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Subpart-United States Standards for ascertained by considering the degree of Grades of Orange Juice From Con- any coagulation and separation, and the
appearance of the product as compared centrate
to fresh juice, which are not scored; tlie SOURCE: $9 52.5681 to 82.5692 appear at
ratings for the factors of color, defects, 82 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, unless otherwise
and flavor which are scored; the total noted.
score; and the limiting rules which may PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, STYLES, AND be applicable. GRADES
(b) Factors rated by score points. $ 52.5681 Product description.
The relative importance of each scoring
factor is expressed numerically on the Orange juice from concentrate is the
scale of 100. The maximum number of product defined in the standards of iden
points that may be given such factors tity (21 CFR 27.111) Issued pursuant to
are: the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Color -------------------------$ 52.5682 Styles.
20 (a) Without sweetener.
Flavor (b) With sweetener.
100 $ 52.5683 Grades.
$ 52.5686 Ascertaining the rating for (a) "U.S. Grade A" (or U.S. Fancy) is
the factors which are scored. the quality of orange juice from concentrate that: (1) Shows no coagulation or
The essential variations within each no material separation and possesses the
factor which is scored are so described appearance of fresh orange juice, (2) has that the value may be ascertained for a very good color, (3) is practically free each factor and expressed numerically. from defects, (4) possesses a very good
The numerical range within each factor flavor, and (5) scores not less than 90 which is scored is inclusive (for example, points when scored in accordance with “18 to 20 points” means 18, 19, or 20 the scoring system outlined in this sub points). part.
§ 52.5687 Color. (b) “U.S. Grade B” (or U.S. Choice) is the quality of orange juice from concen
(a) Evaluation of color. (1) The trate that: (1) Shows no coagulation but
color of orange juice from concentrate,
where applicable, is evaluated by commay show some separation and possesses the appearance of fresh orange juice, (2)
paring the color of the product with the has a good color, (3) is reasonably free
USDA Orange Juice Color Standards so
that these color standards become points from defects, (4) possesses a good flavor, and (5) scores not less than 80 points
of reference. when scored in accordance with the scor
(2) Such comparison is made under ing system outlined in this subpart.
an artificial light source of approxi(c) “Substandard" is the quality of
mately 150 candela intensity and having orange juice from concertrate that fails
a spectral quality approximating that of to meet the requirements of U.S.
daylight under a moderately overcast sky
and a color temperature of 7,500 degrees Grade B. FILL OF CONTAINER
Kelvin, +200 degrees.
(3) The USDA Orange Juice Color & 52.5684 Recommended fill of con- Standards range from yellow-orange to tainer.
yellow color, with USDA OJ1 being the The recommended fill of container is most orange color in the series. not incorporated in the grades of the (b) Procedure in evaluating color. finished product since fill of container, (1) Place the juice in a clear glass test as such, is not a factor of quality for the tube of 1-inch diameter. purpose of these grades. It is recom
(2) Arrange color standards in a test mended that the container be as full of
tube rack or similar device so that light orange juice as practicable.
coming from above strikes the standards FACTORS OF QUALITY
at a 45 degree angle. The standards are 8 52.5685 Ascertaining the grade of a inclined at a 45 degree angle against & sample unit.
neutral grey background. Observe the (a) General. The grade of a sample standards and product at right angles unit of orange juice from concentrate is to the tubes.
(3) Classify the juice by inserting the juice from concentrate that falls into tube of juice where it best fits in the series this classification shall not be graded of color standards. Orange juice differ- above Substandard, regardless of the ing in color and brightness from the most total score for the product (this is a nearly matching USDA Orange Juice limiting rule). Color Standard is evaluated by consider
$ 52.5688 Defects. ing the amount of difference and its effect on the total appearance of the juice.
(a) General. The factor of defects (c) Availability of color standards. concerns the degree of freedom from The USDA Orange Juice Color Standards small seeds and portions thereof; from cited in this section are oficial color discolored specks, harmless extraneous standards which may also be applied to material, and other similar defects; from other orange juices. Information re
recoverable oil; and from juice sacs and garding these color standards, and their
particles of membrane, core, and peel availability, may be obtained from:
in excess of that normally present in Processed Products Standardization and In
orange juice. spection Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Divi
(b) Definitions. (1) "Small seeds and sion, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. portions thereof” means seed, whether Department of Agriculture, Washington, fully developed or not, and particles of D.C. 20250.
seed that could pass readily through (d) (A) Classification. Orange juice
round perforations one-eighth inch (3.2 from concentrate that has a very good
mm.) in diameter. color may be given a score of 36 to 40
(2) "Recoverable oil" means oil recovpoints. “Very good color" means a very
erable by the method outlined in this good yellow to yellow-orange color that is
subpart. bright and typical of fresh orange juice.
(c) (A) classification. Orange juice Orange juice from concentrate that
from concentrate that is practically free meets this criterion may be assigned
from defects may be given a score of 18 score points in accordance with the
to 20 points. “Practically free from defollowing schedule:
fects” means that any combination of de
fects present may no more than slightly As compared with USDA Orange Score Juice Color Standards:
detract from the appearance or drinking
(points) Equal to or better than USDA OJ 2.. 40
quality of the juice, and that there may Equal to or better than USDA OJ 3..
be present not more than 0.035 percent Much better than USDA OJ 4.----- 38 by volume of recoverable oil. Equal to or slightly better than
(d) (B) classification. If the juice is USDA OJ 4.---
87 reasonably free from defects, a score of Equal to or better than USDA OJ 5.. 36
16 or 17 points may be given. Orange (e) (B) Classification. If the juice juice from concentrate that falls into possesses a good color, a score of 32 to 35
this classification shall not be graded points may be given. Orange juice from
above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the concentrate that falls into this classifi
total score for the product (this is & cation shall not be graded above U.S.
limiting rule). “Reasonably free from deGrade B, regardless of the total score for
fects" means that any combination of the product (this is a limiting rule).
defects present may not seriously detract “Good color" means that the color is the
from the appearance or drinking quality yellow to yellow-orange color typical of
of the juice, and that there may be presfresh orange juice which may be dull but
ent not more than 0.045 percent by volis not off color for any reason. Orange
ume of recoverable oil. juice from concentrate that meets this
(e) (SStd.) Classification. Orange criterion may be assigned score points in
juice from concentrate that fails to meet accordance with the following schedule:
the requirements of paragraph (d) of As compared with USDA Orange Score
this section may be given a score of 0 Juice Color Standards:
to 15 points and shall not be graded above Better than USDA OJ 6 but not as
Substandard, regardless of the total score good as USDA OJ 5----
for the product (this is a limiting rule). Equal to USDA OJ 6---
132 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at Not as good as USDA OJ 6-------- 33 or 32 33 F.R. 11887, Aug. 22, 1968]
(f) (SStd.) Classification. If the Juice fails to meet the requirements of
$ 52.5689 Flavor. paragraph (e) of this section a score of (a) (A) Classification. Orange juice 0 to 31 points may be given. Orange from concentrate that possesses a very
good flavor may be given a score of 36 graded above Substandard, regardless of to 40 points. “Very good flavor" means the total score for the product (this is a that the flavor is fine, distinct, and sub limiting rule). stantially typical of orange juice ex [32 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at tracted from fresh, mature sweet 34 PR. 7861, May 17, 1969) oranges; is free from of flavors of any
EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS kind; and meets the following requirements:
$ 52.5690 Definitions of terms and (1) Without sweetener style.
methods of analysis.
(a) Brix. "Brix" means the degrees Minimum Maximum Brix of orange juice from concentrate
when tested with a Brix hydrometer Brix (degrees)...
calibrated at 20 degrees C. (68 degrees Brix-acid ratio: From fruit grown pre
F.) and to which any applicable tem11.5:1....... 18:1. dominantly in California
perature correction has been made. The or Arizona. From fruit grown pre
degrees Brix may be determined by any 12.5:1....... 20.6:1. dominantly outside
other method which gives equivalent California or Arizona.
(b) Acid. “Acid” means the grams of (2) With sweetener style.
total acidity, calculated as anhydrous
citric acid, per 100 grams of juice. Total Minimum Maximum
acidity is determined by titration with
standard sodium hydroxide solution Soluble orange juice solids 11.8%...-.
using phenolphthalein as indicator. (percent by weight of finished product).
(c) Brix-acid ratio. "Brix-acid ratio" Brix-acid ratio............. 12.5:1....... 20.5:1.
means the ratio between the Brix and the
acid as defined in this section. (b) (B) Classification. If the orange (d) Recoverable oil. “Recoverable oll" Juice from concentrate possesses a good
is determined by the following method: flavor a score of 32 to 35 points may be
METHOD given. Orange juice from concentrate
(1) Reagents. that falls into this classification shall
Standard bromide-bromate solution-pro. not be graded above U.S. Grade B, re pared and standardized to 0.099N in accordgardless of the total score for the prod ance with Chapter 42, Standard Solutions in uct (this is a limiting rule). “Good the current edition of the AOAC. For uso, flavor" means that the flavor is fairly
add 1 volume of standard solution to 8 vol. typical of orange juice extracted from
umes of water to make 0.0247N solution. 1
ml. of 0.0247N solution supplies bromine to fresh, mature sweet oranges; is free from
react with 0.00085g., or 0.0010 ml., of d-limoff flavors of any kind; and meets the
onene. The solutions are stable for 6 months. following requirements:
2-Propanol-Reagent grade ACS (American (1) Without sweetener style.
Dilute hydrochloric acid-prepared by add
ing 1 volume of concentrated acid to 2 volMinimum Maximum
umes of water.
Methyl orange indicator -0.1 percant in Brix (degrees)..............
water. 11:8 ----- 99,1
Electric heater-with recessed refractory
top, 500–750 wattes (2) With sweetener style.
Still, all glas8–500 ml. distillation task
with 24/40 standard taper neck; 200 mm. Minimum Maximum
Graham condenser with 28/15 receiving
socket and drip tip; connecting bulb and Boluble orange juice solids 11.8%-----
adapter as shown in Figure 1. (percent by weight of
Burette~10 ml. or 25 ml. graduated to 0.1 finished product), Brix-acid ratio. .. 11:1........ 23:1.
ml., with easily controllable flow to permit
both rapid and dropwise titration. (c) (SStd.) Classification. If the
1 "AOAO” refers to the Omcial Methods or orange juice fails to meet the require
Analysis published by the Association of ments of paragraph (b) of this section
Official Analytical (formerly Agricultural) a score of 0 to 31 points may be given. Chemists. Copies may be obtained from this Orange juice from concentrate that falls Association at Box 540, Benjamin Franklin into this classification shall not be Station, Washington, D.C. 20044.
SCORE SHEET—Continued (1) Pipette 25 ml. of well-mixed sample (Juice or reconstituted juice) into the distil
Score points lation flask containing carborundum chips or glass beads, and add 25 ml. of 2-Propanol. (11) Distill into a 150 ml. beaker. Continue
KiB) distilling until solvent ceases to reflux then
lisśtd.) 10-31 remove the flask from the heater.
(A) 18-20 (111) Add 10 ml. of dilute hydrochloric Defects.........
KİB 116-17 acid and 1 drop of indicator. (An alternative
(A) 36-40 method would be to prepare a solution con
(B) 132-35 taining 5 ml. of indicator and 1,000 ml. of
lisstd.) 10-31 dilute hydrochloric acid-then add 10 ml. of this acid-indicator mix to the 150 ml.
Total score........ beaker.)
(iv) Titrate with the dilute bromate solu. tion while stirring. The major portion of the Grade..-..-----titrant may be added rapidly, but the endpoint must be approached at about 1 drop Indicates limiting rule. per second. Disappearance of color indicates 132 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at the endpoint.
34 F.R. 7862, May 17, 1969) (v) Determine the reagent blank by titrating three separate mixtures of 25 ml. 2 Subpart-United States Standards for Propanol and 10 ml. of dilute hydrochloric
Grades of Dried Apricots acid with indicator-without refilling the
SOURCE: 88 52.5761 to 52.5773 appear at burette. Divide the total milliliter of titrant
32 F.R. 7572, May 24, 1967, unless otherwise used by three to obtain the average blank.
noted. Subtract the average blank thus obtained from the milluiter of titrant used to titrate PRODUCT DESCRIPTION, MOISTURE, SIZES the distillate.
$ 52.5761 Product description. (vi) Multiply the remainder by 0.004 to obtain the percent recoverable oil by volume
Dried apricots are the halved and in the juice sample.
pitted fruit of the apricot tree (Prunus (32 F.R. 10497, July 18, 1967, as amended at
armeniaca) from which the greater por33 F.R. 11887, Aug. 22, 1968; 34 F.R. 7862,
tion of moisture has been removed. BeMay 17, 1969)
fore packing, the dried fruit is processed
to cleanse the fruit and may be sulfured LOT COMPLIANCE
suficiently to retain a characteristic $ 52.5691 Ascertaining the grade of a color. lot.
& 52.5762 Moisture. The grade of a lot of orange juice from
Federal inspection certificates shall in. concentrate covered by these standards
dicate the moisture content of the finis determined by the procedures set forth ished product which shall be not more in the regulations governing inspection than 26 percent by weight for sizes No. and certification of processed fruits and 1, No. 2, and No. 3, and for slabs, and not vegetables, processed products thereof, more than 25 percent by weight for other and certain other processed food prod
sizes. ucts ($ $ 52.1 to 52.87).
$ 52.5763 Sizes. SCORE SHEET
(a) Federal inspection certificates $ 52,5692 Score sheet for orange juice
shall indicate the size or combination of from concentrate.
sizes of halved apricots found upon examination; or shall indicate "Slabs" if
the apricots are such, or "Whole Pitted” Size and kind of container.... Container mark (packages)..
(or “Slip Pitted”) if the apricots are or
found to be of this style. Identification (cases).. Label (including ingredient statement, if any)...
(b) The various sizes of dried apricots, Liquid measure (fluid ounces).-------
except for slabs (including “whole pitted” Style...-------Brix (degrees)....
or “slip pitted” apricots) are as follows: Acid (grams per 100 grams: Calculated as anhy. drous citric acid),
No. 1 Size (Jumbo Size). 19 inches, or Brix-acid ratio (
inches in die Recoverable oil (% by volume)
ameter. (0) None.------------
No. 2 Size (Extra Fancy Degree of coagulation ( ) Slight.------
144 inches to 13% O Serious......
inches in die
NO. 3 Size (Fancy Size).. 148 Inches to 114 tic of reasonably well-matured apricots.
inches in die The fruit may possess pale yellow areas
ameter. NO. 4 Size (Extra Choice 1 inch to
around the stem end that do not exceed
inches in di.
an area equivalent to one-fourth of the ameter.
outer surface side of the unit; not more No. 5 Size (Choice Size). 1316 inch to 1 inch than 10 percent by weight of the fruit
in diameter. may be of a color described in U.S. Grade No. 6 Size (Standard Less than 1916 C or U.S. Standard, but none of the units Size).
inch in diam
may possess light green areas that exceed eter.
an area equivalent to one-fourth of the (1) "Diameter” means the shortest outer surface side of the unit. measurement across the face of the apri. (b) Not more than a total tolerance cot half when restored to its normal of 15 percent by weight may be slabs, imshape.
mature, or may possess pits or pieces of (2) In determining compliance with pits, may be damaged by discoloration, size requirements of this section, dried sunburn, hail marks, scab, disease, insect apricots will be considered as of one size injury, or other similar defects; or may if not more than 10 percent by weight be affected by mold, decay, insect infesof the fruit varies from the size range. tation (no live insects are permitted),
imbedded dirt, or other foreign material: GRADES OF DRIED APRICOTS
Provided, That, not more than one-third (OTHER THAN SLAB GRADES)
of the total tolerance, or 5 percent by $ 52.5764 U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy. weight, may be affected by mold, decay,
insect infestation (no live insects are per(a) U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy dried
mitted), imbedded dirt, or other foreign apricots possess similar varietal charac
material: And further provided, That, teristics; and possess a practically uni
not more than one-fifteenth of the total form, bright typical color, characteristic
tolerance, or 1 percent by weight, may be of well-matured apricots. The fruit may
affected by decay. possess pale yellow areas around the stem and that do not exceed an area § 52.5766 U.S. Grade Cor U.S. Standard. equivalent to one-eighth of the outer (a) U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard surface side of the unit; not more than
dried apricots possess similar varietal 5 percent by weight of the fruit may be
characteristics; and possess a fairly uniof a color described in U.S. Grade B or form typical color, characteristic of fairly U.S. Choice, but none of the fruit may be
well-matured apricots. The fruit may be of a color described in U.S. Grade C or
pale yellow in color and may possess U.S. Standard.
light green areas around the stem end of (b) Not more than a total tolerance
the fruit that do not exceed an area of 10 percent by weight niay be slabs, im
equivalent to one-quarter of the outer mature, or may possess pits or pieces of surface side of the unit, but not more pits; may be damaged by discoloration, than 15 percent by weight of the total sunburn, hail marks, scab, disease, insect fruit may possess light green areas that injury, or other similar defects; or may exceed an area equivalent to one-quarter be affected by mold, decay, insect infes of the outer surface side of the unit. tation (no live insects are permitted),
(b) Not more than a total tolerance of imbedded dirt, or other foreign material:
20 percent by weight of the fruit may be Provided, That, not more than two-fifths
slabs, immature, or possess pits or pieces of the total tolerance, or 4 percent by
of pits; may be damaged by discoloraweight, may be affected by mold, decay, Insect infestation (no live insects are
tion, sunburn, hail marks, scab, disease, permitted), imbedded dirt, or other for
insect injury, or other similar defects; eign material: And further provided,
or may be affected by mold, decay, inThat, not more than one-tenth of the
sect infestation (no live insects are pertotal tolerance, or 1 percent by weight,
mitted), imbedded dirt, or other foreign may be affected by decay.
material: Provided, That, not more than
one-fourth of the total tolerance, or 5 $ 52.5765 U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice.
percent by weight, may be affected by (a) U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice dried mold, decay, insect infestation (no live apricots possess similar varietal charac- insects are permitted), imbedded dirt, teristics; and possess a reasonably uni- or other foreign material: And further form, fright typical color, characteris- provided, That, not more than one-tentb