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THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CHIEF INSPECTOR OF

NURSERIES AND ORCHARDS.

Ohio Department of Agriculture,
Division of Nursery and Orchard Inspection.

COLUMBUS, Ohio, December 31, 1904.

Hon. W. W. Miller, Secretary the Ohio State Board of Agriculture:

Sir:-I herewith transmit my third annual report, as Chief Inspector of Nurseries and Orchards, covering the operations of this division for the year 1904.

The work of this division continues to increase, and, as it is being carried out along several different lines, it will be considered under the following headings:

(a) Nursery Inspection.
(b) Orchard Inspection.
(c) Investigation of Insect Pests and Plant Diseases.
(d) Tests of Remedies.

(e) Publication. A list of the nurseries of the State follows this report, and also a list of the agents and dealers in nursery stock in Ohio, who have complied with the provisions of the law.

NURSERY INSPECTION.

Owing to the increase in the number of nurseries, and the proximity of some to orchards or cities that are infested with San Jose scale, more time has been spent in making the inspections this year than ever before, and considerable work has been done on nursery grounds during the fall packing season. In fact, nearly one-half of the work of the assistant inspectors has been in and around the nurseries.

Sixteen applications for nursery inspection were received and twenty-four certificates were issued from January i to June 1, 1904, eight of these having been held from the year 1903.

Applications received from June 1 to December 31, 1904..408
Certificates of inspection issued ........

....394
Certificates held for various reasons ...

.... 14

All nursery premises for which applications for inspections have been made during the year 1904 have been examined, making a total of iour hundred and thirty-four. These cover an estimated area of four thousand, seven hundred and forty-four acres of growing stock, and nearly two thousand acres of orchards. Sixty-five greenhouses were also inspected.

The following numbers of orchard trees and shrubs on nursery premises have been destroyed by the owners during the year, in acordance with the directions of this division:

Trees destroyed for San Jose scale ......
Shrubs destroyed for San Jose scale .......

16
Currants destroyed for San Jose scale....
Sprouts destroyed for San Jose scale .
Trees destroyed for peach yellows ....
Trees destroyed for black knot .......

95
Sprouts destroyed for black knot ...

... 98

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................................2,143

Total ......
Trees treated for black knot ......,

497

Nursery stock has been condemned and destroyed by the owners as follows: Trees infested with San Jose scale .....

..12,927 Trees infested with Putnam scale .....

12 Trees infested with scurfy scale ......

.. 472
Trees infested with oyster-shell scale .

131
Trees infested with woolly aphis ......
Shrubs infested with San Jose scale

39
Shrubs infested with oyster-shell scale ......

12 Trees infected by crown gall .....

.. 1,496

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Total .........................................15,627

In addition to the above, nearly ten acres of raspberry plants were treated in the spring of 1904 with whale oil soap mixture, in accordance with directions issued by this division, in order to destroy the rose scale, which was becoming abundant, and the results were satisfactory.

Many growers of small fruits have followed our advice and have destroyed their older patches of raspberries and blackberries, so that the plants offered for sale were taken only from young and vigorous stock. This has been very effective in decreasing the amount of anthracnose, which was found in less abundance than in former years, and, coupled with the treatment with Bordeaux mixture, which has been used in many cases at the suggestions of this division, plantations of this kind are, in the main, in vigorous condition.

Crown gall and woolly aphis have caused considerable injury in some sections, and thousands of affected trees have been thrown out at the time of digging the stock.

FUMIGATION.

During the year 1904, trees, shrubs, plants and vines have been fumigated with hydro-cyanic acid gas, in accordance with the directions of this division, as follows:

Trees (fruit and ornamental)

.......907,603 Shrubs (ornamental) .....

..... 62,779 Currants and gooseberries .............

.. 85,545 Plants (raspberries, blackberries, etc.) .... ......400,175 Vines (grapes, etc.) .......

............397,250

Total ......................................1,853,352

Fumigating houses continue to be built, and many of the smaller, as well as the larger, nurseries are equipped to treat their stock in this manner.

The attention of fruit growers is called to the provision in section 2 of the present law relative to granting official certificates of fumigation. Nurserymen will be provided with these on application, and, in all cases, the stock will be fumigated under the immediate supervision of an inspector from this office. The fact that occasionally an infested tree may escape one of the inspectors is a potent argument for the grower to plant only trees that are accompanied with an official certificate of fumigation. It remains, therefore, for growers to demand such certificates from the nurserymen if they desire the protection that is afforded thereby.

Five shipments of nursery stock, containing twenty-one thousand five hundred and nineteen trees and stocks, have been held by express and railroad companies for inspection; they were examined and found . free from insect pests and plant diseases and allowed to pass to their destinations.

Two shipments sent out from Ohio nurseries have been reported as containing four trees infested with San Jose scale, and two others have been found with trees containing grown gall. In another shipment containing nine infested trees, reported to have come from an Ohio nursery, it was found on investigation that a part of the shipment was grown in Ohio and the balance in Michigan, and it was impossible to determine the exact source of the infestation. Another shipment which was badly infested was delivered by an Ohio nurseryman in Ohio; the trees came from Kentucky, but they had been thoroughly fumigated and the scales were destroyed.

Nursery Agents and Dealers.

Previous to the passage of the present law, no requirements could be made to regulate these classes of business. Complaints were received that dealers were using the certificates of local nurserymen in an improper manner, and that agents were selling stock upon the pretense that it was grown by sonie reputable nursery, when, as a matter of fact, this was not the case.

The provisions of section 3 of the present law require agents and dealers to place on file in this division a sworn stateinent concerning the sources from which their stock is derived, also that it has been officially inspected. The packing grounds of dealers are made subject to inspection and twelve have already been examined this fall.

Agents selling stock for nurserymen within the state who have been granted certificates of inspection are exempt from filing this sworn statement, provided the stock is shipped direct from the nursery to the growers in the original packages. Although this is the case, a considerable number of agents for such nurseries have filed sworn statements, as will be noted in the list published in this report.

ORCHARD INSPECTION.

During the year of 1904, seventy-two petitions for orchard inspection have been received from the following counties: Adams, Ashtabula, Clermont, Crawford, Delaware, Erie, Franklin, Fulton, Geauga, Hancock, Highland, Huron, Lake, Lawrence, Montgomery, Ottawa, Portage, Putnam, Sandusky, Wayne and Wood. Seventy request inspection for San Jose scale and one each for canker worm and peach yellows.

During the year, two hundred and fifteen orchards and premises have been systematically inspected, which required a tree-by-tree examination, as follows:

Trees inspected .....
Shrubs inspected .......
Currants and gooseberries inspected ....
Sprouts inspected .........
Vines inspected .....

....188,733

2,532 .... 6,023 .... 62 .... 472

Total ........................................197,822

Thirty-nine thousand, four hundred and forty-seven feet of osage orange hedge have also been inspected.

During the year, trees and shrubs have been destroyed or treated, in accordance with the directions of this division, as follows:

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