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ganizing the navy department, the following bureaus were created within that department, among which its various duties are assigned and distributed by the Secretary. (1.) A bureau of navy-yards and docks. (2.) A bureau of construction, equipment, and repair. (3) A bureau of provisions and clothing. (4.) A bureau of ordnance and hydrography. (5.) A bureau of medicine and surgery. $484. The first officer in each of these bureaus is termed the chief of the bureau, and is appointed by the President; the clerks in the bureaus are appointed by the Secretary of the Navy. All the duties of the bureaus are performed under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, and their orders and decisions are considered as emanating from him, and have force and effect as such, $485. The following is a list of the Secretaries of the Navy:— - . . ".

George CAbot, of Massachusetts. Appointed 3d May, 1798. BENJAMIN StoddeBT, of Maryland. Appointed 21st May, 1798. Resigned. Robert SMITH, of Maryland. Appointed 15th July, 1801, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 26th January, 1802. Appointed Attorney-General 2d March, 1805. JAcob CRowNINSHIELD, of Massachusetts. Appointed 2d March, 1805. PAUL HAMILTON, of South Carolina. Appointed 7th March, 1809. Resigned. WILLIAM Jones, of Pennsylvania. Appointed 12th January, 1813 Resigned. BENJAMIN W. CRowNINshTELD, of Massachusetts. Appointed 17th December, 1814. Smith Thompson, of New York. Appointed 9th November, 1818, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 30th November, 1818. Resigned. - ! John Ropeers. Appointed 1st September, 1823, in recess of the Senate. - - - SAMUEL L SouTHARD, of New Joy. Appointei 16th September, 1823, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed oth December, 1823. John BRANCH, of North Carolina. Appointed 9th March, 1829. Resigned. Levi Woodbury, of New Hampsfire. Appointed 23d May, 1881. in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 27th December, 1831. Resigned. Mahlon Dickerson, of New Jersey. Appointed 30th June, 1834. Resigned. JAMEs K. PAULDING, of New York. Appointed 20th June, 1838. GEORGE E. BADGER, of North Carolina. Appointed 5th March, 1841. Resigned. ABEL P. Upshur, of Virginia. Appointed 13th September, 1841. DAvid HENSHAw, of Massachusetts. Appointed 24th July, 1843, in recess of the Senate, and served until 15th January, 1844. THoMAs W. GILMER, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed and appointed 15th February, 1844. John Y. MAson, of Virginia. Appointed 14th March, 1844. Appointed Attorney-General 5th March, 1845. GEORGE BANCROFT, of Massachusetts. Appointed 10th March, 1845. Resigned. John Y. Mason, of Virginia. Appointed 9th September, 1846, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 17th December, 1846. WILLIAM BALLARD PRESTON, of Virginia. Appointed 7th March, 1849. Resigned. WILLIAM A. GRAHAM, of North Carolina. Appointed 20th July, 1850. Resigned. John P. KENNEDY, of Maryland. Appointed 22d July, 1852. JAMES C. Dobbin, of North Carolina. Appointed March 7th 1853.

$486. The Post-Office Department, under the Constitution, was established September 22, 1789. A line of posts. from Falmouth, in New England, to Savannah, in Georgia, with cross-posts, had been established by the Continental Congress as early as the year 1775, under the direction of a Postmaster-General. The duties of the PostmasterGeneral are to establish and superintend post-offices; appoint postmasters and other persons employed in the mail

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service; and provide for carrying the mail. His salary is $8000. $487. The Postmaster-General is aided in the discharge of his duties by three Assistant Postmasters-General, appointed by himself. He has the sole appointment of all postmasters throughout the United States, whose commissions are less than $1000 a year; those whose commissions yield more than that sum, are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. In case of the death, resignation, or absence of the Postmaster-General, all his powers and duties devolve on the first assistant. $488. Once in three months, the Postmaster-General renders to the Secretary of the Treasury a quarterly account of all the receipts and expenditures in his department, to be adjusted and settled as other public accounts, and the revenue arising from his department is paid into the Treasury of the United States. For a long period the Postmaster-General was not regarded as a member of the President's Cabinet, but in the opening of Jackson's administration the Postmaster-General was called to the same duties as a cabinet counsellor of the President, which had previously been discharged by the secretaries of the other departments. $489. The Postmaster-General, and all other persons employed in the general post-office, or in the care, custody, or conveyance of the mail, are required, previous to entering upon their duties, to take and subscribe an oath, faithfully to perform the duties required of them, and to abstain from every thing. forbidden by the laws in relation to the establishment of post-offices and post-roads. The deputy postmasters in the various cities, towns, and villages throughout the United States, are required to give bonds to secure the faithful discharge of their duties.

$490. The following is a list of the Postmasters-Gene ral:—

SAMUEL Osgood, of Massachusetts. Appointed 26th September, 1789. Resigned. TIMOTHY PICKERING, of Pennsylvania. Appointed 12th August, 1791, in the recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 7th November, 1791. Appointed Secretary of War 2d January, 1796. Joseph HABERSHAM, of Georgia. Appointed 25th February, 1795. Resigned. GideoN GRANGER, of Connecticut. Appointed 28th November, 1801, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 26th January, 1802. RETURN JonATHAN MEIGs, Jr., (Governor of Ohio.) Appointed 17th March, 1814. Resigned. John McLEAN, of Ohio. Appointed 26th June, 1823, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 9th December, 1823. WILLIAM T. BARRY, of Kentucky. Appointed 9th March, 1829. AMos KENDALL, of Kentucky. Appointed 1st May, 1835, in the recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 15th March, 1836. - John M. NILEs, of Connecticut. Appointed 18th May, 1840. FRANCIS GRANGER, of New York. Appointed 6th March, 1841. Resigned. . CHARLEs A. WICKLIFFE, of Kentucky. Appointed 13th September, 1841. Resigned. - CAve. Johnson, of Tennessee. Appointed 5th March, 1845. JAcoB Collam ER, of Vermont. Appointed 7th March, 1849. Resigned. - NATHAN K. HALL, of New York. Appointed 20th July, 1850. Resigned. SAMUEL D. HUBBARD, of Comnecticut. Appointed 31st August 1852. JAMES CAMPBELL, of Pennsylvania. Appointed March 7th, 1853.

$491. By an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1849, a new department was created, called the Department of . the Interior, to which were assigned certain matters which had previously appertained to the Department of State, of War, of Treasury, or of Navy.

$492. The Secretary of the Interior has supervision of

the patent office; the general land office; the accounts of officers of the courts of the United States; Indian affairs; the pension office; the census office; mines; and the public buildings. Salary $8000. $493. The bureaus connected with this department are the land office, the chief officer of which is termed the - Commissioner of the General Land Office; the patent office, the chief officer of which is the Commissioner of Patents; the Indian office, the chief officer of which is the Commissioner of Indian Affairs; the pension office, the chief officer of which is the Commissioner of Pensions; and the census bureau, the chief officer of which is the Superintendent of Census. $494. The care of the Capitol, the President's house and grounds, and the bridges and buildings of a public character erected by Congress in the District of Columbia, belongs to this department. $495. List of Secretaries of the Interior since the organization of the department:Thomas Ewing, of Ohio. Appointed 7th March, 1849. Resigned. Thomas M. T. McKENNAN, of Pennsylvania. Appointed 15th Au

gust, 1850. Resigned. ALEXANDER. H. H. STUART, of Virginia. Appointed 12th September,

Robert McCLELLAND, of Michigan. Appointed March 7th, 1853

$496. An act of Congress of September 24, 1789, made provision for an Attorney-General, whose duty should be to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court of the United States, in which the United States shall be concerned, and to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law, when required by the President, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments in matters which concern their departments. He also advises

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