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ascertained by considering the degree of any coagulation and separation, and the appearance of the product as compared to fresh juice, which are not scored; tlie ratings for the factors of color, defects, and flavor which are scored; the total score; and the limiting rules which may be applicable.
(b) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each scoring factor is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum number of points that may be given such factors are: Factors:
Subpart-United States Standards for
Grades of Orange Juice From Concentrate SOURCE: $952.5681 to 82.5692 appear at 82 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, unless otherwise noted. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, STYLES, AND
GRADES 52.5681 Product description.
Orange juice from concentrate is the product defined in the standards of identity (21 CFR 27.111) Issued pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. § 52.5682
(b) With sweetener. $ 52.5683 Grades.
(a) “U.S. Grade A" (or U.S. Fancy) is the quality of orange juice from concentrate that: (1) Shows no coagulation or no material separation and possesses the appearance of fresh orange juice, (2) has a very good color, (3) is practically free from defects, (4) possesses a very good flavor, and (5) scores not less than 90 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.
(b) "U.S. Grade B” (or U.S. Choice) is the quality of orange juice from concentrate that: (1) Shows no coagulation but may show some separation and possesses the appearance of fresh orange juice, (2) has a good color, (3) is reasonably free from defects, (4) possesses a good flavor, and (5) scores not less than 80 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.
(c) “Substandard” is the quality of orange juice from concertrate that fails to meet the requirements of U.S. Grade B.
FILL OF CONTAINER $ 52.5684 Recommended fill of con
tainer. The recommended fill of container is not incorporated in the grades of the finished product since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. It is recommended that the container be as full of orange juice as practicable.
FACTORS OF QUALITY $ 52.5685 Ascertaining the grade of a
sample unit. (a) General. The grade of a sample unit of orange juice from concentrate is
$ 52.5686 Ascertaining the rating for
the factors which are scored. The essential variations within each factor which is scored are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical range within each factor which is scored is inclusive (for example, “18 to 20 points” means 18, 19, or 20 points). $ 52.5687 Color.
(a) Evaluation of color. (1) The color of orange juice from concentrate, where applicable, is evaluated by comparing the color of the product with the USDA Orange Juice Color Standards so that these color standards become points of reference.
(2) Such comparison is made under an artificial light source of approximately 150 candela intensity and having a spectral quality approximating that of daylight under a moderately overcast sky and a color temperature of 7,500 degrees Kelvin, +200 degrees.
(3) The USDA Orange Juice Color Standards range from yellow-orange to yellow color, with USDA OJ1 being the most orange color in the series.
(b) Procedure in evaluating color. (1) Place the juice in a clear glass test tube of 1-inch diameter.
(2) Arrange color standards in a test tube rack or similar device so that light coming from above strikes the standards at a 45 degree angle. The standards are inclined at a 45 degree angle against & neutral grey background. Observe the standards and product at right angles to the tubes.
(3) Classify the juice by inserting the juice from concentrate that falls into tube of juice where it best fits in the series this classification shall not be graded of color standards. Orange juice differ- above Substandard, regardless of the ing in color and brightness from the most total score for the product (this is a nearly matching USDA Orange Juice limiting rule). Color Standard is evaluated by consider
$ 52.5688 Defects. ing the amount of difference and its effect on the total appearance of the juice.
(a) General. The factor of defects (c) Availability of color standards. concerns the degree of freedom from The USDA Orange Juice Color Standards small seeds and portions thereof; from cited in this section are oficial color discolored specks, harmless extraneous standards which may also be applied to material, and other similar defects; from other orange juices. Information re
recoverable oil; and from juice sacs and garding these color standards, and their
particles of membrane, core, and peel availability, may be obtained from:
in excess of that normally present in Processed Products Standardization and In
orange juice. spection Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Divi
(b) Definitions. (1) "Small seeds and sion, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. portions thereof” means seed, whether Department of Agriculture, Washington, fully developed or not, and particles of D.C. 20250.
seed that could pass readily through (d) (A) Classification. Orange juice
round perforations one-eighth inch (3.2 from concentrate that has a very good
mm.) in diameter. color may be given a score of 36 to 40
(2) "Recoverable oil" means oil recovpoints. “Very good color" means a very
erable by the method outlined in this good yellow to yellow-orange color that is
subpart. bright and typical of fresh orange juice.
(c) (A) classification. Orange juice Orange juice from concentrate that
from concentrate that is practically free meets this criterion may be assigned
from defects may be given a score of 18 score points in accordance with the
to 20 points. “Practically free from defollowing schedule:
fects” means that any combination of de
fects present may no more than slightly As compared with USDA Orange Score Juice Color Standards:
detract from the appearance or drinking
(points) Equal to or better than USDA OJ 2.. 40
quality of the juice, and that there may Equal to or better than USDA OJ 3..
be present not more than 0.035 percent Much better than USDA OJ 4.----- 38 by volume of recoverable oil. Equal to or slightly better than
(d) (B) classification. If the juice is USDA OJ 4.---
87 reasonably free from defects, a score of Equal to or better than USDA OJ 5.. 36
16 or 17 points may be given. Orange (e) (B) Classification. If the juice juice from concentrate that falls into possesses a good color, a score of 32 to 35
this classification shall not be graded points may be given. Orange juice from
above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the concentrate that falls into this classifi
total score for the product (this is & cation shall not be graded above U.S.
limiting rule). “Reasonably free from deGrade B, regardless of the total score for
fects" means that any combination of the product (this is a limiting rule).
defects present may not seriously detract “Good color" means that the color is the
from the appearance or drinking quality yellow to yellow-orange color typical of
of the juice, and that there may be presfresh orange juice which may be dull but
ent not more than 0.045 percent by volis not off color for any reason. Orange
ume of recoverable oil. juice from concentrate that meets this
(e) (SStd.) Classification. Orange criterion may be assigned score points in
juice from concentrate that fails to meet accordance with the following schedule:
the requirements of paragraph (d) of As compared with USDA Orange Score
this section may be given a score of 0 Juice Color Standards:
to 15 points and shall not be graded above Better than USDA OJ 6 but not as
Substandard, regardless of the total score good as USDA OJ 5----
for the product (this is a limiting rule). Equal to USDA OJ 6---
132 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at Not as good as USDA OJ 6-------- 33 or 32 33 F.R. 11887, Aug. 22, 1968]
(f) (SStd.) Classification. If the Juice fails to meet the requirements of
$ 52.5689 Flavor. paragraph (e) of this section a score of (a) (A) Classification. Orange juice 0 to 31 points may be given. Orange from concentrate that possesses a very
(b) (B) Classification. If the orange Juice from concentrate possesses a good flavor a score of 32 to 35 points may be given. Orange juice from concentrate that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Good flavor" means that the flavor is fairly typical of orange juice extracted from fresh, mature sweet oranges; is free from off flavors of any kind; and meets the following requirements:
(1) Without sweetener style.
graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). (32 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at 34 PR. 7861, May 17, 1969) EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS $ 52.5690 Definitions of terms and
methods of analysis. (a) Briz. “Brix" means the degrees Brix of orange juice from concentrate when tested with a Brix hydrometer calibrated at 20 degrees C. (68 degrees F.) and to which any applicable temperature correction has been made. The degrees Brix may be determined by any other method which gives equivalent results.
(b) Acid. “Acid” means the grams of total acidity, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice. Total acidity is determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as indicator.
(c) Brix-acid ratio. "Brix-acid ratio" means the ratio between the Brix and the acid as defined in this section.
(d) Recoverable oil. "Recoverable oll" is determined by the following method:
METHOD (1) Reagents.
Standard bromide-bromate solution-pro. pared and standardized to 0.099N in accordance with Chapter 42, Standard Solutions in the current edition of the AOAC.1 For uso, add 1 volume of standard solution to 8 volumes of water to make 0.0247N solution. 1 ml. of 0.0247N solution supplies bromine to react with 0.00085g., or 0.0010 ml., of d-umonene. The solutions are stable for 6 months.
2-Propanol-Reagent grade ACS (American Chemical Society).
Dilute hydrochloric acid-prepared by adding 1 volume of concentrated acid to 2 volumes of water.
Methyl orange indicator-0.1 percant in water.
(2) Apparatus. Electric heater_with recessed refractory top, 500–750 watta.
Still, all glass-500 ml. distillation fast with 24/40 standard taper neck; 200 mm. Graham condenser with 28/16 receiving socket and drip tip; connecting bulb and adapter as shown in Figure 1.
Burette-10 ml. or 25 ml. graduated to 0.1 ml., with easily controllable flow to permit both rapid and dropwise titration.
1 "AOAC” refers to the Oficial Methods or Analysis published by the Association of Official Analytical (formerly Agricultural) Chemists. Copies may be obtained from this Association at Box 540, Benjamin Franklin Station, Washington, D.C. 20044.
(1) Pipette 25 ml. of well-mixed sample (juice or reconstituted Juice) into the distillation flask containing carborundum chips or glass beads, and add 25 ml. of 2-Propanol.
(11) Distill into a 150 ml. beaker. Continue distilling until solvent ceases to reflux then remove the flask from the heater.
(111) Add 10 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid and 1 drop of Indicator. (An alternative method would be to prepare a solution containing 5 ml, of indicator and 1,000 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid-then add 10 ml. of this acid-indicator mix to the 150 ml. beaker.)
(iv) Titrate with the dilute bromate solu. tion while stirring. The major portion of the titrant may be added rapidly, but the endpoint must be approached at about 1 drop per second. Disappearance of color indicates the endpoint.
(V) Determine the reagent blank by titrating three separate mixtures of 25 ml, 2Propanol and 10 ml, of dilute hydrochloric acid with indicator-without refilling the burette. Divide the total milliliter of titrant used by three to obtain the average blank. Subtract the average blank thus obtained from the milliliter of titrant used to titrate the distillate.
(vi) Multiply the remainder by 0.004 to obtain the percent recoverable oil by volume in the juice sample. (32 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at 33 F.R. 11887, Aug. 22, 1968; 34 F.R. 7862, May 17, 1969)
LOT COMPLIANCE $ 52.5691 Ascertaining the grade of a
lot. The grade of a lot of orange juice from concentrate covered by these standards is determined by the procedures set forth in the regulations governing inspection and certification of processed fruits and vegetables, processed products thereof, and certain other processed food products ($ $ 52.1 to 52.87).
SCORE SHEET 8 52.5692 Score sheet for orange juice
I Indicates limiting rule. (32 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at 34 F.R. 7862, May 17, 1969) Subpart-United States Standards for
Grades of Dried Apricots SOURCE: $$ 52.5761 to 52.5773 appear at 82 F.R. 7572, May 24, 1967, unless otherwise noted.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, MOISTURE, SIZES $ 52.5761 Product description.
Dried apricots are the halved and pitted fruit of the apricot tree (Prunus armeniaca) from which the greater portion of moisture has been removed. Before packing, the dried fruit is processed to cleanse the fruit and may be sulfured suficiently to retain a characteristic color. $ 52.5762 Moisture.
Federal inspection certificates shall indicate the moisture content of the finished product which shall be not more than 26 percent by weight for sizes No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, and for slabs, and not more than 25 percent by weight for other sizes. $ 52.5763 Sizes.
(a) Federal Inspection certificates shall indicate the size or combination of sizes of halved apricots found upon examination; or shall indicate "Slabs" if the apricots are such, or "Whole Pitted” (or “Slip Pitted") if the apricots are found to be of this style.
(b) The various sizes of dried apricots, except for slabs (including "whole pitted" or "slip pitted” apricots) are as follows: No. 1 Size (Jumbo Size). 1% inches, or
inches in die
ameter. No. 2 Size (Extra Fancy 114 inches to 1%8 Size).
inches in die
Size and kind of container
drous citric acid).
None. Degree of coagulation Slight..
No. 3 Size (Fancy Size)-. 148 inches to 144 tic of reasonably well-matured apricots.
inches in di.
The fruit may possess pale yellow areas ameter.
around the stem end that do not exceed NO. 4 Size (Extra Choice 1 inch to 148 Size).
inches in die
an area equivalent to one-fourth of the ameter.
outer surface side of the unit; not more No. 5 Size (Choice Size). 1316 inch to 1 inch than 10 percent by weight of the fruit
in diameter. may be of a color described in U.S. Grade No. 6 Size (Standard Less than 1310 C or U.S. Standard, but none of the units Size).
inch in diam
may possess light green areas that exceed eter.
an area equivalent to one-fourth of the (1) "Diameter” means the shortest outer surface side of the unit. measurement across the face of the apri- (b) Not more than a total tolerance cot half when restored to its normal of 15 percent by weight may be slabs, imshape.
mature, or may possess pits or pieces of (2) In determining compliance with pits, may be damaged by discoloration, size requirements of this section, dried sunburn, hail marks, scab, disease, insect apricots will be considered as of one size injury, or other similar defects; or may if not more than 10 percent by weight be affected by mold, decay, insect infesof the fruit varies from the size range. tation (no live insects are permitted),
imbedded dirt, or other foreign material: GRADES OF DRIED APRICOTS
Provided, That, not more than one-third (OTHER THAN SLAB GRADES)
of the total tolerance, or 5 percent by $ 52.5764 U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy. weight, may be affected by mold, decay,
insect infestation (no live insects are per(a) U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy dried
mitted), imbedded dirt, or other foreign apricots possess similar varietal charac
material: And further provided, That, teristics; and possess a practically uni
not more than one-fifteenth of the total form, bright typical color, characteristic
tolerance, or 1 percent by weight, may be of well-matured apricots. The fruit may
affected by decay. possess pale yellow areas around the stem and that do not exceed an area $ 52.5766 U.S. Grade Cor U.S. Standard. equivalent to one-eighth of the outer
(a) U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard surface side of the unit; not more than dried apricots possess similar varietal 5 percent by weight of the fruit may be
characteristics; and possess a fairly uniof a color described in U.S. Grade B or
form typical color, characteristic of fairly U.S. Choice, but none of the fruit may be well-matured apricots. The fruit may be of a color described in U.S. Grade C or pale yellow in color and may possess U.S. Standard.
light green areas around the stem end of (b) Not more than a total tolerance the fruit that do not exceed an area of 10 percent by weight niay be slabs, im- equivalent to one-quarter of the outer mature, or may possess pits or pieces of
surface side of the unit, but not more pits; may be damaged by discoloration,
than 15 percent by weight of the total sunburn, hail marks, scab, disease, insect
fruit may possess light green areas that injury, or other similar defects; or may exceed an area equivalent to one-quarter be affected by mold, decay, insect infes- of the outer surface side of the unit. tation (no live insects are permitted), (b) Not more than a total tolerance of imbedded dirt, or other foreign material:
20 percent by weight of the fruit may be Provided, That, not more than two-fifths
slabs, immature, or possess pits or pieces of the total tolerance, or 4 percent by
of pits; may be damaged by discoloraweight, may be affected by mold, decay, Insect infestation (no live insects are
tion, sunburn, hail marks, scab, disease, permitted), imbedded dirt, or other for
insect injury, or other similar defects; eign material: And further provided,
or may be affected by mold, decay, inThat, not more than one-tenth of the
sect infestation (no live insects are pertotal tolerance, or 1 percent by weight,
mitted), imbedded dirt, or other foreign may be affected by decay.
material: Provided, That, not more than
one-fourth of the total tolerance, or 5 $ 52.5765 U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice.
percent by weight, may be affected by (a) U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice dried mold, decay, insect infestation (no live apricots possess similar varietal charac- insects are permitted), imbedded dirt, teristics; and possess a reasonably uni- or other foreign material: And further form, fright typical color, characteris- provided, That, not more than one-tentb