientious pioneers who followed did not by the privations and sacrifices of a few generations give to the world America. Slowly, but surely, step by step, has civilization been marching on until the twentieth century has been brought to behold with admiration the crowning events which are transforming this world.

And now let us compare for a while the present age, the one in which we live, with the age just passed, and then let us decide if we really appreciate our wonderful advantages. It has been the rare good fortune of the majority of those in this audience to have been born and raised in the country. It is here in the country, perhaps, more than any other place, where some of the best opportunities are afforded us to study progression in many different lines. So allow me for a few moments to draw you two pictures. The first is the farm home of an early pioneer, the second, that of his grandchild in the year 1905.

The pioneer's home is undoubtedly a house of logs. By much hard labor on the part of father and sons it has been made warm enough to live in. On entering its door the first thing that attracts our attention is the famous old fireplace which is used not only as a means of heating the house, but in it most of the cooking is accomplished.. Would it not seem strange if the housewife of today were compelled to do her cooking in a fireplace and her baking in a brick oven instead of having the elegant steel range to be seen in nearly every farmer's home?

As we go through the house from room to room how few things of comfort we find. In fact comfort to the pioneer is a secondary consideration, for there is always so much work to be done. Work, work, everywhere-no time for idle hands in that household. In the corner opposite the window stands the spinning wheel and from early dawn till set of sun can its music be heard. And then there is the knitting. Is it possible for us to picture that old-time grandmother in her easy chair without her having her knitting work near by?

In that home so long ago we find few kinds of machinery to lighten labor; everything accomplished by hand. No sewing machines to help the mother in making the clothes for the entire family. How few ornaments we find in those

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rooms. No pretty pictures adorn the walls, and musical instruments such as are so common today were things then unheard of. No beautiful books and attractive, magazines were then found on the sitting room table. In fact there was very little beauty anywhere, for beauty fifty years ago was an expensive luxury only to be afforded by the rich.

Perhaps next to the usefulness of the spinning wheel, or equal to it, was the gun with its shot pouch and powder flask which was always kept hanging over the fireplace. On arising in the morning how cautiously the early settler would take down his gun and then quietly creep to the door to see if skulking about was a deer, a bear, a wolf, or a fox. I might go on and on indefinitely recalling to our minds the things of interest to be found in that early home, but we will leave the house for a moment to take a glimpse at the farm.

Out upon the farm even more than in the house the lack of labor saving machinery is very noticeable. No self-binder assists the farmer to cut the grain that he planted by hand. When once the grain is harvested you all know perfectly well what it meant to thresh it with the flail, or with horse power.

And yet, with all their inconveniences, with all their hardships, and all their trials, how happy and contented were our ancestors. With what pleasure we love to meditate on those by.gone days, and how we still honor the memory of those poor but love-blessed homes. Oh, my friends, when we ponder the memory of our grandparents' home instinctively there come to our minds the words of that beautiful old song:

"How dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood

When fond recollection presents them to view;
The orchard, the meadow, the deep-tangled wild-wood,

And every loved spot which my infancy knew.
The wide spreading pond, and the mill that stood by it,

The bridge and the rock, where the cataract fell;
The cot of my father, the dairy house nigh it,

And e'en the rude bucket that hung in the well:
The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket,

The moss covered bucket, that hung in the well."

If we honor the memory of our ancestors for the patience they displayed in the performance of their daily labors, we reverence theni still more when in the evening those dear old people, surrounded by their children, would gather with common consent to return thanks to their God for His blessings.

And now in contrast to the pioneer's home is the average country home of the year 1905. Is it necessary to draw for you the picture of what is so familiar to us all? No longer is the farmer's life one of poverty and privation. Beauty and comfort surround him everywhere. Music and books and works of art are now to be found in nearly every well-to-do farmer's home. If there is any place where the influence of improved machinery, modern conveniences, and recent inventions is felt more than in any other place, it seems to me that it is in the country

So well distributed throughout the country are the electric street car lines, the telephone, and the free rural mail delivery, all of which are of recent growth, that we farmers do not live in the country any more, that is, the country as it used to be.

By means of the various street car systems education is brought almost to our very doors. When we consider how the pioneers' children had to walk perhaps miles through drifted snow, and brave the dangers of the forests, it is little wonder that their education was neglected, but for us of this age there is no excuse for neglecting education, and the question in my mind is do we fully appreciate our advantages in this line. Never before in the history of the United States have schools of all kinds been so numerous as they now are; never have books been so cheap; never have there been so many public libraries, and the day is surely coming when with the aid of pluck and ambition the sons and daughters of the poor shall stand on the same educational basis as the wealthier classes. In fact that time has nearly come now, for almost every state of our Union has in it such an institution of learning as will compare favorably with our own at Columbus where the price to obtain an education means simply a little more than the price of living.

How very strange it seems that with education as cheap as it is, and when we know the advantages to be derived from obtaining it, still we find occasionally parents who think it more profitable for their sons and daughters after they have reached the age of fifteen to spend the greater part of tou year with them upon the farm than to spend it in the school room. But the day of awakening will come when the great educational advantages of this age will be appreciated in the proper manner.

Time will not suffice for me to more than mention a few of the many blessings found along other lines with which this age is crowned.

In that beautiful old hymn, "Joy to the World,” so appropriate at the Christmas season, we find these words, "He makes the nations prove the wonders of His love.” With the principles and doctrines of Christianity instilled into the minds and hearts of the people by means of the church and Sunday school, and other Christian organizations, love for humanity was never taught and practiced so much as at the present time. In almost every city or town, and throughout the counties are the finest of charitable institutions and hospitals where, everyone is cared for in sickness regardless of his religion, his wealth, or his social rank. The remarkable surgical accomplishments and wonderful cures that are being effected every day are alone making this age one long to be remembered.

Again we may repeat it is love for humanity that is transforming this world. As long as the spirit of Christ's love such as was manifested by His life and teachings, shall dominate in our civilization, so long shall we be a prosperous nation. I believe it is because of a stronger foothold of that principle of love that we are today at peace with all the world. For forty years the angel of peace has joined in harmony the north and the south; and the same spirit of good will which has blessed us at home has honored our name abroad. When we think of those four terrible years of war through which our country passed forty years ago; when we think of the awful sorrow, suffering and death that have been experienced in the lands beyond the sea during the past year we thank God for peace.

We thank Him that the star spangled banner is waving in freedom without one star lost from its field of blue! My friends, before we part today let us decide that during the coming year, more than ever before in the past, we shall appreciate our blessings and advantages. Let us stamp improvement on the wings of time. Whether our work is in the school room, the office, the factory, the home, or on the farm, let us so live every day and every hour that when we who are now young shall be nearing the end of life's pilgrimage, our children shall honor us as we honor the memory of our ancestors, those faithful, true-hearted, conscientious pioneers who made it possible for us to enjoy the privileges and advantages of which they never even dreamed.


Organized June 5, 1900.

Incorporated December 5, 1900.


H. S. Pulse, Lynchburg, Highland County, Ohio, President,
Samuel Decker, Flatrock, Seneca County, Ohio, Vice President.
J. S. McGinnis, Richwood, Union County, Ohio, Secretary.

J. H. Montgomery, R. R. 3, Richwood, Union County, O., Treasurer.


H. S. Pulse,

J. S. McGinnis,

Samuel Decker.


H. S. Pulse, Lynchburg, Ohio.

W. W. Miller, Columbus, Ohio. D. S. Gaskill, Greenville, Ohio. J. A. Hubbell, Quincy, Ohio.

John Fippin, R. R. No. 2, Grove City, Ohio.

In presenting this brief report, in the preparation of which the utmost care has been taken, I have endeavored to meet the request for the history and growth of the Ohio State Protective Association. Few citizens of this great state of Ohio really appreciate the magnitude of this association, or realize how marvelously the volume of business has expanded as the growth of the organiza. tion has increased. Many otherwise well-informed people are unfamiliar with the workings of the Ohio State Protective Association, carried on in and through the local associations, and much of what I have written will doubtless be a revelation to the farmers and others interested in the subject of more and better protection against crime. The farmers need protection more than any other class. For many years prior to 1887 various anti-horsethief societies were organized in different localities throughout the state, and did excellent work; some of those societies exist today, while others have become incorporated and are members of the Ohio State Protective Association.

It was not until March 21, 1887 (0. L. v. 85, p. 169) that the legislature passed a law giving the association power to become a body corporate, and giving the members more power to pursue and arrest a criminal without a warrant, anywhere in the state; to return the person or persons to the place where the crime had been committed and there secure a warrant. At the very beginning the laws of the state somewhat limited the work of the associations. The Ohio State Protective Association formulated and presented to the legislature a law amending the one referred to above. I am pleased to record the fact that the law was amended and passed April 29, 1902 (0. L. v. 95, p. 298), as it was presented to the legislature; thus giving the association more power and widening its field of usefulness. The farmers of the entire country realize the dangers which have been wrought upon them by so much crime, as they never have before.

Farmers should so combine everywhere to establish and maintain local organizations against crime. You can be of mutual assistance and protection to each other and protection to others outside of your organization. An organization of this kind can accomplish great good, you can do so more effectually

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