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attention was called to the matter and an examination showed that the worms were the immature stage of a small fly, which, as far as can be determined, is a newly discovered insect.
The buds thus affected fail to develop berries and this makes the clusters irregular in form and causes considerable loss. An examination of many vineyards, both on the high- land and in the flat localities nearer the lake, showed that the insect was generally distributed throughout. In some cases nearly one-fifth of the clusters were infested, and as many as twenty-five affected buds were found in a single cluster. As the minute larvæ drop to the ground, and evidently complete their transformations in the soil, it is a difficult matter to rear them to the adult stage. From their structure, however, it is evident that they transform into tiny flies, which closely resemble adult Hessian flies.
No treatment for the control of this insect can be suggested at this time, but further investigations niay serve to discover a remedy. Mr. T. S. Clymonts, and several other progressive growers in this section, state that they have observed the work of this insect for several years, but believed it to be a stage of the grap berry moth.
This new pest was found in the Chautauqua grape belt in New York on June 12, 1904, by Mr. Fred Johnson, who was working on grape pests with Prof. Mark V. Slingerland, Entomologist to the Cornell Experiment Station. I am also informed by Dr. E. P. Felt, State Entomologist of New York, that he has found it in many vineyards this year.
The Elm Leaf Beetle. This insect was discovered in Dayton by Mr. George A. Runner, one of my assistants, while engaged in nursery inspection work in that vicinity. Specimens were received by nie August 30, but as they were in very poor condition a visit was made to Dayton early in September. Accompanied by Mr. Runner, an examination was made of the elm trees on the grounds of the National Cash Register Company, where the specimens had been obtained. Larvæ, pupa and adult beetles were also found on adjoining premises and on the grounds of the Montgomery County Agricultural Society. The managers were notified and they promised to do everything possible to check the pest. Later in September an examination of the city trees was begun. This resnlted in the insect being located in nearly all sections where elm trees had been planted. Observations made in many cities in the State have failed to reveal the presence of this insect, but it probably occurs in other localities.
It is not a native species, but was introduced into this country from Europe several years ago. In many cities and towns in Massachusetts, Connecticut and New York, the elm trees have been so severely attacked that it is necessary to spray them annually, in order to protect the foliage. Owing to the size that these trees grow, this is a difficult and expensive operation.
The beetle resembles very much the common striped cucumber beetle. It makes small holes in the leaves, which are often eaten to such an extent that very little remains except the veins. The larvæ, or immature form of this insect, feed upon the green tissue of the leaf, so that affected trees have a peculiar appearance, which is very characteristic. Feeding begins soon after the leaves appear in the spring and continues until late in the fall, and, as the insects are very prolific, serious damage may be done in a single season.
The European elm appears to be the favorite food plant of this pest, although many cases have been noticed where American elms have been seriously attacked.
The most successful reniedy, and the one almost universally used against this pest in the east, is to spray the trees early in the summer with disparene or arsenate of lead, using five pounds to fifty gallons of water. During the summer, the trunks and ground at the base of the trees often harbor many larvæ and pupa, and these may be destroyed by applying a weak solution of kerosene emulsion, whitewash, or whale oil soap mixture, used at the rate of one pound of soap to four gallons of water.
From the general distribution of this insect in Dayton, it is evident that energetic measures will have to be taken in the near future to protect the elms from this pest, as no tree is able to withstand continual defoliation. Trees in Dayton have been found completely stripped of leaves, and in one instance a second crop of leaves had started and was being devoured.
TESTS OF REMEDIES.
Many tests have been made during the past year for the control of insect pests and plant diseases. Among the principal ones may be mentioned, comparative sprayings with Paris green and disparene for the control of the codling moth, treatment with various modifications of the lime and sulphur wash for San Jose scale and other insects and numerous tests with hydro-cyanic acid gas.
Aside from the San Jose scale, the codling moth is the most serious insect pest with which the apple grower has to contend, and, although spraying has been recommended for years and is practiced by the more progressive growers, the question as to the best time of making treatments and the cheapest and most satisfactory poison to use still remains unsettled. Nearly four hundred trees were treated this year, but only a few of the results will be given in this report. The advantages of disparene over Paris green were manifest, and the necessity of making a spraying late in July for the control of the second brood of moths was demonstrated.
Treatment for San Jose scale consisted of applications of the lime and sulphur washes with various modifications, including the use of
caustic soda in their preparation. Over seven hundred trees, principally apple, were used in these experiments. The lime and sulphur wash made according to the following formula proved satisfactory on all kinds of trees: fifty pounds of stone lime and fifty pounds of sulphur boiled for one hour and diluted with water to make one hundred and fifty gallons of wash.
Equally good results were obtained whether hot or cold water was used to dilute the mixture, but it sprayed slightly better when the former was used. Our tests show that excellent results were obtained when both the amounts of lime and sulphur were reduced to thirty-seven and one-half pounds to make the same quantity of wash. These sprays were as effective for controlling the peach leaf curl as where salt or copper sulphate was added. Washes made by using suphur and caustic soda, and sulphur, lime and caustic soda were applied to apple and peach trees in April. Practically all the peach trees were killed by the severe winter so that no results were obtained from this part of the test. Some of the mixtures applied in the apple orchard gave promising results on October 21, the time of the last examination. Further trials will be made next spring. For the present the boiled lime and sulphur wash mentioned above is recommended.
Fumigation experiments have been made to test the effect of hydrocyanic acid gas on different kinds of scale insects, and also on several varieties of trees and shrubs. As the results cannot be determined until next summer no further statement is given at this time. The result of an experiment in treating a fruit storage house with this gas for destroying codling moth larvæ has been published in a separate paper.
Aside from numerous articles that have been written for the daily and agriculutral press, a number of bulletins and papers have been issued during the year. Bulletin No. 3, referred to in the following list, was prepared by Mr. Otto H. Swezey, one of the assistant inspectors of this division, and is technical rather than economic in character.
“Canker Worms in Ohio.”—(Bulletin No. 2, Division of Nursery and Orchard Inspection, Ohio Department of Agriculture.)
“A Preliminary Catalogue of the Described Species of the Family Fulgoridæ of North America North of Mexico.”—(Bulletin No. 3, Division of Nursery and Orchard Inspection, Ohio Department of Agriculture.)
“Nursery and Orchard Inspection in Ohio, 1904."—(Report of the Annual Meeting of the Ohio State Horticultural Society, at Chillicothe, Ohio, December 20-22, 1904.)
“The Fumigation of a Fruit House for Controlling the Codling Moth.”
"Some Economic Insects for the Year 1904."-(Report of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists, at Philadelphia, Pa., December 29-30, 1904.)
The writer would thankfully acknowledge his appreciation of the many courtesies extended by Professors Osborn, Lazenby and Davis, of the Ohio State University, of the co-operation extended by numerous fruit growers and nurserymen throughout the state, which has made possible many of the tests already mentioned, and the faithful and efficient work of the assistant inspectors of this division.
A. F. BURGESS, .
The Nursery and Orchard Inspection Law
of the State of Ohio.
SECTION 1, The Ohio State Board of Agriculture is hereby empowered and directed to make such regulations as may be deemed necessary for the control of dangerously injurious insect pests and plant diseases, and for the prevention of the spread of San Jose scale, peach yellows, black knot and any other dangerously injurious insect pests or plant diseases, which are hereby declared a public nuisance, and are liable to be transmitted on nursery stock. Said board is hereby authorized to establish a Division of Nursery and Orchard Inspection in the Ohio Department of Agriculture, and to appoint a competent Entomologist as the Chief Inspector of said division, and the necessary assistants, who shall, under the direction of the board have charge of the inspection of nurseries and orchards, as hereinafter provided; he may investigate, or cause to be investigated, outbreaks of dangerously injurious insect pests or plant diseases, and recommend suitable measures to be taken for their eradication or control; he is empowered to devise and test practical remedies for their suppression, and publish the results of these investigations and such other information as may be deemed necessary.
SEC. 2. Every nurseryman or other person in the State of Ohio who is engaged in growing trees, shrubs, plants and vines for sale, except such as are hereinafter specified, shall on or before the first day of July of each year place on file in the office of the Ohio Department of Agriculture an application for the inspection of his nursery stock and premises. Failure to file such application, or the disposal of uninspected stock, either by sale or gift, shall render the owner liable to the penalty provided for in section 8 of this act. The Chief Inspector shall examine, or cause to be examined, before September 15th of each year, or as often as may be deemed necessary by said board, the nurseries and premises of all parties whose applications for inspection have been filed. If upon such examination the nursery stock and premises appear to be free from San Jose scale, peach yellows, black knot and other dangerously injurious insect pests or plant diseases, a certificate of inspection shall be given to the owner or lessee stating the facts, and said certificate shall be issued before September 15th and shall be valid for one year from that date unless sooner revoked for cause. If any dangerously injurious insect pests or plant diseases are found on nursery stock or premises, the Chief Inspector shall order and enforce such treatment, as shall be deemed sufficient, before granting a certificate of in. spection. Upon the written request of the owner or lessee of any nursery premises that has been regularly inspected in accordance with the provisions of this section the said board, through the Chief Inspector, may issue a certificate of fumigation, provided that all the requirements of the said board have been complied with, and that the said fumigation shall be in accordance with the directions, and under the supervision, of an authorized Assistant Inspector appointed by said board. The provisions of this act shall not apply to greenhouse plants and cuttings thereof, bulbs, flowers and vegetable plants.
Sec. 3. Every agent, dealer or any other person, not engaged in growing trees, shrubs, plants or vines for sale, who sells or delivers such stock, shall before delivering the same annually place on file in the office of the Ohio Department of Agriculture a statement made under oath, before an officer qualified to administer oaths in the locality where he may reside, or if a non-resident of the state in the locality where the said stock is sold or delivered, that the said stock has been duly inspected and was received by him accompanied with a valid official certificate of inspection or fumigation. Said statement shall also designate the name of the grower or growers from which such stock was obtained and the name of the owner or owners of the certificate or certificates