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risen to place among the minor notabilities, Harriet Preston's translation of Mirèio" Mr. Jerome must be included. That humor (Mireille) by Frédéric Mistral, the French of the better vein which seeks the kinship of Provençal poet, a work in a new school of mirth rather than that of satire, and is not French poetry, which excited at the time great devoid of sympathy with the faults at wbich enthusiasm, and from which Gounod took the it laughs so pleasantly, is not so common theme of an opera. This Provençal renais. that we can afford to let it pass. Mr. Jerome sance, known as the Félibrige, “lou rièi is a gracious and kindly jester, and he wears paire de Felibre," has produced several brillthe cap and bells in the exercise of a moodiant additions to the literature of France, without the like of which the world would be butt he founder of it, who died recently, is a far more doleful place. He has found fit. less well known than some of his disciples. ting field for the exercise of his talents in the Joseph Roumanille died at Avignon on May domain of stage-land, and the pleasant little 24th. He was born August 8th, 1818, at St. book before us shows he has plenty more to Remy, where his father was a gardener. Edusay on the same subject. The present sketches cated at Tarascon, he went to Avignon in 1845 relate the common professional experiences as tutor in a school, where one of his scholars of the actor, and are full of lively incidents was Frédéric Mistral. His first volumenf and amusing pictures, some of which are as poemsa volume which dates the beginning good in their way as the stage experiences of of the movement which has added a beautiful Nicholas Nickleby. The book appears to have modern literature to the beautiful early literbeen derived from personal history and not ature of the Troubadours—was “Li Marfrom observation, and of course is all the bet- garideto" (1847). This was followed by “ Li ter for this reason. It does not sparkle with Capelan” (1851), “Li Provenzalo" (1852), the strong and powerful quality of the writer's “Li Souniarello (1852), “ La Part de Diéu" earlier writing, but it is racy and entertain- (1853), “La Campana Mountado” (1857), ing. Ulysses does not always bend his bow. " Li Nouvè'' (1865), “Li Flour de Sàuvi,”

“ Lis Entarro.chin” (1874), and “ Fau i'ana."

In 1864 a collected edition of Roumapille's FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. works in verse and prose was published in THE Atheneum notices with marked appro

two volumes, “Lis Oubreto en Vers'' and bation and with no reservation of comment a

"Lis Oubreto en Proso." In 1883 a volume short story by Mr. Frank Harris, the editor of of tales was issued under the name of “ Li the Fortnightly Review, published in the last

Conte Prouvençau e li Cascareleto.” Rounumber of that periodical, entitled “ A Mod. manille, who was a bookseller, was his own ern Idyl.” We do not propose to discuss the publisher, and the publisher of the works of literary value of the story here, but only to

Mistral and most of the other Félibres. The make a passing reflection in wonder that the

charm of Roumanille's work lies in its quaint staid Atheneum should have failed to call at

and simple freshness, its delicious humor, tention to the abominable indecency and want its absence of literary artifice. of taste, not to use stronger terms, shown by

have the flavor of folk-songs, his tales the the author. The story is simply that of an

flavor of folk-tales. It is not literature that adulterous courtship between an American

one reads, it is spoken words that one hears, it minister and the wife of his principal deacon.

is the people singing at their work. Tales The way in which religious ecstasy and licen.

like “ Lou Curat de Cucugnan" ("Le Curé de tious passion are commingled is worthy of Cucugnan," well known in Daudet's French verthe most advanced disciples of the new French sion) and “ Lou Abat Tabuissoun" (" L'Abbé school. A self-respecting critic would far Tabuisson”) have the exquisite and perfectly better run the risk of being called a Philis- pious irreverence of the monkish legends of tine than express anything but disgust at

the Middle Ages, with little that betrays a such a flagrant insult to all the established

modern origin. decencies, This short story contains more callous immorality than “Madame Bovary''

On June 3d Messrs. Sotheby sold the anto. or “Mademoiselle de Maupin.” There is not graph mss. of Wilkie Collins's plays, together a reputable magazine in the United States

with the copyright and fees accruing therewhich would dare to publish such a story.

from. Appended to the same catalogue are a

number of autograph letters, chiefly of literMany of our readers will remember Miss ary interest, including the original agreement

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iant brains are entirely undiluted by any gallant ex-Confederate hero, Colonel Fargus, principle except that of self-love. Lewis, on still a youngish man in the prime of life. the point of entering into possession of the But there—we have said enough. Let the property, receives a letter from a London law reader take a taste of the pudding and find firm indicating the possession of letters on out the rest of the plums for himself. the part of Hillyard which circumstantially

The Marquis of Lorne possesses the merits prove that the former was the son not of of having husbanded an English princess, of George Kerr's wife, but of his mistress, and having made a respectable Governor-General therefore not competent to be his uncle's heir.

of Canada, and of being the heir of a dukedom Fargus now realizes the logic of

and the future head of the Campbells. His quences,” in the fact that his idolized son

ambition, however, leads him to crave laurels risks disinheritance on the score of illegiti. which are not accidental ; and he has sought macy from his own past folly, and that he,

to struggle up the cliffs of Parnassus and seek the only one who could explain the true mean

fellowship with the muses with the sincere ing of the dangerous documents, is legally self-confidence which sometimes makes medidead. All the resources of his craft and cour.

ocrity respectable. Our noble author is forage are, however, stimulated to the utmost by tunate in this, that he has no reputation to paternal love to fight a losing battle to a vic

risk by writing poor fiction. Candor forces tory. Hillyard to his amazement, for he can

us to hint that, had his prefix been a plebeian discover no motive, soon learns that his true title, he would have found it difficult to have opponent in the duel is not his cousin, but

found any shrewd practitioner in literary obhis cousin's mentor. It is scarcely needful to

stetrics to have presided at the birth of the dull the edge of the reader's curiosity by re.

infant in the case of the alleged novel before tailing the thrust and parry of two daring and

The book is without point, and the only well-matched fencers. Each learns to respect feature at all interesting (something, by the the other's prowess in this battle of wits, and

way, which has only casual connection with if Colonel Fargus finally disarms his oppo. the story) is a description of a remarkable nent without revealing his identity to the

cave on the seaboard of Northern Scotland, world, it is only by the accident which always which is rather good. How the fair American justifies, in novels at least, Milton's dictum, heroine meets, loves, and espouses a youthful “ Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel Scot whom she meets in California constitutes just." The somewhat vulgar and un-Miltonic the whole of the story, which is unillumined accident in this case comes through the agency by any scintilla of romance or by any peneof a pretty barmaid, who had loved the sly trating insight into matters which the world college don " not wisely but too well." The conception of Hillyard, the Oxford have commended itself to the fancy of the

cares for. Why this prosaic narrative should scholar, who carries parallel with his keen

author one seeks in vain to guess. “From love of science and letters and a genuine in- Shadow to Sunlight” has at least the minor tellectual pre-eminence the tastes of the vo

merit of being short. It was an ancient boast luptuary and the arts of the scoundrel, is a

of the Clan Campbell, “ It is a far cry to strong piece of character work, well worked Sochow." We may say, too, that it is a long out in detail and studied with notable literary stretch from the well-marked talent of the art. The cynical indifference of one so well

Duke of Argyle, who has made himself honestablished in his own superiority that he de ored as a scholar and thinker, to the medispises the opinions of those who have learned ocrity of his eldest son, who seeks to disport that he is a hypocrite is warmed, too, with a himself in the more airy and elegant fields of touch of humanity in keeping with the cyni. letters. It is, however, an infinitely better cism. The beaten gamester at the last dis

and manlier way of diena ing ennui than im. covers that his plebeian mistress, she who posing heavy " baccai

iends, as had been the principal agent in his defeat,

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helled he makes her an honest woman, in utter de.

to buy and read an fiance of his own interests and worldly convention, because it so pleased him. An in

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site of his principal deacon, is the people singing at the time De murin skind religious eestasy and licen like “ Lou ('urat de 'not tran ' ;'N Hans farinn ata cormingled is worthy of Cuongnan,“ well known in mles is owned resten finest aivanced disciples of the new French sion) and “ Lon Abne T'abus septen skal I self respecting critic would far Tabuisson") have the oxyninite stui

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with the copyright and fees aaruing the

from, Appended to the same catalogue are Jars will remember Miss ary interest, including the original por

number of autograph letters, chiotr o hi

. in the United States ablish such a story.

typical humanity, withont any trial being its position it is a community of stagnation, made of their intrinsic value. The gree: no matter how great the prosperity of the and covetousness associated with the early surface may seem, and sooner or later will discovery of the continent by the for- reap what it has sown. Already the vigor eigner have therefore to be accounted for, and freshness of youth, at one period so as their impress has been left on its ex- captivating to outsiders, has been lost in pansion side by side with that of the Pil- the premature arrival of a uniddle age of grim Fathers ; and the fabled fountain, labor problems. The America of to-day which at one time seemed to have been holds out no helping ideas to solve the found in the development of the demo- higher questions of life. Its democracy cratic spirit, is still to be sought by every appears to be content with its greatest one who desires the happiness of man. achievement—the victory of self-govern

In writing so, it is not, of course, de- ment; and having provided a vote for nied that the progress of the world has every one at the attainment of manhood, been accelerated by the influence of the has retired from the contest with an air United States, which consolidated free- of repose. It cannot, however, rest satisdom and taught the way to wealth by fied here, as the winning of independence throwing to the winds every vestige of was the realization of a hope long cher"ancient prejudice ;' but the lever that ished in England. The right, too, on accomplished these results was education, which self-government has been based — and the early advantage derived from its the reason and the probity of the individadoption is now no longer exclusively re- ual—must be exercised to the full to make tained. The increase of wealth, neverthe- progress

progress a fact; and this is not accomless, which remains the chief feature of plished by the casting of a vote.

A rethe gain, cannot be taken as the gauge of sponsibility not to be forgotten attaches progress, though it is commonly accepted to the voter, requiring at his hands the as evidence ; for although its distribution consideration of the interests of the nais greater than at any other time, thereby tion over and above all political machines. enabling vast numbers to enjoy a large He must subordinate individual good to material happiness, its whole drift, except national gain ; and where this is not a in the British Isles, runs in the direction primary object, an end will be made to of the creation of monopolics : and so healthy advance. The Protective tariff long as this is the case, the interests of that shuts off foreign competition with the many must be sacrificed to those of the cry of America for Americans, forces the few. The fight for freedom in Ameri- the cultivation of the one-sided view. The ca, the rebellion against dictation, after consequences, accordingly, are visible in destroying all obstacles to that improve- a reawakened spirit of sectarianism ; and ment of the race which is now a reality, although the modern tendency of Conhas thus lost its prime significance in the gress is toward, assuming the powers of a modern unfolding of events. The selfish- national council like Westminster, this is ness of the nation in upholding a system more the outcome of a wish to speak with of Protection, greatly accentuated by the authority than the natural flow of opinion M'Kinley tariff, is beginning to be re- to find a centre at Washington. flected in the selfishuess of the individual If, therefore, American democracy is seeking a special good. Were it not not to belie the songs of the poets of the actually in existence, the political philoso- first years of the century, who welcomed pher would naturally look for its effect on its birth as the downfall of tyranny, it private action, wherever a public policy must restudy the history of its early is based on exclusivism, and expect to see foundation. Its future must be devoted produced internally a disposition of affairs to emancipating the mind of the public parallel to what exists externally. So from the pursuit of dividends, by giving that a democracy, of all forms of govern- a check to those monopolies of trade that ment, which cultivates nationally its own are building up a greater despotism than peculiar interests to the neglect of the the mercantile system, the origin of the welfare of humanity, must run the risk of American rebellion. If it is not to turn its local affairs standing in the same rela- in upon itself like animal intelligence, tion to its general attitude as this stands with the fulfilment of the original object towards the world. In the falseness of of its existence, but is to be creative and

We see

progressive, it will be necessary to destroy with the rise of artificial liberty there are individual selfishness by widering the area signs of national trouble in the ballotof competition,—in opening all ports to box. the business of the nations, and freely ac- That the adoption of Protection has incepting their goods. Even now it is evi- creased the spirit of selfishness, is evident dent, through the unequal diffusion of not alone in the United States. wealth, notwithstanding a broad average it everywhere in the national desire to of gain hitherto unparalleled, that the benefit at some other nation's expense, as rich are growing richer, and the poor if such a thing had never been shown to poorer. An oligarchy of the one rules a be impossible, by the laws of political democracy of the other. At the present economy.

In America, however, this rate of procedure, and under the same spirit is beginning to make itself felt to fiscal system, it cannot be very long be- such an extent, that the people are before a line of demarcation will appear be- coming vaguely conscious, by the load of tween the two, and a return set in toward taxation they are conipelled to bear, of the social state of ancient Rome. No the necessity for tariff reform. Unforother cause than the forcing of commerce tunately for themselves, it fell to the lot into unnatural channels, seems adequate of the republican party to endeavor to to explain the growing congestion ; for effect this end by promising a happy time only an eighth of the arable land is esti- to every one, and, per contra, a bad tirne mated to be under cultivation, no want of to the rest of mankind through the notoenterprise is shown by the people, nor rious M’Kinley bill. No measure could are there any internal checks on mercan- more clearly demonstrate the blindness tile transactions ; while in Great Britain which has fallen on political Americans, the late Trade Commission made clear owing to the cultivation of selfishness, that remuneration was almost even be- than the passing of this Act into law ; tween capital and work. Cobden discov- and it is undoubtedly a satisfactory thing ered long ago it was the interest of every that the recent elections have proved the country to arrange its finances on the nation at large to be more or less aware freest basis, so that imported articles of the fact. Still, the consequences arismight enter into consumption at the cheap- ing internally out of national self-aggranest price. The Americans, however, hold dizement are seen at the bottom of nearly an opposite opinion, and have heavily every great question. Witness the action bandicapped in foreign markets not only of President Cleveland, in rejecting the their farmers, but their manufacturers, by treaty negotiated by Mr. Chamberlain and the duties they levy on the introduction Sir C. Tupper, which was reported to the of raw materials. They broke the shackles Senate as fair and equitable ; and the of social despotism, but permitted the protracted negotiations over the right of politicians to reforge them under the guise fishing in Behring Sea, which has led Mr. of domestic welfare, and while glorying Blaine to trifle with the peculiarly Ameriin the delusion of an expression called can idea of arbitration. Both of these re“ republican freedom," cling to class sults can be traced very clearly, as is genlegislation of the worst description. The erally believed, to the wish of securing a ancient boast of what democracy would party triumph, and yet in both the weldo for the United States and for the world fare of the country was overlooked ; for it has consequently become at the moment cannot be to the universal good that a little vain. The political liberation of strained relations should exist between the the individual, the great increase of mate- two great branches of the Anglo-Saxon rial comfort, has not been followed up by race. a period of natural freedom, which would Not so very long ago there was pubhave carried the new conditions on into a lished at New York a small book called new era of progress, but with enormous “ Our Country," which, although written possibilities lying at the hand of every from a theological standpoint, enjoyed, one, has been succeeded by years of arrest and still enjoys, a wide circulation. It --so far as the continuous amelioration of drew the attention of Americans to the the lot of the wage-earner is concerned - internal dangers menacing the Republic, that has created a false position, and en- and struck a true note on the coming slaved the population as a whole, until supremacy of the West. It is granted by

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