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(4) Prunes that are damaged by insect given a score of 0 to 16 points and shall Injury or other similar defects.
not be graded above U.S. Grade D or (5) "Tough or thick scab" means Substandard, regardless of the total score thick leathery areas on the skin fre- for the product. quently formed as the result of thrip in
8 52.5613 Character of fruit. jury, mildew, leaf chafing, limb rubs, or other means. Such scab is to be distin- (a) (A) Classification. Canned dried guished from "scab or other character" prunes that possess a good, tender, fleshy which is more or less inconsequential texture may be given a score of 31 to 35 and practically blends in color with the points. “Good tender, fleshy texture" skin on the portion of the prune not
means that the prunes are thick-fieshed; affected.
that not more than 5 percent by count of (6) "Damaged by insect Injury" means prunes have fibrous or tough skins; and healed or unhealed surface blemishes, that not more than 10 percent by count and healed or unhealed blemishes in the of prunes may be soft or hard in texture. flesh which materially affect the appear- One prune that possesses a tough skin, ance, edibility, or keeping quality of the is soft, or is hard, is permitted, if one fruit but which do not possess evidence prune exceeds 5 percent or 10 percent by of insect infestation.
count. (7) “Damaged by other similar de- (b) (B) Classification. If canned dried fects” means any injury or defect or prunes possess a reasonably good, tender, group of defects not mentioned herein fleshy texture, a score of 26 to 30 points which materially affect the appearance,
may be given. "Reasonably good, tender, edibility or keeping quality of the fruit. fileshy texture" means that the prunes
(b) (A) Classification. Canned dried are reasonably thick-fleshed; that not prunes that are practically free from de- more than 10 percent by count of prunes fects may be given a score of 27 to 30 may have fibrous or tough skins; and points. "Practically free from defects" that not more than 15 percent by count means that there may be present not of prunes may be soft or hard in texture. more than 5 percent by count of prunes (c) (C) Classification. If the canned affected by any defect or any combina- dried prunes possess a fairly good texture, tion of defects mentioned in paragraph a score of 21 to 25 points may be given. (a) (1), (2), (3), and (4) of this section. Canned dried prunes that fall into this One prune that is defective is permitted
classification shall not be graded above If it exceeds 5 percent by count.
U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard, regard(C) (B) Classification. If the canned less of the total score for the product. dried prunes are reasonably free from "Fairly good texture" means that the defects, a score of 22 to 26 points may be prunes may vary in thickness and texture given. “Reasonably free from defects" of flesh or may possess fibrous or tough means that there may be present not
skins; and that not more than 20 percent more than 10 percent by count of prunes by count of prunes may be soft or hard affected by any defect or any combina
in texture. tion of defects mentioned in paragraph
(d) (D) Classification. Canned dried (a) (1), (2), (3), and (4) of this section. prunes that fail to meet the requirements One prune that is defective is permitted of paragraph (c) of this section may be if it exceeds 10 percent by count.
given a score of zero to 20 points and (d) (C) Classification. If the canned shall not be graded above U.S. Grade D dried prunes are fairly free from defects, or Substandard, regardless of the total a score of 17 to 21 points may be given. score for the product. Canned dried prunes that fall into this
EXPLANATION OF TERMS classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard, regard
$ 52.5614 Explanation of terms. less of the total score for the product. (a) “24° Brix" means that the packing "Fairly free from defects" means that medium surrounding the fruit tests 24 there may be present not more than 15 degrees when tested with a Brix spindle, percent by count of prunes affected by or hydrometer, or with a refractometer, any defect or combination of defects read at the proper temperature for the mentioned in paragraph (a) (1), (2), instrument used. (3), and (4) of this section.
(b) "Normal canned dried prune (e) (D) Classification. Canned dried flavor” means that the product is free prunes that fail to meet the requirements from objectionable odors or objectionable of paragraph (d) of this section, may be flavors of any kind.
§ 52.5643 Grades.
(a) “U.S. Grade A" (or U.S. Fancy) is the quality of pasteurized orange juice that: (1) Shows no coagulation or no material separation and has the appearance of fresh orange juice, (2) has a very good color, (3) is practically free from defects, (4) possesses a very good favor, and (5) scores not less than 90 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.
(b) “U.S. Grade B" (or U.S. Choice) is the quality of pasteurized orange juice that: (1) Shows no coagulation but may show some separation and has the appearance of fresh orange juice, (2) ha a good color, (3) is reasonably free from defects, (4) possesses a good flavor, and (5) scores not less than 80 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.
(c) “Substandard” is the quality of pasteurized orange juice that fails to meet the requirements of U.S. Grade B.
FILL OF CONTAINER $ 52.5644 Recommended fill of con.
tainer. The recommended fill of container is not incorporated in the grades of the finished product since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. It is recommended that the container be as full of orange juice as practicable.
FACTORS OF QUALITY $ 52.5645 Ascertaining the grade of a
sample unit. (a) General. The grade of a sample unit of pasteurized orange juice is ascertained by considering the degree of any coagulation and separation, and the appearance of the product as compared to fresh juice which are not scored; the ratings for the factors of color, defects, and flavor which are scored; the total score; and the limiting rules which may be applicable.
(b) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each scoring factor is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. Tlie maximum number of points that may be given such factors are: Factor
40 Defects Flavor
Uniformity of size.
18-20 15-17 1 12-14 10-11 14-15 12-13 10-11 27-30 22-26 1 17-21 10-16 31-35
26-30 1 21-25 10-20
1 Indicates limiting rules within classification.
Subpart-United States Standards for Grades of Pasteurized Orange Juice
SOURCE: $$ 52.5641 to 52.5652 appear at 32 F.R. 10499, July 18, 1967, unless otherwise noted. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, STYLES, AND
GRADES $ 52.5641 Product description.
Pasteurized orange juice is the product defined in the standards of identity (21 CFR 27.107) issued pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 8 52.5642 Styles.
(a) Without sweetener;
8 52.5646 Ascertaining the rating for
the factors which are scored. The essential variations within each factor which is scored are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical range within each factor which is scored is inclusive (for example, “18 to 20 points" means 18, 19, or 20 points). 8 52.5647 Color.
(&) Evaluation of color. (1) The color of pasteurized orange juice, where applicable, is evaluated by comparing the color of the product with the USDA Orange Juice Color Standards so that these color standards become points of reference.
(2) Such comparison is made under an artificial light source of approximately 150 candela intensity and having a spectral quality approximating that of daylight under a moderately overcast sky and a color temperature of 7,500 degrees Kelvin, +200 degrees.
(3) The USDA Orange Juice Color Standards range from yellow-orange to yellow color, with USDA OJ 1 being the most orange color in the series.
(b) Procedure in evaluating color. (1) Place the juice in a clear glass test tube of 1-inch diameter.
(2) Arrange color standards in a test tube rack or similar device so that light coming from above strikes the standards at & 45 degree angle. The standards are inclined at a 45 degree angle against & neutral grey background. Observe the standards and product at right angles to the tubes.
(3) Classify the juice by inserting the tube of juice where it best fits in the series of color standards. Orange juice differing in color and brightness from the most nearly matching USDA Orange Juice Color Standard is evaluated by considering the amount of difference and its effect on the total appearance of the juice.
(c) Availability of color standards. The USDA Orange Juice Color Standards cited in this section are oficial color standards which may also be applied to other orange juices. Information regarding these color standards, and their availability, may be obtained from: Processed Products Standardization and In
spection Branch, Fruit and vegetable Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, US. Dopartment of Agriculture, Washington, D.O. 20250.
(d) (A) Classification. Pasteurized orange juice that has a very good color may be given a score of 36 to 40 points. "Very good color" means a very good yellow to yellow-orange color that is bright and typical of fresh orange juice. Pasteurized orange juice that meets this criterion may be assigned score points in accordance with the following schedule: As compared with USDA Orange Score Juice Color Standards:
(points) Equal to or better than USDA OJ 2. 40 Equal to or better than USDA OJ 3. 89 Much better than USDA OJ 4_---- 88 Equal to or slightly better than USDA OJ ---
87 Equal to or better than USDA OJ 6. 36
(e) (B) Classification. If the juice has a good color, a score of 32 to 35 points may be given. Pasteurized orange juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Good color" means that the color is the yellow to yellow-orange color typical of fresh orange juice which may be dull but is not off color for any reason. Pasteurized orange juice that meets this criterion may be assigned score points in accordance with the following schedule: As compared with USDA Orange Score Juice Color Standards:
(points) Better than USDA OJ 6 but not as good as USDA OJ 5.---
85 Equal to USDA OJ 6-----
34 Not as good as USDA OJ b------- 33 or 32 (f) (SStd.) Classification. If
the pasteurized juice fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section a score of 0 to 31 points may be given. Pasteurized orange juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). 8 52.5648 Defects.
(a) General. The factor of defects concerns the degree of freedom from small seeds and portions thereof; from discolored specks, harmless extraneous material, nd other similar defects; from recoverable oil; and from juice sacs and particles of membrane, core, and peel in excess of that normally present in orange juice.
(b) Definitions. (1) "Small seeds and portions thereof" means seed, whether fully developed or not, and particles of seed that could pass readily through
round perforations one-eight Inch (3.2 (2) With sweetener style.
Minimum Maximum coverable by the method outlined in this subpart.
Soluble orange juico solids 11%...... (c) (A) classification. Pasteurized or- (percent by weight of ange juice that is practically free from
finished product). Brix-acid ratio..
12.5:1.--.-20.5:1. defects may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Practically free from defects" means that any combination of defects
(b) (B) Classification. If the paspresent may no more than slightly de
teurized orange juice possesses a good tract from the appearance or drinking
flavor a score of 32 to 35 points may be quality of the juice, and that there may
given. Pasteurized orange juice that be present not more than 0.035 percent
falls into this classification shall not be by volume of recoverable oil.
graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of (d) (B) classification. If the pasteur
the total score for the product (this is a ized juice is reasonably free from defects,
limiting rule). “Good flavor" means a score of 16 or 17 points may be given,
that the flavor is fairly typical of orange Pasteurized orange juice that falls into juice extracted from fresh, mature sweet this classification shall not be graded oranges; is free from off flavors of any above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the kind; and meets the following requiretotal score for the product (this is a ments: limiting rule). "Reasonably free from de- (1) Without sweetener style. fects” means that any combination of defects present may not seriously detract
Minimum Maximum from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice, and that there may be pres- Brix (degrees).
10.5°. ent not more than 0.045 percent by vol- Brix-acid ratio.
10.5:1.------23:1. ume of recoverable oil.
(e) (SStd.) Classification. Pasteur- (2) With sweetener style. ized orange juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this
Minimum Maximum section may be given a score of 0 to 15 points and shall not be graded above Soluble orange solids
10.5%------Substandard, regardless of the total (percent by weight of
finished product). score for the product (this is a limiting Brix-acid ratio..
10.3:1...----23:1. rule). [32 F.R. 10499, July 18, 1967, as amended at (c) (SStd.) Classification. Pasteur33 FR. 11886, Aug. 22, 1968)
ized orange juice that fails to meet the $ 52.5649 Flavor.
requirements of paragraph (b) of this
section may be given a score of 0 to 31 (a) (A) Classification. Pasteurized
points and shall not be graded above orange juice that possesses a very good
Substandard, regardless of the total flavor may be given a score of 36 to 40
score for the product (this is a limiting points. “Very good flavor" means that
rule). the flavor is fine, distinct, and substan
[32 F.R. 10499, July 18, 1967, as amended at tially typical of orange juice extracted
34 F.R. 7861, May 17, 1969) from fresh, mature sweet oranges; is free from off flavors of any kind; and meets
EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS the following requirements:
$ 52.5650 Definitions of terms
and (1) Without sweetener style.
methods of analysis.
(a) Brix. "Brix" means the degrees Minimum Maximum
Brix of pasteurized orange juice when
tested with a Brix hydrometer calibrated Brix (dogreos) Brix-acid ratio:
at 20 degrees C. (68 degrees F.) and to From fruit grown pre
11.5:1...-... 18:1. which any applicable temperature cordominantly in California or Arizons.
rection has been made. The degrees Brix From fruit grown pre- 12.3:1. 20.5:1. of pasteurized orange juice may be dedominantly outside Callfornia or Arizona.
termined by any other method which
gives equivalent results.
(b) Acid. “Acid” means the grams of total acidity, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of pasteurized orange juice. Total acidity is determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as indicator.
(c) Brix-acid ratio. "Brix-acid ratio" means the ratio between the Brix and the acid as defined in this section.
(d) Recoverable oil. “Recoverable oll" Is determined by the following method:
METHOD (1) Reagents.
Standard bromide-bromate solution propared and standardized to 0.099N in accordance with Chapter 42, Standard Solutions in the current edition of the AOAC.1 For use, add 1 volume of standard solution to 3 volumes of water to make 0.0247N solution. 1 ml. of 0.0247N solution supplies bromine to react with 0.00085g., or 0.0010 ml., of d-limonene. The solutions are stable for six months.
2-Propanol-Reagent grade ACS (American Chemical Society).
Dilute irydrochloric acid prepared by add. Ing 1 volume of concentrated acid to 2 vol. umes of water.
Methyl orange indicator-0.1 percent in water.
Electric heater--with recessed refractory top, 500–750 watts.
Still, all glass-500 ml. distillation flask with 24/40 standard taper neck; 200 mm. Graham condenser with 28/15 receiving socket and drip tip; connecting bulb and adapter as shown in Figure 1.
Burette-10 ml. or 25 ml. graduated to 0.1 ml., with easily controllable flow to permit both rapid and dropwise titration.
(1) Pipette 25 ml. of well-mixed samplo (Juice or reconstituted juice) into the distillation flask containing carborundur chips or glass beads, and add 25 ml. of 2-Propanol.
(11) Distill into a 150 ml. beaker. Continue distilling until solvent ceases to reflux then remove the flask from the heater.
(iii) Add 10 ml. of dilute hydrochlorio acid and 1 drop of Indicator. (An alternative method would be to prepare a solution containing 5 ml. of indicator and 1,000 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid-then add 10 ml. of this acid-indicator mix to the 150 ml. beaker.)
(iv) Titrate with the dilute bromate solution while stirring. The major portion of the
titrant may be added rapidly, but the endpoint must be approached at about 1 drop per second. Disappearance of color indicates the endpoint.
(v) Determine the reagent blank by titrato ing three separate mixtures of 25 ml, 2-Propanol and 10 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid with Indicator-without refilling the buretto. Divide the total ml. of titrant used by three to obtain the average blank. Subtract the average blank thus obtained from the ml. of titrant used to titrate the distillate.
(vi) Multiply the remainder by 0.004 to obtain the percent recoverable oil by volume in the juice sample. [32 F.R. 10499, July 18, 1967, as amended at 33 F.R. 11886, Aug. 22, 1968; 34 F.R. 7861, May 17, 1969)
LOT COMPLIANCE $ 52.5651 Ascertaining the grade of a
lot. The grade of a lot of pasteurized orange juice covered by these standards is determined by the procedures set forth in the regulations governing inspection and certification of processed fruits and vegetables, processed products thereof, and certain other processed food products (8 $ 52.1 to 52.87).
1 "AOAC” refers to the Oficial Methods of Analysis published by the Association of
Grade.. Official Analytical (formerly Agricultural) Chemists. Copies may be obtained from this
1 Indicates limiting rule. Association at Box 640, Benjamin Franklin 132 F.R. 10499, July 18, 1967, as amended at Station, Washington, D.C. 20044.
34 F.R. 7861, May 17, 1969)