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clause 2.) The number, organization, and duties of these departments, are left to be determined by Congress. $460. The chief officer, or head, in each of the departments is, as above stated, nominated by the President and approved by the Senate; but he may be removed at the will of the President alone, and is responsible to him. If a vacancy happens during the recess of Congress, the President may appoint an officer pro tempore to fill the place till the next meeting of Congress. In some of these great departments there are established subordinate departments, termed bureaus, to which certain subjects of business are assigned. $461. Each of the departments has an official seal; so also have some of the bureaus; copies of their records, authenticated by certificate and the official seal, are, by act of Congress, made evidence equally with the original record or paper; the heads of the departments are authorized by law to appoint the clerks, (except some of the principal clerks, who are appointed by the President,) by virtue of the clause in the Constitution, as above mentioned, authorizing certain appointments to be vested in the heads of departments; and they perform generally such other duties appertaining to their office as may be required of them by the President or by Congress. $462. No contract in behalf of the United States can be made by the heads of departments, except under a law or appropriation authorizing it, so that they cannot involve the government in responsibility for the payment of money, beyond the amount appropriated by Congress. $463. The Secretary of State performs such duties as are enjoined on or intrusted to him by the President, agreeably to the Constitution, relative to the correspondence with and instructions to the public ministers, consuls,

and diplomatic agents of the United States; or to negotiations with foreign States; or to memorials or applications to our own government from foreigners or the public ministers of foreign States; and generally to all matters relating to our foreign affairs. His salary is $8000 a year. $464. The Department of State was organized in the year 1789, by the first Congress which assembled under the Constitution, and was termed the Department of Foreign Affairs, and the duties assigned to it related to the foreign affairs of the government. At a subsequent period in the same year, the name was changed to that of the Department of State, and it was then made the duty of the Secretary to receive, keep, and promulgate the laws enacted by Congress, and to have the charge of the seal of the United States, and affix it to the commissions of all civil officers of the United States lawfully appointed by the President, as well where the consent of the Senate was necessary to the appointment as where it was not. Passports to American citizens visiting foreign countries, are granted by the Secretary of State. $465. After laws have been passed by Congress, they are enrolled on parchment, the sheets of which are of uniform size, and are signed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate; they are then sent to the President of the United States for his approval. If approved by him, he signs them, and, after notifying Congress that he has thus approved and signed them, he deposits the originals in the office of the Secretary of State, where they are bound together in volumes and preserved. $466. In the Department of State, in addition to the Secretary, there are employed an assistant Secretary of

State, who is appointed by the President; a chief clerk a claims clerk, a translator, and numerous subordinate clerks. There is also established within this department a diplomatic bureau, a consular bureau, and a domestic bureau. w

$467. The following is a list of the Secretaries of State, from the organization of the government to the present time:–

THOMAs JEFFERSON, of Virginia. Appointed 26th September, 1789. Resigned. EDMUND RANDOLPH, of Virginia. Appointed 2d January, 1794. Resigned. TIMOTHY PICKERING, of Pennsylvania. Appointed 10th December, 1795. Removed. John MARSHALL, of Virginia. Appointed 13th May, 1800. Appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 31st January, 1801. JAMES MADIsoN, of Virginia. Appointed 5th March, 1801. Became President 4th March, 1809. RoberT SMITH, of Maryland. Appointed 6th March, 1809. Resigned. JAMEs Monroe, of Virginia. Appointed 2d April, 1811, in recess of Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 25th November, 1811. Appointed Secretary of War 27th September, 1814. JAMEs Monroe, of Virginia. Appointed 28th February, 1815. Became President of the United States 4th March, 1817. John Quincy ADAMs, of Massachusetts. Appointed 5th March, 1817. Became President of the United States 4th March, 1825. HENRY CLAY, of Kentucky. Appointed 7th March, 1825. Resigned. MARTIN WAN BUREN, of New York. Appointed 6th March, 1829. Resigned. Edward LIVINGston, of Louisiana. Appointed 24th May, 1831, in recess of Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 12th January, 1832. Louis McLANE, of Delaware. Appointed 29th May, 1833, in recess of Senate. Resigned. John Forsyth, of Georgia. Appointed 27th June, 1834. DANIEL WEBsTER, of Massachusetts. . Appointed 5th March, 1841. Resigned.

ABEL P. Ursh UR, of Virginia. Appointed 24th July, 1843, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 2d January, 1844.

John C. CALhoun, of South Carolina. Appointed 6th March, 1844,

JAMEs Bucha NAN, of Pennsylvania. Appointed 5th March, 1845.

John M. CLAYTON, of Delaware. Appointed 7th March, 1849. Resigned.

DANIEL WEBSTER, of Massachusetts. Appointed 20th July, 1850.

Edward EveRETT, of Massachusetts. Appointed 9th December, 1852.

WILLIAM L. MARcy, of New York. Appointed March 7, 1853.

$468. The Secretary of War performs such duties as are intrusted to him by the President relative to military commissions, or to the land forces or warlike stores of the United States, and to other military affairs of the United States. The Secretary of War does not compose a part of the army of the United States, and is not required to perform military service in the field. His duties are such as may be performed at the seat of government and in the war office. To his department belong the direction and government of the army; the purchase and preservation of the arms and munitions of war; and the erection of all fortifications. His salary is $8000 a year.

$469. The Secretary of War is assisted by a chief clerk and by other clerks. Connected with this department there is a quartermaster's department, the chief officer of which is termed the quartermaster-general; an engineer department, the principal officer of which is termed the chief engineer; a bureau of topographical engineers, the chief officer of which is termed the colonel of topographical engineers; an ordnance department, the chief officer of which is termed the colonel of ordnance; a subsistence department, the chief officer of which is termed the commissary-general; a pay department, the chief officer of which is termed the paymaster-general; and a medical department, the chief officer of which is termed the surgeongeneral. $470. The supervision of the national armories at Springfield and at Harper's Ferry, where arms are manufactured, and of the arsenals and depots, where arms are deposited, also belongs to the Secretary of War. Prior to the creation of the Department of the Interior, to which those matters were then transferred, the Department of War had jurisdiction of Indian affairs, and the granting of pensions and land for military services. In addition to the arms manufactured at the national armories above mentioned, the government procures arms from individuals, according to contracts made with the War Department. $471. The United States and territories are divided geographically into five military divisions, as follows: (1.) Department of the East. Head-quarters at Baltimore. (2.) Department of the West. The country west of the Mississippi river, and east of the Rocky Mountains, except the departments of Texas and New Mexico. Head-quarters at St. Louis. o (3.) Department of Texas. The State of Texas, except the country north of the thirty-third degree of north latitude. Head-quarters at Corpus Christi, Texas. (4.) Department of New Mexico. The territory of New Mexico, except the country west of the one hundred al.d tenth degree of west longitude. Head-quarters at Albuquerque. (5.) Department of the Pacific. The country west of the Rocky Mountains, except the territory of Utah and the department of New Mexico. Head-quarters at San Francisco.

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