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finished product since full of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purposes of these grades. It is recommended that each container be filled with concentrated grapefruit Juice as full as practicable without impairment of quality.

FACTORS OF QUALITY & 52.3484 Ascertaining the grade.

(a) General. The grade of concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing is ascertained by examining the concentrate and the reconstituted juice; and In addition to considering other requirements outlined in the standards, the following quality factors are evaluated:

(1) Factors not rated by score points. (i) Degree of gelation.

(1) Faculty of reconstituting properly.

(2) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each factor which Is scored is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum number of points that may be given such factors are: Factors:

Points Color ...

20 Defects

40 Flavor.

color a score of 14 to 16 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good color" means that the color may be only fairly bright and is typical of concentrated grapefruit juice that is reasonably free from browning due to scorching, oxidation, caramelization, or other causes.

(c) (sStd-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a liniting rule). $ 52.3487 Defects.

(a) General. The factor of defects refers to the degree of freedom from juice cells and pulp and from seeds or portions thereof, dark specks, and other defecte in the reconstituted juice.

(b) (A-M19.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice is practicaly free from defects may be given a score of 34 to 40 points. “Practically free from defects" means that there may be present:

(1) Juice cells only in such amounts as do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice;

(2) Not more than 10 percent free and suspended pulp;

(3) Practically no seeds or portions thereof that could not pass readily through round perforations of 4 inch in diameter;

(4) Only such small seeds or portions thereof that could pass through round perforations of 48 inch in diameter 88 do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice; and

(5) Other defects that are not more than slightly objectionable.

(c) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juice is fairly free from de fects a score of 28 to 33 points may be given. Concentrated grapfruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. 8.

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Total score--

---

100 $ 52.3485 Ascertaining the rating for

the factors which are scored. The essential variations within each factor which is scored are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical range within each factor which is scored is inclusive. (For example, "17 to 20 points" means 17, 18, 19, or 20 points.) $ 52.3486 Color.

(a) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted Juice possesses a reasonably good color may be given a score of 17 to 20 points. Reasonably good color" means that the color is reasonably bright and typical of properly processed and properly concentrated grapefruit juice and is practically free from browning due to scorching, oxidation, caramelization, or other causes.

(b) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juce possesses a fairly good

Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). 'Fairly free from defects" means that there may be present:

(1) Juice cells only in such amounts

do not seriously detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice;

(2) Not more than 12 percent free and suspended pulp;

(3) Practically no seeds or portions thereof that could not pass readily through round perforations of 18 inch in diameter;

(4) Only such small seeds or portions thereof that could pass through round perforations of Y6 inch in diameter as do not seriously detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice; and

(5) Other defects that are not materially objectionable.

(d) (sStd-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 27 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). $ 52.3488 Flavor.

(a) (A-Mfg.) classifcation. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good flavor may be given a score of 34 to 40 points. “Reasonably good flavor" means that the flavor is typical of reconstituted concentrated grapefruit juice from properly processed and concentrated grapefruit juice; is prac. tically free from traces of scorching, caramelization, oxidation, or terpene; and is free from off-flavors of any kind. To score in this classification the ratio of the Brix value to acid shall be not less than 6 to 1.

(b) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good flavor a score of 28 to 33 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good flavor” means a normal flavor for reconstituted concentrated grapefruit juice, which flavor may be slightly caramelized or slightly oxidized or may possess traces of terpene, but is free from of-flavors of any kind. To score in this

classification the ratio of the Brix value to acid shall be not less than 5.5 to 1.

(c) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. If the concentrated grapefruit juice fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section a score of 0 to 27 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above Substandard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS $ 52.3489 Explanation of terms and

analyses. (a) Reconstituted juice. “Reconstituted juice” means the product obtained by mixing thoroughly one part by volume of the concentrated grapefruit juice with a stated volume of water. For example, a dilution factor of "1 plus 6" means that to one part by volume of concentrated grapefruit juice 6 parts by volume of water are added to produce & reconstituted juice. In the absence of any declared dilution factor the product is diluted with water to a Brix of between 10.5 and 11.5 degrees. Distilled water is used in reconstituting the product for testing flavor.

(b) Reconstitutes properly. "Reconstitutes properly" means that the concentrate goes into solution readily: and that in approximately 250 ml. of the reconstituted juice, after standing four (4) hours at a temperature of not less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit in a clear glass cylinder (approximately 194 inches in diameter), there may be a noticeable separation of suspended matter but any resulting zone of greater clarity shall be definitely turbid and not clear or transparent.

(c) Acid. “Acid" means the percent by weight of total acidity, calculated as anhydrous citric acid. Total acidity is determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator.

(d) Brix value. “Brix value” is the refractometric sucrose value determined on the thawed concentrate in accordance with the refractometric method for sugars and sugar products. outlined in the “Oficial Methods of Analysis of the Association of Oficial Agricultural Chemists,” and to which the applicable correction for acid is added:

means that the frozen peas possess & (2) “Pieces of pea" (broken pea) reasonably bright and reasonably uni- means: (1) A whole pea from which & form green color typical for the variety; cotyledon or a large portion thereof bas that peas which very markedly from such become separated; typical green color do not materially (11) Two detached whole cotyledons; affect the overall color appearance; and (i) Pieces of cotyledon aggregating that not more than 142 percent, by count, the equivalent of an average size cotyof the peas may be blond, cream colored, ledon; or seriously detract from the overall (lv) A whole detached skin or portions color appearance.

of detached skin aggregating the equiva(c) (C) Classification. Frozen peas lent of an average size whole skin. that possess a fairly good color may be (3) "Blemished pea" means & pes given a score of 14 or 15 points. Frozen that is blemished by discoloration or by peas that fall into this classification other means that does not materially shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, affect the appearance or eating quality regardless of the total score for the of the pea. product (this is a partial limiting rule). (4) “Seriously blemished pea” means "Fairly good color” means that the fro a pea that is hard, shriveled, spotted, diszen peas possess a fairly uniform green colored, or otherwise blemished to an color typical for the variety, which may extent that the appearance or eating be dull but not off color; that peas quality is seriously affected. Peas comwhich vary markedly from such typical

monly referred to as “blond” or “cream green color do not seriously afect the colored" peas are not considered seoverall color appearance; and that not riously blemished peas. more than 2 percent, by count, of all the (c) Determination of allowancespeas may be blond, cream colored, or (1) Determining percent, by count, of seriously detract from the overall color pieces of peas. (1) The percent, by appearance.

count, of pieces of peas is determined by (d) (sStd.) classification. Frozen dividing the total number of pieces of peas that fail to meet the requirements peas by the total number of peas and of paragraph (c) of this section may be pieces of peas. given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall (li) A pea held together by its skin, not be graded above Substandard, re even though the cotyledons are partly gardless of the total score for the product crushed or the skin split, is not consid(this is a limiting rule).

ered as a broken pea or piece of pea. $ 52,3516 Defects.

(2) Harmless extraneous vegetable (al General. The factor of defects

material. (1) The allowances for harmrefers to the degree of freedom from

less extraneous vegetable material are harmless extraneous vegetable material,

based on 30 ounces of frozen peas. When pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously

considering sample units of less than 30 blemished peas, and other defects which ounces, the allowances provided in this affect the appearance or eating quality

section for the respective grade classifof the product.

cation will be permitted in a single sam(b) Definition of defects. (1) "Harm ple unit: Provided, That the average of less extraneous vegetable material" such defects in the entire sample does means:

not exceed such allowance. (1) Group 1; flat material. Succulent (d) (A) classification. Frozen peas vegetable material common to the pea that are practically free from defects plant, such as leaves and pea pods; may be given & score of 36 to 40 points.

(ii) Group 2; spherical material. "Practically free from defects" means Non-deleterious or non-poisonous types that: (See Table I of this subpart) of nightshade berries, thistle buds, or (1) For each 30 ounces of net weight other similar spherical vegetable ma there may be present not more than the terial from other plants similar in color following amounts of harmless extra. to frozen peas;

neous vegetable material: (111) Group 3; cylindrical material. (1) Group 1; flat material, pieces hav. Cylindrical vegetable material, such as ing an aggregate area of not more than stems, common to the pea plant or from 44 square inch (equivalent to 12 inch x other plants which are similar in color 12 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of to frozen peas.

any size; or

1

similar Varietal characteristics; that Factors:

Points possess a good flavor; that possess a good

Color.

Defects color; that are practically free from defects; that are tender; and for those fac

Tenderness and maturity------tors which are rated in accordance with

Total Score--

--- 100 the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total score is not less than 90

(b) Evaluation of quality. Flavor and points: Provided, That the frozen peas

the factor of tenderness and maturity is may possess & reasonably good color,

determined after the product has scoring not less than 17 points and may

reached room temperature and after be only reasonably free from defects with

cooking. The rating for the factors of respect to pieces of peas if the total

color and defects and the evaluation of score is not less than 90 points.

similar varietal characteristics are de(b) “U.S. Grade B" (or “U.S. Extra

termined immediately after the product Standard") is the quality of frozen peas

has reached room temperature or may be

determined immediately after thawing that possess similar varietal characteristics; that possess a fairly good flavor;

so that the product is free from Ice that possess a reasonably good color; that

crystals. are reasonably free from defects; that

(c) Definitions of requirements not are reasonably tender; and for those fac

rated by score points. (1) “Good flavor tors which are rated in accordance with

means that the product has a good charthe scoring system outlined in this sub

acteristic flavor and odor for the maturpart the total score is not less than 80

ity and is free from objectionable flavors points: Provided, That the frozen peas

and objectionable odors of any kind. may possess a fairly good color and may

(2) "Fairly good flavor" means that be fairly free from defects with respect to

the product may be lacking in good pieces of peas if the total score is not

flavor but is free from objectionable less than 80 points.

flavors and objectionable odors of any (c) “U.S. Grade C" (or “U.S. Stand

kind. ard") is the quality of frozen peas that $ 52.3514 Ascertaining the rating for possess similar varietal characteristics; the factors which are scored. that possess a fairly good flavor; that

The essential variations within each possess a fairly good color; that are

factor which is scored are so described fairly free from defects; that are fairly tender; and that for those factors which

that the value may be ascertained for

each factor and expressed numerically. are scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total

The numerical range within each factor score is not less than 70 points: Provided,

which is scored is inclusive. (For ex

ample, “36 to 40 points” means 36, 37, That the frozen peas may fail to meet the requirements of this paragraph for

38, 39, or 40 points.) defects with respect to pieces of peas if $ 52.3515 Color. the total score is not less than 70 points. (a) (A) Classification. Frozen peas

(d) “Substandard” is the quality of that possess a good color may be given & frozen peas that fail to meet the re- score of 18 to 20 points. “Good color" quirements of U.S. Grade C.

means that the frozen peas possesse FACTORS OF QUALITY

bright, practically uniform, good, green

color that is typical for the variety; that § 52.3513 Ascertaining the grade.

peas which vary markedly from such (a) General. In addition to consider typical green color do not more than ing other requirements outlined in the slightly affect the overall color appearstandards the following quality factors ance; and that not more than one-hall are evaluated in ascertaining the grade of i percent, by count, of the peas may be of the product:

blond, cream colored, or seriously dem (1) Factors not rated by score points. tract from the overall color appearance. (1) Varietal characteristics.

(b) (B) classification. I the frozen (1) Flavor.

peas possess a reasonably good color, a (2) Factors rated by score points. The score of 16 or 17 points may be given. relative importance of each factor which Frozen peas that score 16 points in this is rated is expressed numerically on the classification shall not be graded above scale of 100. The maximum number of U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total points that may be given for each such score for the product (this is a partial factor is:

limiting rule). "Reasonably good colores means that the frozen peas possess & (2) "Pieces of pea" (broken pea) reasonably bright and reasonably uni means: (1) A whole pea from which & form green color typical for the variety; cotyledon or a large portion thereof has that peas which very markedly from such become separated; typical green color do not materially (11) Two detached whole cotyledons; affect the overall color appearance; and (ii) Pieces of cotyledon aggregating that not more than 142 percent, by count, the equivalent of an average size cotyof the peas may be blond, cream colored, ledon; or seriously detract from the overall (lv) A whole detached skin or portions color appearance.

of detached skin aggregating the equiva(c) (C) Classification. Frozen peas lent of an average size whole skin. that possess a fairly good color may be (3) "Blemished pea" means & pes given a score of 14 or 15 points. Frozen that is blemished by discoloration or by peas that fall into this classification other means that does not materially shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, affect the appearance or eating quality regardless of the total score for the of the pea. product (this is a partial limiting rule). (4) “Seriously blemished pea” means "Fairly good color" means that the fro a pea that is hard, shriveled, spotted, diszen peas possess a fairly uniform green colored, or otherwise blemished to an color typical for the variety, which may extent that the appearance or eating be dull but not off color; that peas quality is seriously affected. Peas comwhich vary markedly from such typical monly referred to as “blond" or "cream green color do not seriously affect the colored" peas are not considered seoverall color appearance; and that not riously blemished peas. more than 2 percent, by count, of all the (c) Determination of allowancespeas may be blond, cream colored, or (1) Determining percent, by count, of seriously detract from the overall color pieces of peas. (1) The percent, by appearance.

count, of pieces of peas is determined by (d) (sStd.) classification. Frozen dividing the total number of pieces of peas that fail to meet the requirements peas by the total number of peas and of paragraph (c) of this section may be pieces of peas. given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall (ii) A pea held together by its skin, not be graded above Substandard, re even though the cotyledons are partly gardless of the total score for the product crushed or the skin split, is not consid(this is a limiting rule).

ered as a broken pea or piece of pea. $ 52,3516 Defects.

(2) Harmless extraneous vegetable

material. (1) The allowances for harm(a) General. The factor of defects refers to the degree of freedom from

less extraneous vegetable material are harmless extraneous vegetable material,

based on 30 ounces of frozen peas. When pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously considering sample units of less than 30 blemished peas, and other defects which ounces, the allowances provided in this affect the appearance or eating quallty section for the respective grade classifiof the product.

cation will be permitted in a single sam(b) Definition of defects. (1) "Harm- ple unit: Provided, That the average of less extraneous vegetable material" such defects in the entire sample does means:

not exceed such allowance. (1) Group 1; flat material. Succulent (d) (A) classification. Frozen peas vegetable material common to the pea that are practically free from defects plant, such as leaves and pea pods; may be given a score of 36 to 40 points.

(ii) Group 2; spherical material. "Practically free from defects" means Non-deleterious or non-poisonous types that: (See Table I of this subpart) of nightshade berries, thistle buds, or (1) For each 30 ounces of net weight other similar spherical vegetable ma there may be present not more than the terial from other plants similar in color following amounts of harmless extrato frozen peas;

neous vegetable material: (111) Group 3; cylindrical material. (1) Group 1; flat material, pieces hav. Cylindrical vegetable material, such as ing an aggregate area of not more than stems, common to the pea plant or from Y4 square inch (equivalent to 12 inch x other plants which are similar in color 42 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of to frozen peas.

any size; or

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