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plicable temperature correction has been applied.

(e) Brix value. "Brix value” in con. centrated orange juice for manufacturing is the refractometric sucrose value determined in accordance with the "International Scale of Refractive Indices of Sucrose Solutions" and to which the applicable correction for acid is added (see Table I of this subpart for corrections). The measurement of Brix value is determined on the concentrate in accordance with the refractometric method for sugars and sugar products, outlined in the "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists."

(f) Brix value-acid ratio. The Brix value-acid ratio is the ratio of the Brix value of the concentrate in degrees Brix to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 grams of concentrate. TABLE IL CORRECTIONS FOR OBTAINING BRIS

VALUE Citric acid anhydrous

Correction to be added (percent by

to refractometer 84weight)

crose value to obtain

degree Brix value 2.0_

0.89 2.22.4....

.47 2.6---2.8.--.

. 54 3.0---

.58 3.2.

.62 8.4.

.66 3.6.

.70 3.8.

. 74 4.0.

. 78 4.2.

81 4.4. 4.6. 4.8

.99 5.0.

.97 1 Source: "Refractometric Determination of Soluble Solids in Citrus Juices," by J. W. Stevens and W. E. Baier, from the Analytical Edition of Industrial and Engineering ChemIstry, Vol. II, Page 447, August 15, 1939.

LOT COMPLIANCE $ 52.2230 Ascertaining the grade of a

lot. The grade of a lot of concentrated orange juice for manufacturing covered by these standards is determined by the procedures set forth in the Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification of Processed Fruits and Vegetables, Processed Products Thereof, and Certain Other Processed Food Products (88 52.1 to 52.87).

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1 Indicates limiting rule. Subpart-United States Standards for

Grades of Canned Concentrated Orange Juice SOURCE: $ $ 52.2251 to 52.2262 appear at 29 FR. 15360, Nov. 17, 1964, unless otherwise noted.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, STYLES, GRADES $ 52.2251 Product description.

Canned concentrated orange juice (or canned orange juice concentrate) is the product as defined in the standards of identity (21 CFR 27.110) issued pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. $ 52.2252 Styles.

(a) Without sweetener. The Brix value of the finished concentrate is not less than 41.8 degrees and shall be such that when reconstituted according to directions, the reconstituted juice tests not less than 11.8 degrees Brix.

(b) With sweetener. The Brix value of the finished concentrate is not less than 42.0 degrees and shall be such that, when diluted according to directions, the reconstituted juice contains not less than 11.8 percent, by weight, of soluble orange solids.

number of points that may be given such factors are: Factors:

Points Color

40 Defects

20 Flavor

40

$ 52.2253 Grades.

(a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy") is the quality of canned concentrated orange juice that reconstitutes properly and of which the reconstituted juice: (1) has an appearance reasonably characteristi of fresh orange juice, (2) has a very good color, (3) is practically free from defects, (4) possesses a good flavor, and (5) scores not less than 90 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(b) “U.S. Grade C.” (or “U.S. Standard") is the quality of canned concentrated orange juice that reconstitutes properly and of which the reconstituted juice: (1) has a fairly good color, (2) is fairly free from defects, (3) possesses & fairly good flavor, and (4) scores not less than 80 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(c) "Substandard" is the quality of canned concentrated orange juice that fails to meet the requirements of U.S. Grade C.

FILL OF CONTAINER 8 52.2254 Recommended fill of con

tainer. The recommended fill of container is not incorporated in the grades of the finished product since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purposes of these grades. It is recommended that the container be as full of canned concentrated orange juice as practicable without impairment of quality.

FACTORS OF QUALITY $ 52.2255 Ascertaining the grade of a

sample unit. (a) General. The grade of a sample unit of canned concentrated orange juice is ascertained by considering the faculty of reconstituting properly and the appearance of the reconstituted juice, which are not scored; the ratings for the factors of color, defects, and flavor which are scored; the total score; and the limiting rules which may be applicable.

(b) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each factor which is scored is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum

Total score.

100 $ 52.2256 Ascertaining the rating for

the factors which are scored. The essential variations within each factor which is scored are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical range within each factor which is scored is inclusive (for example, “18 to 20 points" means 18, 19, or 20 points). $ 52.2257 Color.

(a) Evaluation of color. (1) The color of canned concentrated orange juice is evaluated by comparing the color of the product with the USDA Orange Juice Color Standards so that the color standards become points of reference.

(2) Such comparison is made under an artificial light source of approximately 150 candela intensity and having a spectral quality approximating that of daylight under a moderately overcast sky and a color temperature of 7500 degrees Kelvin, 5200 degrees.

(3) The USDA Orange Juice Color Standards range from yellow-orange to yellow color, with USDA OJ 1 being the most orange color in the series.

(b) Procedure in evaluating color. (1) Place the reconstituted product in a clear glass test tube of 1 inch diameter.

(2) Arrange color standards in a test tube rack or similar device so that light coming from above strikes the standards at a 45 degree angle. The standards are inclined at a 45 degree angle against a neutral grey background. Observe the standards and product at right angles to the tubes.

(3) Classify the color by inserting the tube of reconstituted juice where it best fits in the series of color standards. Orange juice differing in color and brightness from the most nearly matching USDA Orange Juice Color Standard is evaluated by considering the amount of difference and its effect on the total appearance of the juice.

(c) Availability of color standards. The USDA Orange Juice Color Standards cited in this section are oficial color standards which may also be applied to other orange juices. Information regarding these color standards, and their availability, may be obtained from: Processed Products Standardization and In.

spection Branch,
Fruit and Vegetable Division,
Agricultural Marketing Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.

(d) (A) Classification. Canned con. centrated orange juice of which the reconstituted juice possesses a very good color may be given a score of 36 to 40 points. “Very good color” means a very good yellow to yellow-orange color that is bright and typical of rich-colored orange juice. Canned concentrated orange juice that meets this criterion may be assigned score points in accordance with the following schedule: As compared with USDA Orange Juice Color Standards:

Score
Equal to or better than USDA
OJ 2.---

40 points
Equal to or better than USDA
OJ 3----

39 points
Much better than USDA OJ 4..- 38 points
Equal to or slightly better than
USDA OJ 4.--

37 points
Equal to or better than USDA
OJ 5-------

36 points (e) (C) Classification. If the reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good color, a score of 32 to 35 points may be given. Canned concentrated orange juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Fairly good color" means that the reconstituted juice may be slightly amber or very light in color and may show evidence of slight browning but is not off color for any reason. Canned concentrated orange juice that meets this criterion may be assigned score points in accordance with the following schedule: As compared with USDA Orange Juice Color Standards:

Score Better than USDA OJ 6, not as

good as USDA OJ 5.---- 35 points Equal to USDA OJ 6.---

34 points Not as good as USDA OJ 6.- 33 or 32

points

(f) (SStd.) Classification. If the reconstituted juice fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section a score of 0 to 31 points may be given. Canned concentrated orange juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the prod. uct (this is a limiting rule). $ 52.2258 Defects.

(a) General. The factor of defects concerns the degree of freedom from small seeds and portions thereof; from discolored specks, white flakes, harmless extraneous material, and other similar defects; from recoverable oil; and from juice sacs and particles of membrane, core, and peel in excess of that normally present in orange juice.

(b) Definitions (1) Small seeds and portions thereof. "Small seeds and portions thereof” means seed, whether fully developed or not, and particles of seed that could pass readily through round perforations 18 inch (3.2 mm.) in diameter.

(2) Recoverable oil. "Recoverable oil” means oil recoverable by the method outlined in this subpart.

(c) (A) classification. Canned concentrated orange juice of which the reconstituted juice is practically free from defects may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Practically free from defects” means that any combination of defects present may no more than slightly detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice. To score in this classification the canned concentrated orange juice shall contain a trace but not more than 0.0028 militer of recoverable oil per degree Brix value per 100 grams of the concentrate.

(d) (C) classification. If the reconstituted juice is reasonably free from defects, a score of 16 or 17 points may be given. Canned concentrated orange juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Reasonably free from defects” means that any combination of defects present may not seriously detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice. To score in this classification the canned concentrated orange juice may contain not more than 0.0034 milliliter of recoverable oil per

or

degree Brix value per 100 grams of the concentrate.

(e) (sStd.) Classification. Canned concentrated orange juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 15 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). [29 FR 15360, Nov. 17, 1964, as amended at 33 FR 11884, Aug. 22, 1968] 8 52.2259 Flavor.

(a) (A) Classification. Canned concentrated orange juice of which the reconstituted juice possesses a good fiavor may be given a score of 36 to 40 points. “Good flavor" means a distinct orange juice flavor, typical of reconstituted orange juice from properly processed and concentrated orange juice. To score in this classification the concentrate shall meet the following limits for the respective style:

(1) Without sweetener. Brix value to acid rationot less than 11.5 to 1 nor more than 18 to 1.

(2) With sweetener. Brix value to acid ratio-not less than 12.0 to 1 nor more than 18 to 1.

(b) (C) Classification. If the reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good flavor, a score of 32 to 35 points may be given. Canned concentrated orange juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C, regardless of the total score for the product (this is limiting rule). "Fairly good flavor" mean that the flavor is normal for reconstituted canned concentrated orange juice and may have a slightly caramelized or slightly oxidized flavor but is free from abnormal flavors and off flavors of any kind. To score in this classification the canned concentrated orange juice shall meet the following requirements for the respective style:

(1) Without sweetener. Brix value to acid ratio not less than 9.5 to 1 nor more than 20 to 1.

(2) With sweetener. Brix value to acid ratio not less than 10 to 1 nor more than 20 to 1.

(c) (SStd.) Classification. If the canned concentrated orange juice fails to meet the requirements of paragraph

(b) of this section, a score of 0 to 31 points may be given, canned concentrated orange juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSES $ 52.2260 Definitions of terms and

methods of analyses. (a) Reconstituted juice. “Reconstituted juice” means the product obtained by thoroughly mixing the concentrate with the amount of water prescribed on the label other appropriate directions.

(b) Reconstitutes properly. "Reconstitutes properly" means that the concentrate goes into solution readily; and that in approximately 250 ml. of the reconstituted juice, after standing four (4) hours at a temperature of not less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit in a clear glass cylinder (approximately 144 inches (3 cm.) in diameter), there may be a noticeable separation of suspended matter but any resulting zone of greater clarity shall be definitely turbid and not clear or transparent.

(c) Acid. “Acid” means the percent by weight of total acidity, calculated as anhydrous citric acid. Total acidity is determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator.

(d) Brix value. "Brix value” in canned concentrated orange juice is the refractometric sucrose value determined in accordance with the “International Scale of Refractive Indices of Sucrose Solutions" and to which the applicable correction for acid is added (see Table I of this subpart for corrections). The measurement of Brix value is determined on the concentrate in accordance with the refractometric method for sugars and sugar products, outlined in the "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists."

(e) Brix value-acid ratio. The Brix value of the concentrate in degrees Brix value-acid ratio is the ratio of the Brix to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 grams of concentrate.

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TABLE IL CORRECTIONS FOR OBTAINING BRIX

VALUE

Correction to be added to refrac

tometer Sucrose Citric acid, anhy

value to obtain drous (percent

degree Brid by weight):

value 2.0_

0.89 2.2.

43 2.4.

.47 2.6. 2.8 3.0. 3.2. 3.4.

.66 3.6_ 3.8. 4.0----4.2 4.4.

.85 4.6.

.89 4.8_. 5.0----

1 Source: "Refractometric Determination of Soluble Solids in Citrus Juices," by J. W. Stevens and W. B. Baier, from the Analytical Edition of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. II, Page 447, August 15, 1939.

(f) Recoverable oil. “Recoverable oll" is determined by the following method:

METHOD (1) Reagents.

Standard bromide-bromate solution-prepared and standardized to 0.099N in accordance with Chapter 42, Standard Solutions in the current edition of the AOAC.1 For use, add 1 volume of standard solution to 3 volumes of water to make 0.0247N solution. 1 ml. of 0.0247N solution supplies bromine to react with 0.00085g., or 0.0010 ml., of dlimonene. The solutions are stable for 6 months.

2-Propanol-Reagent grade ACS (American Chemical Society).

Dilute hydrochloric acid-prepared by adding 1 volume of concentrated acid to 2 volumes of water.

Methyl orange indicator -0.1 percent in water.

(2) Apparatus.

Electric heater-with recessed refractory top, 500–750 watts.

Still, all glass—500 ml. distillation flask with 24/40 ndard taper neck; 200 mm.

Graham condenser with 28/15 receiving socket and drip tip; connecting bulb and adapter as shown in Figure 1.

Burette-10 ml, or 25 ml. graduated to 0.1 ml., with easily controllable flow to permit both rapid and dropwise titration,

(3) Determination.

(1) Pipette 25 ml. of well-mixed sample (juice or reconstituted juice) into the distillation flask containing carborundum chips or glass beads, and add 25 ml. of 2-Propanol.

(11) Distill into a 150 ml. beaker. Continue distilling until solvent ceases to reflux then remove the flask from the heater.

(111) Add 10 ml. of dilute hydrochlorio acid and 1 drop of indicator. (An alternative method would be to prepare a solution containing 5 ml. of indicator and 1,000 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid-then add 10 ml. of this acid-indicator mix to the 150 ml. beaker.)

(iv) Titrate with the dilute bromate solution while stirring. The major portion of the titrant may be added rapidly, but the endpoint must be approached at about 1 drop per second. Disappearance of color indicates the endpoint.

(v) Determine the reagent blank by titrating three separate mixtures of 25 ml. 2-Propanol and 10 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid with indicator-without refilling the burette. Divide the total ml. of titrant used by three to obtain the average blank. Subtract the average blank thus obtained from the ml. of titrant used to titrate the distillate.

(vi) Multiply the remainder by 0.004 to obtain the percent recoverable ou by volume in the juice sample.

(vii) The ml. of recoverable oil per degree Brix value per 100 grams of the concentrate is determined as follows:

ml. recoverable oil per degree Brix value per 100 grams concentrate=1% recoverable oil by volume in the reconstituted Juice] 0.089. 129 F.R. 15360, Nov. 17, 1964, as amended at 33 F.R. 11885, Aug. 22, 1968]

LOT COMPLIANCE

$ 52.2261 Ascertaining the grade of a

lot.

1 "AOAC” refers to the Official Methods of Analysis published by the Association of Official Analytical (formerly Agricultural) Chemists. Copies may be obtained from this Association at Box 540, Benjamin Franklin Station, Washington, D.C. 20044.

The grade of a lot of canned concentrated orange juice covered by these standards is determined by the procedures set forth in the Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification of Processed Fruits and Vegetables, Processed Products Thereof, and Certain Other Processed Food Products (8$ 52.1 to 52.87).

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