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$507. When laws became necessary to secure the interests of the confederacy, under the Articles of Confederation, and to exact obedience and punish disobedience by fines or otherwise, Congress was obliged to request the State legislatures to pass and enforce such laws. This was among the evils against which the people of the United States thought proper to provide by a national judiciary. Hence one of the objects of the new Constitution is stated in the preamble, to be “to establish justice.” § 508. The Constitution itself establishes one Supreme Court, but it leaves the establishment of inferior tribunals to Congress. $509. By Art. II. sec. 2, clause 2, the President is authorized to nominate, and, by and with the consent of the Senate, appoint judges of the Supreme Court. The appointment of the judges of the inferior courts is also vested in the President by virtue of his authority to appoint all officers of the United States, whose appointments are not by the Constitution otherwise provided for. $510. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, hold their office, not necessarily for life, or for a definite term of years, but during good behaviour, and their compensation cannot be diminished during their continuance in office. The main object of these provisions is to make the judiciary independent of the other departments of the government, in order to insure boldness and honesty in the discharge of their duties. Nor, for the same reason, can the judges be removed from office by Congress or the President, except upon impeachment and conviction for treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors. § 511. Though the salary of the judges cannot be diminished, it may be increased, during their continuance in

office. If there was no power to increase their pay, according to the increase of business, during the life of the judges, it might happen that their compensation would become wholly inadequate to the additional amount of labour. $512. The Supreme Court of the United States is composed of one chief justice and eight associate justices, and holds, at the city of Washington, one session annually, commencing on the first Monday of December. Any five of the justices constitute a quorum. The associates take precedence according to the date of their commissions, or, where they bear date on the same day, according to their ages. The salary of the chief justice is $6500 a year; of each of the associate justices, $6000. The following is a list of the chief justices of the Supreme Court of the United States:—

John JAY, of New York. Appointed 26th September, 1789. Resigned. John RUTLEDGE, of South Carolina. Appointed 1st July, 1795, in recess of the Senate. Rejected by the Senate 15th December, 1795. OLIVER ELLsworth, of Connecticut. Appointed 4th March, 1796. Resigned. John MARSHALL, of Virginia. (Secretary of State.) Appointed 31st January, 1801. Roger B. TANEy, of Maryland. Appointed 15th March, 1836.

The following is a list of the present associate justices of the Supreme Court:—

John McLEAN, of Ohio. Appointed March 7, 1829.
JAMEs M. WAYNE, of Georgia. Appointed January 9, 1835.
John CATRoN, of Tennessee. Appointed March 8, 1837.
PETER W. DANIEL, of Virginia. Appointed March 3, 1841.
SAMUEL NELson, of New York. Appointed February 14, 1845.
RoBERT C. GRIER, of Pennsylvania. Appointed August 4, 1846.

BENJAMIN Rob BINs CURTIs, of Massachusetts. Appointed December 20, 1851. John A. CAMPBELL, of Alabama. Appointed March 22, 1853. § 513. In addition to the Supreme Court, Congress, under the authority given to establish inferior courts, has established Circuit Courts and District Courts. The United States are divided into nine circuits, one circuit for each of the judges of the Supreme Court. In each of these circuits a Circuit Court is held, which is composed of the judge of the Supreme Court for that circuit, and the district judge for that district. The Circuit Court is held in each circuit twice every year. $ 514. In addition to the division of the United States into circuits, the States are also, by act of Congress, divided into districts, and a court established in every district, called the District Court of the United States; each State generally forms one district, though some of the larger States are divided into two or more districts. § 515. Each court has a clerk appointed by the judge. In each district there is an officer called a marshal, who is appointed by the President and Senate for four years, but removable by the President. He attends the District and Circuit Courts, and executes within his district all their writs. He is the ministerial officer of the court, and his duties correspond generally to those of a sheriff. He gives bond with sureties for the performance of his duties. He appoints deputies, who are also officers of the court, and responsible as such. In each district there is likewise a District Attorney of the United States, who institutes suits for the United States, and conducts the prosecution and trial of all indictments. § 516. The fees and costs to be allowed to clerks, mar

shalls, and attorneys of the Circuit and District Courts of the United States, are regulated by act of Congress, and any officer wilfully or corruptly receiving other or greater fees than those allowed by the act, is liable to fine and imprisonment. § 517. By the original jurisdiction of a court, is meant that jurisdiction which is conferred upon a court in the first instance; appellate jurisdiction is exercised by a court to which an appeal is taken from the judgment of another court. Jurisdiction is also concurrent or exclusive. It is concurrent when it may be exercised by either one of two or more courts; it is exclusive when it can be exercised only by one court. § 518. The Circuit Courts have original jurisdiction of all suits of a civil nature where the matter in dispute exceeds $500 exclusive of costs, brought by the United States, or where an alien is a party, or where the suit is between a citizen of the State where the suit is brought, . and a citizen of another State. It has also jurisdiction in cases arising under the revenue laws of the United States, and the laws relating to copyrights, and to patents for Inventions and discoveries. § 519. The District Courts have jurisdiction, among other matters, of certain minor crimes and offences committed within their respective districts, or on the high seas; of admiralty and maritime cases; of seizures under the trade laws, and of penalties and forfeitures incurred under those laws. An appeal may be taken from the District Court to the Circuit Court, where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of fifty dollars.

SECTION. 2. [Clause 1.] “The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this

Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; —to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;–to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;-to Controversies between two or more States;–between a State and Citizens of another State;—between Citizens of different States, between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.”

§ 520. This clause enumerates in detail the subjects over which the courts of the United States have jurisdiction. They are as follows:

(1.) All cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority. (2.) All cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls. (3.) All cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. (4.) Controversies to which the United States shall be a party. (5.) Controversies between two or more States. (6.) Controversies between a State and citizens of another State. (7.) Controversies between citizens of different States. (8.) Controversies between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States. (9.) Controversies between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects.

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