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standard regardless of the total score the product (this is a limiting rule). 2.3028 Flavor. 2). (A) classification. Dehydrated pefruit juice of which the reconsti:d juice possesses & good flavor may given a score of 34 to 40 points. od flavor” means that the flavor is Ine, distinct grapefruit juice flavor ical of properly processed canned pefruit juice; is definitely free from penic, caramelized, oxidized, and cid flavors; is free from off flavors; I the reconstituted Juice meets the owing requirements for the respec» style: 1) Recoverable oil-not less than 11 nor more than 0.017 ml. per 100 ml. 2) Acid-not less than 0.85 gram per grams. 3) Brix-acid ratio for the respective les: i) Style I (unsweetened)_not less in 8 to 1 nor more than 14 to 1; ii) Style II (sweetened) - not less m 11 to 1 nor more than 14 to 1. (b) (B) classification. If the reconstied Juice possesses & reasonably good vor a score of 28 to 33 points may be ren. Dehydrated grapefruit juice that Is into this classification shall not be aded above U.S. Grade B or U.S. voice regardless of the total score for e product (this is a limiting rule). easonably good flavor" means that the yor is reasonably typical of properly ocessed canned grapefruit juice which free from abnormal and off-flavors of ý kind; and the reconstituted juice pets the following requirements for the spective style: (1) Recoverable oll-not less than 103 nor more than 0.025 ml. per 100 ml. (2) Acid-not less than 0.70 gram per 0 grams. (3) Brix-acid ratio for the respective ples: (1) Style I (unsweetened)-not less an 7 to 1 nor more than 14 to 1; (i) Style I (sweetened)--not less an 11 to 1 nor more than 14 to 1. (c) (sștd.) classification. Dehyated grapefruit juice that fails to meet e requirements of paragraph (b) of is section may be given a score of 0 to
points and shall not be graded above , S. Grade B or U. S. Choice regardless the total score for the product (this is limiting rule). 1 F.R. 1065, Feb. 2, 1956, as amended at · F.R. 11886, Aug. 22, 1968; 34 F.R. 7862, ay 17, 1969)
EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSES & 52.3029 Definition of terms.
(a) "Reconstituted juice" means the product obtained by dissolving an entire package of dehydrated grapefruit juice in water to make the volume of grapefruit juice specified in directions for preparation.
(b) “Dissolves readily” means that (1) the product dissolves readily in the prescribed amount of cold water with only a reasonable amount of stirring, (2) the fruit particles rehydrate readily and (3) there is no material separation of colloidal or suspended matter.
(c) "Dissolves reasonably readily" means that (1) the product may require considerable stirring to dissolve the solids, (2) fruit particles may rehydrate only reasonably readily, and (3) there is no material separation of colloidal or suspended matter.
(d) “Acid” means the percent, by weight, of acid (calculated as anhydrous citric acid) in the reconstituted grapefruit juice and is determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as indicator.
(e) The "Brix” of the reconstituted juice means the degree Brix as determined by the Brix hydrometer calibrated at 20 degrees centigrade (68 degrees Fahrenheit) and to which any applicable temperature correction has been applied. $ 52.3030 Methods of analyses.
(a) "Recoverable oil” is determined by the following method:
METHOD (1) Reagents.
Standard bromide-bromate solution-prepared and standardized to 0.099N in accordance with Chapter 42, Standard Solutions in the current edition of the AOAC.1 For use, add 1 volume of standard solution to 3 volumes of water to make 0.0247N solution. 1 ml. of 0.0247N solution supplies bromine to react with 0.00085g., or 0.0010 ml., of d-limonene. The solutions are stable for 6 months.
2-Propanol-Reagent grade ACS (American Chemical Society).
Dilute hydrochloric acid prepared by adding 1 volume of concentrated acid to 2 vol. umes of water.
1 "AOAC” refers to the Omcial Methods of Analysis published by the Association of Official Analytical (formerly Agricultural) Chemists. Copies may be obtained from this Association at Box 540, Benjamin Franklin Station, Washington, D.C. 20044.
Methyl orange indicator -0.1 percent in humidity conditions. The moisture conwater.
tent of the dehydrated grapefruit juice (2) Apparatus.
may be determined by any other method Electric heater-with recessed retractory
which gives equivalent results. top, 500-750 watts. Still, all glass-500 ml. distillation flask
(c) The "sulfur dioxide" content of with 24/40 standard taper neck; 200 mm.
the dehydrated grapefruit juice is deGraham condenser with 28/15 receiving termined by the Monier-Williams socket and drip tip; connecting bulb and method for total sulfurous acid in foods adapter as shown in Figure 1.
in accordance with the Official Methods Burette-10 ml. or 25 ml. graduated to
of Analysis of the Association of Oficial 0.1 ml., with easily controllable flow to permit
Agricultural Chemists, using a 50-gram both rapid and dropwise titration.
sample of the dehydrated grapefruit (3) Determination. (1) Pipetto 25 ml. of well-mixed samplo
juice. (juice or reconstituted Juice) into the distill (21 F.R. 1065, Feb. 2, 1956, as amended at lation flask containing carborundum chips 83 F.R. 11886, Aug. 22, 1968) or glass beads, and add 25 ml. of 2-Propanol. (1) Distil into a 150 ml. beaker. Continue
LOT INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION distilling until solvent ceases to reflux then $ 52.3031 Ascertaining the grade of a remove the flask from the heater.
lot. (14) Add 10 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid and 1 drop of indicator. (An alternative
The grade of a lot of the processed method would be to prepare a solution con product covered by these standards is taining 5 ml. of indicator and 1,000 ml, of determined by the procedures set forth duute hydrochloric acid-then add 10 ml, of in the regulations governing inspection this acid-indicator mix to the 150 ml. beaker.) and certification of processed fruits and (iv) Titrate with the dilute bromate solu
vegetables, processed products thereof, tion while stirring. The major portion of the
and certain other processed food prodtitrant may be added rapidly, but the endpoint must be approached at about 1 drop
ucts ($ $ 52.1 to 52.87). per second. Disappearance of color indi (22 F. R. 3547, May 22, 1957) cates the endpoint. (v) Determine the reagent blank by ti
SCORE SHEET trating three separate mixtures of 25 ml. 2 8 52.3032 Score sheet for dehydrated Propanol and 10 ml. of dilute hydrochlorio
grapefruit juice. acid with indicator—without refilling tho burette. Divide the total miluilters of titrant Size and kind of container.. used by three to obtain the average blank.
Container mark or identification. Subtract the average blank thus obtained
Label (Including dilution factor) from the milliliters of titrant used to titrato Net weight.. the distillate.
Brix of the reconstituted juice. (vi) Multiply tho remainder by 0.004 to
Anhydrous citric acid. obtain the percent recoverable oil by volumo 80, concentration.. in the juice sample.
Recoverable oil (ml./100 ml.). (b) The "moisture content" of the de Reconstitutes properly (Yes) (No)... hydrated grapefruit juice is determined as follows:
Score points (1) A 3- to 5-gram sample is weighed into an aluminum weighing dish 142 to
|(A) 34-40 2 inches in diameter, having a tight
40 (B) 128-33
Tisstd.) 10-27 fitting cover. The samples are dried in
(A) 17-20 a vacuum oven for 30 hours at a tempera
20 BiB) 114-16
lisstd.) 10-13 ture of 60 degrees centigrade (140 de
A) 34-40 grees Fahrenheit) and a pressure not Flavor...
40 (B) 1 28-331
lissta) 10-27 exceeding 100 mm of mercury. During the drying period air is passed through Total score..------M.SO, and admitted through the release cock at the rate of approximately 2 Grade.. bubbles per second. At the end of the
i Indicates limiting rule. drying period the dishes are removed from the oven, the covers are placed on Subpart-United States Standards for immediately and the dishes allowed to
Grades of Canned Onions cool in a desiccator prior to final weigh
SOURCE: $$ 52.3041 to 52.3053 appear at ing. Sampling and weighing is carried 22 F.R. 7782, Oct. 2, 1957, unless otherwise out as rapidly as possible under low noted.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AJTD GRADES in this subpart: Provided, that the 52.3041 Product description.
canned onions may be variable in size
and shape if the total score is not less “Canned onions" means the canned
than 70 points. iroduct consisting of whole onions, prop
(c) "Substandard" is the quality of rly prepared from clean, sound, succu
canned onions that fail to meet the reent onion bulbs. The product is packed
quirements of U. S. Grade C or U. S accordance with good commercial
Standard. practice and is suficiently processed by leat to assure preservation of the prod
RECOMMENDED FILL OF CONTAINER, ict in hermetically sealed containers.
DRAINED WEIGHT, AND COUNT OF CANNED 52.3042 Grades of canned onions.
ONIONS (a) “U.S. Grade A” or “U.S. Fancy" is $ 52.3043 Fill of container. he quality of canned onions that possess The recommended fill of container 18 imilar varietal characteristics; that not incorporated in the grades of the possess a normal flavor; that possess a finished product since fill of container, as good color; that are practically uniform such, is not a factor of quality for the in size and shape; that are practically purpose of these grades. It is recomfree from defects; that possess a good mended that each container be filled as Character; and that score not less than full as practicable with onions without B5 points when scored in accordance impairment of quality and that the with the scoring system outlined in this product and packing medium occupy not subpart.
less than 90 percent of the total capacity (b) “U. S. Grade C" or "U. S. Stand of the container. ard" is the quality of canned onions that
$ 52.3044 Drained weights. possess similar varietal characteristics; that possess a normal flavor; that possess
(a) General. The minimum drained a fairly good color; that are fairly uni weight recommendations for canned form in size and shape; that are fairly onions in Table I of this section are not free from defects; that possess a fairly incorporated in the grades of the finished good character; and that score not less product since drained weight, as such, than 70 points when scored in accord. is not a factor of quality for the purpose ance with the scoring system outlined of these grades.
TABLE I-RECOMMENDED DRAINED WEIGHTS, IN OUNCES, FOR CANNED ONIONS
(b) Method for ascertaining drained diameter is used for containers larger weight. The drained weight is deter- than the equivalent of the No. 3 size mined by emptying the contents of the can. container upon a United States Stand (c) Compliance with recommended ard No. 8 sieve of proper diameter so as drained weights. Compliance with the to distribute the product evenly, inclin recommended drained weights is detering the sieve to facilitate drainage, al mined by averaging the drained weights lowing the product to drain for two
from all the containers which are repminutes and then weighing the steve to
resentative of a specific lot; and such gether with the product thereon. The
lot is considered as meeting the recomdrained weight is the weight of the sieve and the drained product less the weight
mendations if the following criteria are of the dry sieve. A sieve 8 inches in
met. diameter is used for the No. 3 size can
(1) The average of the drained weights (404 x 414) or equivalent size, and from all of the containers meets the smaller sizes; and a sieve 12 inches in applicable recommended drained weight;
(b) Compliance with recommended (b) Normal flavor. “Normal flavor" count of canned onions. Compliance means that the product is free from obwith the recommended count of canned jectionable flavors and objectionable onions is determined by averaging the odors of any kind. counts from all the containers which are & 52.3047 Ascertaining the rating for representative of a specific lot; and such
the factors which are scored. lot is considered as meeting the recommendations if the following criteria are
The essential variations within each met:
factor which is scored are so described (1) The average of the counts from all
that the value may be ascertained for of the containers is within the range of
each factor and expressed numerically. the applicable recommended count;
The numerical range within each factor (2) The counts of not more than one
which is scored is inclusive. (For examsixth of the containers fail the range of
ple, “17 to 20 points" means 17, 18, 19, OT such recommended count; and
20 points.) (3) The count from each of the con
$ 52.3048 Color. tainers which fails such range is not outside such range by more than 10 per
(a) General. The color of canned cent or more than two onion bulbs,
onions has reference to the predominatwhichever is the greater.
ing and characteristic color of the ex
terior surfaces of the onion bulbs. FACTORS OF QUALITY
(b) (A) classification. Canned onions $ 52.3046 Ascertaining the grade.
that possess a good color may be given a
score of 17 to 20 points. “Good color” (a) General. In addition to consider
means that the canned onions possess a ing other requirements outlined in the
reasonably bright, characteristic color standards the following quality factors
which may include typical greenish areas are evaluated: (1) Factors which are not scored. (1)
on the surface of the bulbs; and that not
more than 10 percent, by count, of the Varietal characteristics.
onions may individually possess such (11) Flavor. (2) Factors which are scored. The
typical greenish areas, which, in the ag
gregate, exceed one-hall of the surface relative importance of each factor which
area of the bulb. Is scored is expressed numerically on the
(c) (C) classification. If the canned scale of 100. The maximum number of
onions possess a fairly good color a scorg points that may be given such factors
of 14 to 16 points may be given. Canned are:
onions that fall into this classification Factors:
Points shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C Color -
or U. S. Standard, regardless of the total Uniformity of size and shape.---
score for the product (this is & limiting Defects
rule). "Fairly good color” means that Character
the canned onions possess a characterisTotal score.-.-.-
100 tic color which may include typical
greenish areas on the surface of the ion is not more than three times tho bulbs; that the product is not ma weight of the second smallest onion. terially affected by oxidation, or dull (2) In a container with a count of 21 grayish-white casts, or watery-white or more onions, not more than 10 percasts, or other discoloration, and that cent, by count, of the onions are poorly not more than 20 percent, by count, of shaped, and with respect to 95 percent, the onions may individually possess by count, of all the onions, the weight of greenish areas, which, in the aggregate, the largest onion is not more than three exceed one-half of the surface area of times the weight of the smallest onion. the bulbs.
(c) (C) classification. If the canned (d) (SStd.) classifcation. Canned onions are fairly uniform in size and onions that fail to meet the require. shape & score of 21 to 25 points may be ments of paragraph (c) of this section given. Canned onions that fall into this may be given a score of 0 to 13 points classification shall not be graded above and shall not be graded above Sub “U. S. Grade C” or “U. 8. Standard," standard, regardless of the total score for regardless of the total score for the prodthe product (this is a limiting rule). uct (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly uni
form in size and shape" means that: $ 52.3049 Uniformity of size and
(1) In a container with a count of less shape.
than 21 onions, not more than 25 per(a) General. Uniformity of size and
cent, by count, of the onions are poorly shape refers to the degree of variation
shaped, and the weight of the second in size and shape of the individual onion
largest onion is not more than four times bulbs in canned onions.
the weight of the second smallest onion. (1) "Poorly shaped" means that the (2) In a container with a count of 21 length of the individual onion bulb ex or more onions, not more than 25 perceeds the maximum length for the appli cent, by count, of the onions are poorly cable diameter, as shown in table NII of
shaped, and with respect to 95 percent, this section, or that the onion bulb is by count, of all the onions, the weight of otherwise misshapen to the extent that
the largest onion is not more than four its appearance is seriously affected. times the weight of the smallest onion. TABLE II-ONION DIMENSIONS
(d) (SStd.) classification. Canned
onions that fail to meet the requirements Marimum length of onion
of paragraph (c) of this section may be Diameter of onion: 1
given a score of 0 to 20 points and shall 1 inch.
not be graded above U. S. Grade C or 68 inch..
U. S. Standard, regardless of the total 64 inch.------
1916 score for the product (this is a partial 136 inch.--
150 limiting rule). 44 inch...
160 · 1926 inch...
190 § 52.3050 Defects. 78 inch...
(a) General. The factor of defects 1546 inch..
refers to the degree of freedom from ex1 inch.-------
11560 116 inches..------
traneous vegetable material and from 144 inches...
onion bulbs that are blemished or seri135 inches..
ously blemished or affected by mechani14 inches...
33 cal damage, loose scales, or detached 1 Diameter is determined by measuring the centers, and to the trimming of the onion greatest diameter at right angles to a straight bulb. line running from the stem and to the root (1) “Blemished" means affected by end.
surface or internal discoloration to such a Length is determined by measuring the
an extent that the appearance or eating over-all length of tho onion.
quality is materially affected. Internal (b) (A) classification. Canned onions yellow sprouts which show no discolorathat are practically uniform in size and tion are not considered as being within shape may be given a score of 26 to 30 the meaning of the term “blemished.” points. "Practically uniform in size and (2) “Seriously blemished" means blemshape" means that:
Ished to such an extent that the appear. (1) In a container with a count of less ance or eating quality is seriously afthan 21 onions, not more than 10 percent. fected. by count, of the onions are poorly shaped, (8) "Mechanical damage” means and the weight of the second largest on- damaged by crushing, gouging, or trim