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ter of fact it is only once a week, after otism of the Serbs would be tolerably sure market, that one may find a few old peas- lo find vent in insulting epithets, if not in ants incapable on the bigh roads, whereas more active aggression. the streets of Belgrade resound with Time, however, and a little more fricshouts and brawling every evening up till tion with the rest of the world will smooth midnight ; and as long as the offenders down many of the angularities of these are Serbs, and not foreigners, the police young nations which are apt to strike a are extremely indulgent. For the latter, visitor with unpleasant and, perhaps, unhowever, no pity is shown if he is in the due force. On the whole, if the reader wrong, and scant sympathy if he has cause never carries away more disagreeable recof complaint. Indeed, it is scarcely ad- ollections from the places of his sojourn visable for him to go abroad alone at than does the writer from the Balkans, he night, or to resort to any place of public may be congratulated on his good fortune. amusement except in company of friends. -Fortnightly Review, Should he attempt it, the exuberant patri

TSAR V. JEW.

BY THE COUNTESS OF DESART.

"Now there arose a new king over is no longer one between the Tsar and his Egypt which knew not Joseph ; and he Semitic subjects only. said to his people, Behold the people of The Jewish question is emphatically the children of Israel are too many and not a religious question. Except in Spain too mighty for us : come let us deal and, to a slighter extent, in Italy, it never wisely with them, lest they multiply, and has been a religious question. The Init come to pass that, when there falleth quisition persecuted the Jew, as it perseout any war they also join themselves unto cuted the Mussulman and the Protestant our enemies. . . . And the Egyptians —as the “ Ingoldsby Legend " has it :made the children of Israel to serve them

Turks, heretics, infidels, jumpers and Jews. with rigor.” So said Pharaoh in the first chapter of Exodus, and so quotes an anti- No one else ever did in the narrow sense Semitic writer as one of the reasons for of the word. The Romans tolerated him ; the improvement of the Jews off the face Charlemagne and his successors placed of Russia ; a second reason being that him under a spiritual ban and left him though a large number of Slavs try their severely alone, and we find no traces of utmost to avoid fulfilling their soldiering persecution in the early centuries of the duties, twenty-three out of twenty-eight Christian era. per cent. of those who shirk the conscrip- And why? The reason is not very rection are Jews.

ondite or far to seek, It is useless to try and discuss any propo- If Front de Bæuf had been placed in the sition with such a logician ; but the two Palace of Truth instead of the Castle of points above mentioned are half-a-dozen Torquilstone, would he have suggested pages apart, and the casual reader may heretical doctrines as the reason for makeasily miss their curious connection, and ing Isaac of York acquainted with the be carried away by the plausible argu- gridiron in his dungeon? ments in between to imagine that the es- Did King John draw the teeth of his sayist has proved his case against the race Semitic subjects because they had not he sweepingly condemns. But the ques. submitted to the rites of baptism? tion of the Russian Jew, not as connected It took some time after the lawless period with Lord Mayor's meetings, past or pres- that followed the disintegration of the ent, but as concerning the pauper immi- Roman Empire for wealth once more to gration into the East End of London, has accumulate in the hands of individuals become one of such burning interest to and the knights and soldiers of fortune millions of human begins that it is well acquired it quicker than the glow-working worth careful sifting and elucidation, and and much-harassed trader. But unpleas

ers.

crease.

ant consequences might have followed had prefers to mate with the Roman Catholic John's and Front de Bæuf's victims been and the Protestant with the Protestant. christened Norman or Saxon. He whom Therefore, the Jewish community remains the Church had placed outside the pale of dogmatically the Jewish community all justice and charity had alone no defend the world over, though its numbers in

But in Russia only is it also linIt was power trading on the superstition guistically a Jewish community. The of its neighbors. Have anotives so very Russian Jew is a legacy from the partition much altered since those days ? Human of Poland, and, like the rest of the counnature is unfortunately the same all the try, knew not Russian when he was forciworld over, whether Saxon or Gael, Teu- bly annexed. The wealthy Jew can of ton or Celt, Slav or Semite. When a course easily learn the language ; but how crowd of ill-fed, ill-housed, uneducated is the poor one 10 do so when the native and moneyless folk see a minority in their holds aloof from him save for the necessimidst possessed of luxuries they yearn for ties of business ; and the law steps in to yet cannot obtain, it takes little eloquence forbid the attendance of more than a certo persuade them that, as that minority is tain percentage of Jewish children in the outside the pale of spiritual welfare, it national schools, a percentage calculated, ought also to be placed outside that of not on the number of Jewish, but of temporal welfare and its goods given over Christian children. to those whom Providence and the execu- When equal facilities of education are tive Government consider more deserve given to both in Russia, the Jew and the ing. “ Heaven helps those that help moujik will talk the same tongue, and themselves” is a proverb liable to more “ Yiddish” (the Polish dialect of Hethan one interpretation.

brew*) will disappear from that country The Gordon riots were not accepted in as it is disappearing from Whitechapel or England as a reason for turning all the Ro- the Ghettos of Frankfort and Rome. man Catholics out of Great Britain ; yet 3. Why are the Jews not agriculturists? it is now seriously argued that the anti- The Russians say because they are physSemitic risings justify the removal of the ically and intellectually incapable of the Jews from Russia.

pursuit. If so, whose fault is that? As far as I can make out, the Russians They were not created so. In the Old object to the Jews :

Testament there is much description of 1. Because they increase rapidly and certain kingdoms of Judah and Israel their infant mortality is a tenth smaller whose exports consisted almost exclusively than that of the Christian Russians.

of corn and wine, and whose towns were 2. Because they do not amalgamate few and far between.

But the conqueror with and become lost in the Slav races. overwhelmed and dispersed them to the

3. Because they are not agriculturists four corners of the earth : and the Jews and show no desire to till the soil.

perforce turned to other means of liveli4. Because they are principally middle- hood. men, and belong to no guild.

It would indeed have been marvellous 5. Because they shirk soldiering. had the agricultural instinct remained in

6. Because they evade the laws made the Jew during the seventeen and a half against them.

centuries in which, whatever privileges Reason Number 1 may surely be left to were given to or withheld from him, all take care of itself ; or percbance many nations alike were agreed as to this--that curates of the Anglican Church with small the Jew, as a Jew, could not and should salaries and large families may explain. not hold land. It is curious that most of

Number 2 is essentially a religious, or the Judophobes in this country should rather sectarian, complaint up to a certain belong to the party that asserts that an point; and beyond that point only proves Irish tenant, notwithstanding fixity of the condition artificially produced by one tenure and compensation for disturbance, of those laws which the Russians declare cannot possibly succeed in the struggle are simply maintained for self-defence. That is to say, a Jewish parent naturally

* “Yiddish” is merely the phonetic spellprefers to see his children marry into Jew- ing of the German word “ Jüdisch,” as proish families, just as the Roman Catholic nounced by the German Polish Jew.

There was

for life unless he is given the fee simple enough and powerful enough to form itself of the acres he farms ; and at the same into a monopoly. time agiees with the Russian that the Jew What remained, then, for the Jew to is unfit to be a landowner because, when do? He might be a jeweller, since such he was not even allowed to become the a trade required no shop-front to reveal leaseholder of the house he dwelt in, he the profession to the casual passer-by, in did not devote bis energies to tilling the spite of guild or livery, if he had capital. soil in which he was by law forbidden to But if he had no capital ? hold the slightest interest. Till the be- evidently nothing left but “ trade" in its ginning of this century such a law existed original and simplest form ; the which is all over Europe. It remained the law of still exemplified in the present day by the Austria till after 1848 ; it is to this day clothes merchant and the bric-à-brac seller the law in Russia.

--that “ trade” which begins and is deIt surely does not require any deep sci- veloped by the middleman. entific knowledge in this century to recog- When the full development of a coun. nize that heredity is a fact to be reckoned try has made such progress that the market with. We acknowledge it in cows, in is brought virtually to every man's door horses, in dogs ; why, or rather how, it is possible to do without the middledeny it in man? Does the Russian be- man, and to save the pocket of the purlieve that the Orloff trotter is a creature chaser while giving more to the producer, radically different from the common as Lord Dupraven and his committee have horse ; or does he admit that the speed been trying to prove in England. But in and form of that valuable breed are the an immense empire, sparsely populated, result of careful selection and training and not as yet well provided with railways through many generations ? Are not the and other means of locomotion, I fail to Barzois— those marvellous hounds of

marvellous hounds of see how the producer and purchaser are which any two will master the fiercest to get on without an intermediary to bring wolf-carefully mated according to qual- them together. How is the small farmer, ity and ferocity as well as strength and trader, or even workman, to sell bis comcolor? Yet he insists that, after seven- modities where the expenses of transit are teen hundred years of forcible divorce from enormous, unless the middleman is ready land, fifty years should have sufficed to to take the commodities and the expenses reintroduce into the Jewish nature the together off his hands? If the middleold love of vineyard and cornfield which, man gives as little and asks as much as he since A.D. 70, Roman and Teuton, Celt can, he is only acting on what Adam and Slav, have so determinedly and im- Smith has laid down as one of the bases partially striven to wean him from. of sound political economy-buying in the

4. But it was not only from the pos- cheapest and selling in the dearest marsession of land that the Jew was every- ket; and it is surely better for the petty where excluded in the good old days, and producer to sell for a very tiny profit than is now excluded in Russia. The guilds not to sell at all. were not in the habit of opening their But, argues the anti-Semite, we do not portals to the Hebrew dogs ; nor do they want the Jew for tbat : the Slav koulak do so now in Russia. What would the will do as well, and him no one minds. patron saint have said to the confraternity Now koulak does not mean middleman at ihat brought so vile an outcast under his all, but usurer ; and though we know sacred banner ? Yet most of the trades that in all languages usurer and Jew are allowed no one to practise their particular looked upon as convertible terms, it does craft unless that person was possessed of not follow that middleman and usurer are the freedom of the guilds. Wherefore it synonymous. Nor are they really so in is evident that Jews could not follow those Russia ; for the first quality the antitrades. They might be workmen ; they Semitic critic ascribes to the koulak is that could never be master joiners or builders, he never moves from the village he is born turners or carpenters, tailors or boot- in, and does not, like the Jew, carry his makers, armorers or upholsterers; or in disagreeable calling from place to place. fact become independent professors of So, unless the Russian peasant, the moujik, any handicraft that had grown lucrative conducts his business on lines similar to those of Messrs. Dillon and Sheehy in the that they must buy themselves off. This late Sligo election-who, while residing principle was allowed to influence all offiunder the same roof, communicated with cials, and was invariably put in force each other through the London news- against the hated and despised Jew, to papers—it is hard to see how the koulak whom wealth meant home and protection can act as middleman.

for wife and children, and poverty misery The usurer has no reason or motive for without hope or redress. What wonder, wandering. Probably he begins by lend- then, that the whole mental energy of the ing his stray pennies at interest to his race should be turned toward solving the school or playfellows; and his neighbors one pressing question of existence-how are the clients nature has supplied him to get rich quickest ? What wonder that, with. ble has no need to look further after the lapse of centuries, none should afield ; and his business increases or de- be so proficient in that particular branch creases according to the circumstances of of human industry ? those about him. Neither is usury neces- Another fact made much of is that the sarily his only occupation ; it is but a moujiks have often risen in riot against comfortable little extra way of adding to the Jews, but never against the koulaks. his income. When the moujik has suc- Naturally. Even the most illiterate peascessfully sold his small crop of grain to ant will think twice before he is persuaded the middleman, he no longer requires the to run the risk of being hanged or trans. help of the koulak to pay his score at the ported for the sake of saving his neighbor publican's. The koulak, who was at first from being distrained upon for a few simply the moujik who had the half-crown kopecks. But the temptation is very ready to help the poor debtor to whom different when the neighbor pleads : “ If the publican threatened to supply no more you will help me to rid myself of my debt vodka till the score was wiped out, once to my Jewish creditor by joining in an more becomes the moujik.

attack on the Jews, you will be amply reThere are, however, heavier debts than paid for your trouble by what you can the bill for vodka to be met, whether con- plunder from their houses during the riot, venient or not; and the saving and thrifty and you know that no punishment to neighbor round the corner has not enough speak of will follow even if we should be spare cash for the rates and taxes of his individually found out." The Jew who friend as well as his own. So the Jewish can be robbed in a pardonable anti-Semitmiddleman is appealed to, who is presuma- ic riot is a less dangerous victim than the bly richer, the essence of whose trade is Russian creditor who can have the rightto wander among small and poor communi- eously indignant borrower and rioter sent ties and purchase the fruits of their labor to jail. for larger and richer ones. Thus circum- Finally, let those who believe the abstances lead to the middleman becoming sence of the Jew trader will so vastly beneusurer as well : though to those familiar fit the Russian farmer examine the last rewith the ways of the usurer of the West- ports of the tax-gatherers for the winter ern world, I would recommend the pe- quarter just gone by, and those of the rusal of the article headed “ Russian versus Nijni-Novgorod Fair of 1890, when, for Jew” in Vanity Fair of the 14th of the first time, no Jew was allowed to atApril. Would they view with equal hor- tend. ror the usurer who demands 60

5. The Jew is by law ordered to be a cent''?

soldier ; yet three-quarters of the recruits Still the fact remains that in Russia the who sbirk their term of service are Jews. middleman generally is also a money. A little observation of what goes on in Jender, and that in the other countries of the Russian army may account for this Europe the Jewish trader has largely de- fact without necessarily implying that the veloped into nothing but a money-lender. Jew objects to soldiering quà soldiering. In Russia now, and elsewhere in the Mid. The attractions of the Russian army for dle Ages, laws were enacted as a means of the Jews are, for example, that their increasing the government treasury; any Christian comrades shon their companionone who had the money could buy im- ship, and are allowed to heap abuse and munity from them, and they were only indignity on them unrebuked. enforced against the poor to show the rich matter what his conduct, his gallantry,

ten per

his talent, his merit, the Jew cannot rise the law. For example, many houses osfrom the ranks.

tensibly owned by Christians belong to In the second of two articles that have Jews ; they live in places outside the Pale appeared in Vanity Fair on the 4th and of Settlement ; they cause themselves to ilth of last April respectively on this sub- be registered as clerks of certain merchants ject-articles written by a hand very easy simply to obtain the right of living in certo recognize—this very important griev- tain towns, when they are not, and never ance is met by the airy remark, “ The intend to be, clerks to those merchants. Russian must also serve and is very seldom This simply means that the Pale of Settlepromoted !" I should like to know what inent, large enough in the time of its the inventor of the conscription would founder, the Empress Catherine the Sechave said to this sentiment, and how it ond, became too small for its population would have tallied with his justification of as the generations increased ; and, when the system—that a marshal's baton is hid the Jews found that it was easy to obtain in every recruit's knapsack. But then all sorts of concessions by paying for the misogynist of Austerlitz would not have them, it was natural they should put their admitted 0. K.'s,” right to argue on earnings to such a use. They are perpetany snbject.

ually being blamed for only pursuing one Nor is this law against the possible rise profession, and outnumbering the Orthoof the Jewish conscript one of those dox population in the towns where they where the exception proves the rule. reside ; yet when they try, by the only There is no possibility of exception, and means in their power, to practise other the Jew is fully aware of this. I myself trades, or disseminate themselves inore happen to know of a curious illustration of widely, they are at once denounced as what a Jew may expect in the army of law breakers. the Tsar. My authority for it is the late As to the crime of holding land and Chancellor, the famous Prince Gortchacuw, houses in other names than their own, this who told it to prove that his Government accusation turns, boomerang-like, on the was helpless to relax the law.

accusers : for to deny to solvent citizens In the Russian army, during the Turco- the rights of citizenship is in itself a proof Russian war, was a young Jew who dis- of "something rotten” in the State : tinguished himself to such an extent that while the fact that good Orthodox Rushis General actually petitioned the Tsar sians aid and abet the very transparent and to grant him a commission. The Tsar much-winked-at fraud shows the feeling did so, and the commission arrived. of the country on the subject. Thereupon all the officers in the regiment “« The Jew must be got rid of at

ang, to which the young man was appointed price-as one would get rid of microbes, resigned in a body : although they had cries Prince Metchersky. been eye-witnesses of the exploits that had “ He must be shown,” says Mr. Skalled to the promotion, and knew all the koffsky, “ that his halcyon days in Russia circunustances. The commission was can- have gone by.”' celled. Comment is needless.

Therefore the penal laws against him In the rest of Europe, since the embargo are enforced, say they ; and these laws was removed—and the Western nations the Jew can easily avoid by leaving the were at least logical in holding that the country. man who could not be an officer could This sounds very reasonable and plausinot be a soldier either—there are plenty ble ; but let the reader take a map of of Jewish soldiers. There are few, per- Russia and look out on it the south-west haps, in England ; but a goodly number provinces and the fifteen governments that in France and Germany, where the con- comprise the“ Pale of Settlement.” Per. scription has given the young Jew the haps it may astonish him to find that its taste for soldiering, which he not unnatu- boundaries do not at any one point rally had lost during centuries in which “march” with the confines of the emthe necessity for self-preservation created pire, but are well inland-one of the laws the hereditary instinct for the avoiding of being that no Jew may settle within a cerphysical danger.

tain number of iniles of the frontier, 6. Finally, the Russian Jew is reproached Therefore, the first step the Russian Govwith a constant and systematic evasion of ernment takes for enabling the Jew to rid

NEW SERIES. – VOL. LIV., No. 2.

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