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nizing the supreme claim of suffering,” Beatrice, who," after hearing a pitying Mary “ ceased to consider the minor pro- sigh,” “fixed her eyes” on the poet prieties very carefully.” “Sbe listened “ with the kind of love that a mother to the voice of womanhood rather than to gives to a delirious child." * the voice of conventional discretion." A yet more beautiful passage is the “She loved as a pure-minded person, and opening of Canto xxii. † where Dante not as a prude.” “ For just a little space represents himself as spellbound by the Mary Crookenden hesitated. Then calın- presence of Beatrice, and running to her ly, with a lift of her head, and a fine seri- as a little child where he can most conousness tempering the yielding gentleness fide"_" and she, like a mother in haste of the action, she placed her hand in his.” to aid her boy, pale and breathless," “She had given Colthurst her hand in speaks to him with the cheering voice he purest pity, in the unreasoning instinct to loved of old. I soothe him—somehow, anyhow, as one soothes a suffering child or dumb beast, careless of the means so long as the end is
* “ Ond' ella, appresso d'un pio sospiro, Gli occhi drizzò ver me con quel sembiante,
Che madre fa sopra figliuol deliro.'. That is a fine touch. Colthurst, we are
“Paradiso," i. 101. told, “reverenced Mary Crookenden," + " Oppresso di stupore alla mia guida and she responded with something of the
Mi volsi, come parvol che ricorre maternal feeling, the quality of pity which
Sempre colà dove più si confida.
E quella, come madre che soccorre is at the root of all true love. It plays an Subito al figlio pallido ed anelo important part on a subsequent occasion Con la sua voce che il suol ben disporre, in the hold of Colthurst on Miss Crooken.
Mi disse : ... den. While talking to " a Royal lady"
“Paradiso," xxii. 1. at an evening party he catches a glimpse Cf. Canto
E come fantolin, che ver la mamma of Mary, and the delighted surprise makes Tende le braccia poi che il latte prese," etc. bim stammer so badly that Mary cannot Great authcrities have maintained that control herself, and is obliged to run away
Beatrice was not a real woman at all, but only for fear of making a scene. “ A despera- Beatrice means Wisdom ; for Rosetti, the Im.
a symbol or allegorical figure. For Biscioni tion of pity, of anger, that he should be perial Monarchy; for Perez, the Active Intel. at a disadvantage, of longing to help him, lect; Imbriani, Renier, and Bartoli—all of shelter bim, stand between him and all them careful students of Dante—also main. possibility of ridicule, had arisen in Mary's tain that Beatrice is a mere creature of the mind, had made her cry out, and then in derstand how any one can read the “Can.
For my part, I cannot un. shame and fear had made her turn and zoniere," with Dante's own commentary in the
• Vita Nuova," to say nothing of the" CommeTo illustrate my remark, that something dia” and “ Convito," and still doubt whether of the maternal feeling belongs to all pure further into the question, the following facts
Without going love, I will now put in evidence the testi
appear to me conclusive in favor of Beatrice's mony of two of the greatest masters of personal existence : (1) Dante records her human emotion.
death (“ Vita Nuova," $ 30), and gives the When the demons in Malebolge bear date. (2) He relates (“Convito,” vol. i. c. down on Virgil and Dante, the “ leader” 13) that he remained for more than two years
inconsolable for her loss, and read seizes Dante in haste, and bears him out “Boethius" and other books for comfort, of the reach of danger, like a mother car- (3) In this passage in the" Convito'' he makes rying her child out of a burning house use of an expression which implies an indirect without waiting to dress elf.* The proof of the personality of Beatrice : “ Come " Paradiso” furnishes us with still more anima della quale fatto è menzione di sopra, io
per me fu perduto il primo diletto della mia relevant illustrations, because the maternal rimasi di tanta tristizia punto che alcuno con. feeling for Dante is there attributed to forto non mi valea." The feminine " della
quale,” in conjunction with the masculine
" il primo diletto" clearly points to a woman, * « Lo Duca mio di subito me prese
and can bear no other meaning. (4) Dante Come la madre ch' al romore è desta, (“Vita Nuova," § 5) puts Beatrice in E vede presso a sè le fiamme accese,
catalogue of the sixty most beautiful women Che prende il figlio e fugge e non s'arresta, in Florence. Why should she be the only im. Avendo più di lui che di sè cura,
aginary figure among them? (5) In two Tanto che solo una camicia vesta."
separate sonnets he mentions" Monna Vanna “Inferno," xxiii. 37. e Monna Bioe,” caressing colloquial diminu.
words or grace
And just as Mary Crookenden, by backed, lame, and ravaged by the small. means of “ her almost cold loveliness," pox.” But she has
a generous soul,” appealed to the better side of Colthurst's and can “ love with that instinct of womnature through his feeling of “ reverence,' an which gives a foretaste of the intellibecause he knew that her cold purity was gence of angels." And in this pathetic the best antidote to his sensuous ardor, so contrast between the beauty of the spirit it was because Beatrice was la donna and the disadvantage at which its ill-assortdel cuore di pietra” that she “ wholly ed body had placed it lay the charm of dominated”' the poet through his “ Mademoiselle de Temninck for men who ence” for her.* ' Dante, too, had in his were capable of feeling disinterested love. youth led a life of dissipation in Florence, In women the passion of pity is naturally which had caused great scandal and seri- stronger than in men, and a bodily defect ously damaged his reputation. For this in a man who otherwise attracts thein somehe afterward expressed remorse, and it is times pleads his cause inore eloquently to the influence of Beatrice's unsensuous than
person, Balpurity, combined with maternal tender- zac thinks that this is true even of men : ness, that he ascribes his deliverance.f “Peut-être faudrait-il graver dans l'Evangile Very likely Lucas Malet had no thought des femines cette sentence : Bienheureuses les of Dante in her mind while she was work- imparfaites ; à elles appartient le royaume de ing ont the redemption of James Col- malheur pour une femme, car cette fleur pas.
Certes, la beauté doit être un thurst's character, and the resemblance be- sagère entre pour trop' dans le sentiment tween her ethical method and Dante's is qu'elle inspire ; ne l'aime-t-on pas comme on therefore all the more striking.
épouse une riche héritière ? Mais l'amonr My other witness is Balzac, so pro- déshéritée des frugiles avantages après lesquels
que fait éprouver ou que témoigne une femme foundly versed in the pathology of the
courent les enfants d'Adam, est l'amour vrai, affections. When he resolved to paint an la passion vraiment mystérieuse, une ardente ideally perfect love he made the object of étreinte des âmes, un sentiment pour lequel it deformed. The heroine of “ La Re. le jour du désenchantement n'arrive jamais." cherche de l’Absolu” is “small, hump- Love, then, is never at its best, never tives of Madonna Giovanna and Madonna entirely
, pure and unselfish, does not deBeatrice. Now, Monda Vanna was
serve the name of "6 the grand passion,'
a real woman, well known in Florence, the lady-love till it is charged with pity. Hence the of Guido, a friend of Dante. Is it not a nec- greater joy over one sinner that repentessary inference that Monna Bico was also a eth than over ninety-nine just persons who real woman? (6) In the “ Paradiso" (vii. 13) need no repentance. Love does not Dante says :
realize itself till it finds itself absorbed Ma quella reverenza, che s'indonnn Di tutto me, pur per B e per ICE."
through suffering into the life of its ob. Here we have again the pet name Bice, by
ject. which the woman of Dante's impassioned love
Colthurst therefore holds Mary still was known to him on earth. It is not credi. by the strong cord of her pity. He apble that he should have used this pet name peals to her in her retreat, and tells ber for Philosophy, or Wisdom, or the Church, or
that he has need of her, and must perish any of the abstractions which ingenious crit. ics have mistaken for the Florentine maiden morally without her. And Mary relents, of Dante's undying love, the daughter of Folco and is going to write to him when she rePortinari. (7) It has been objected that the ceives an urgent entreaty from Jenny to Beatrice of the Vita Nuova'' could not have
visit her without delay. She been the danghter of Portinari, since Dante
goes, never once makes mention of Portinari's name
the dying woman's request writes to Colin any of his works. But neither does he thurst, not the letter she had intended, but mention his wife, Gemma Donati, or their chil. a message from Jenny imploring him to dren, Are we, therefore, to doubt their ex. come and remove the curse which he laid istence ? Beatrice became to Dante the sym.
on her that tragic evening on the doorstep bol of Wisdom, Philosophy, Religion, all that pas pure and holy and lovely ; but she be
of Mary Crookenden. Colthurst obeys, come all this to him because she was first a and the trio meet for the last time at the real woman. It was becanse she was the Bice death-bed of Jenny Parris. His doom bas of his impassioned love that he idealized her overtaken Colthurst at last. “ He had as the emblem of all that was to him most attractive.
now to determine, irrevocably for this life, *“ Paradiso," vii, 13.
to which he belonged, which woman con+ See “ Purgatorio,” xxxi.
quered, won, owned bim-Jenny Parris,
his fellow-sinner, his comrade of evil days, humanity would have been to bury Jenny peasant, model, harlot ; or Mary Crooken- Parris decently, and marry Mary Crookenden, beautiful, spotlessly pure, rich too in den. But are there not natures which the good things of this world, the woman nothing but a “counsel of perfection' ' whom he supremely honored and loved.” will save ? Is not total abstinence the only He was free to choose, for his spell over cure for dipsomania ? But the mania of Mary was still unbroken. After a brief the sexual appetite may be even more struggle, with nothing to break the silence tyrannous, eren more abnormal and hidbut “ the solemn voice of the sea lament- eous in its aberrations, and may therefore ing along the coast,” Colthurst made his require the same diastic remedy. Marchoice and bade farewell to Mary Crook- riage is not necessarily the cure for such a enden :
nature ; it may, indeed, be “the last re"Go while you can still pardon me for all
finement of self-indulgence.” In renouncthe evil with which through me you have be. ing Mary Colthurst chose the better part come acquainted ; while you can still pardon for both. All through his passionate love the immensity of my self-seeking in approach. of her he knew instinctively that close ing you, asking you to marry me, asking you union with him would disillusionize her, to let me mingle the foul stream of my life and at the same time ruin that delicate with the clear stream of yours ; asking youfor, God forgive me,' Čolthurst broke out purity of hers which had won his homage, fiercely, as I see it all now, it comes to noth- and helped him in some degree to vaning less than that—asking you to pay for my quish his lower nature. And it was out adoration ty becoming, under the specious of her true love for him that Mary acquititle of wife, the last, choicest, most precious, esced in their final parting. It was just most costly offering I can make to my own flesh. Don't misunderstand me,' he when the obstacle to their union was resaid, quickly. 'I don't want to discredit moved that both of them realized the unmarriage to you, and make you think slight- fitness of each to make the other happy in ingly of it. To the pure all things are pure. wedlock. And there are men as well as women to whom marriage is pure, honorable, altogether whole.
I have left myself no space to dwell on some and cleanly'- he glanced away at the the subsidiary characters and generai conlow wide bed, but I am not among them. struction of the story. Madame Jacobini And therefore to me it would be the last refinement of self-indulgence.'”
is a vivid and charming creation. Lance
lot Crookenden is also a very life-like With a kiss of mutual renunciation the specimen of a pure and manly English lovers than part forever, and Colthurst youth, and makes an admirable foil to turns to Jenny and soothes her last mo- Colthurst's aggressively brilliant but inents. That night be resolves, by the coarser and more sensual nature. Lucas side of the dead, to live for his child and Malet possesses also the faculty of bringfor his art. But Destiny had ordered it ing a scene vividly before us by a few otherwise. Jenny's father returned in the strokes of that rare “art which conceals morning with the fishing feet, and, find- art,” as in her description of the party at ing Colthurst leaning on the frail paling Mrs. Crookenden's. And what a delicate that separated the cottage from the cliff, bit of observation is the following. he pushed him over at the spot where the Lancelot is deeply in love with Mary presentiment of his doom had first startled Crookenden, who is at this time engaged him on the fateful evening on which he to another. While he is kneeling in the promised to marry Jenny Parris.
act of putting on her goloshIs Colthurst's renunciation of Mary
'Mary nearly lost her balance, standing Crookenden natural, seeing that Jenny's crane-like on one leg ; stretched out her hand death would in a few hours set him free ? to save herself ; found it light on the nearest That depends on what we mean by“ natu- object capable of affording support--the top ral." Every kind of organic life has an
of Lancelot's round, black head. Men, even
the better bred among them, in their relation ideal perfection, toward which it is its to women, are divisible into
two classes – those business to strive ; and it is only by striv- who take advantage of such small accidents, ing that it can escape the Nemesis of the slips, misadventures, and those who do not. opposite law, which tends to degradation. Lancelot Crookenden belonged to the latter
class. For just long enough for the girl to reButh processes are natural ; one aims at
cover her footing the black head remained the higher pature, the other is attracted by still, firm as a rock, under her hand. Then the lower. The natural thing for ordinary the young man sprang up."
How far Colthurst's views on art are also radius and ulna. I was astonished, for I had the author's can only be a matter of con
never seen them hinted at in any female wrist jecture to the readers of her book. Lucas elbow, and saw the outer condylo risibly
in the antique. I directed my eyes to the Malet, I am told, is herself no mean artist, affecting the shape, as in nature. I saw that and it
may be presumptuous in one who is the arm was in repose, and the soft parts in no artist to criticise her hero's reasons in relaxation. That combination of Nature and the following passage for discrediting the idea which I had felt was so much wanting for
high art was here displayed to midday convic. antique as the basis of instruction" :
tion. My heart beat! If I had seen nothing “ That is getting hold of quite the wrong
else, I had beheld enough to keep me to Naend of the stick. Work toward perfection if
ture to the rest of my life. I felt as if a you like-if you can—if perfection exists.
divine truth had blazed inwardly upon my But to begin with it, and work back from it, mind, and I knew that they (the marbles) is a self-evident mistake, contrary to all known
would at last rouse the art of Europe from its laws of development. By setting your stu.
slumber in the darkness." dents down opposite to those faultless marble impossibilities you create a false standard in How Haydon, and Plato still more, would their minds. Nature does not come up to that cry out against Colthurst's dictum, that standard ; consequently, when you show them « Nature is the good ; it is an impiety, as Nature, they despise her, Le mieux est well as a stupidity, to discredit her by filll'ennemi du bien."
ing your students’ minds with dreams of But how is the better the enemy of the a non-existent better.” The Greeks are good ? Not by discrediting the good, but still our masters in all departments of by engendering desire for the better. He artistic excellence, just because they did will never be a great artist who does not believe in the existence of a better, of aim at “the better” —who has not a vision which Nature is potentially capable ; for of unrealized beauty before him, an ideal which, indeed, she may be said to be after which he strives, ever luring him yearning, and which it is the artist's func. forward, but never actually touched the tion to bring forth. How profound is gleam, the light that never was on sea or Aristotle's remark, that “ Nature has the
The artist, be he poet or painter, will, but not the power, to realize perfecis not a mere copyist of Nature ; he is her tion." In relation to her man is deaster interpreter, her prophet, giving articulate quidam, evoking her latent possibilities, expression to her dumb spirit. Herein as in his improvement on her unaided lies the value of the antique to the etudent efforts in plant and flower and animal, or of art. The great artists of Greece were in his creation of music out of the silent realists and idealists in one. They were air ; for Nature has no music-only its scrupulously true to Nature ; but they materials and laws. She needs man to idealized her. Sophocles claimed credit give voice to her dumb aspirations in the for depicting men " as they ought to be" sphere of sound : why should it be a dis. -i.e., he painted humanity not indi- credit to her to own that she needs him viduals. Aristotle, who quotes the boast also to supplement her own efforts to enof Sophidcies with approbation, praises visage the beautiful in form, and color, Polygnotus because he painted men better and proportion ? than they are ; and in his “ Politics” he Equally untenable, I venture to think, forbids the pictures of Pauson to be shown is Colthurst's assertion that not only to young children because he painted men poverty, sorrow, decay, death,” “but “ below the ordinary level of human disease,” and “sin” also, “are ideally nature.” Zola is a bad artist, because his beautiful,” because "everything natural delineation of human nature is an outrage is beautiful." But disease and sin are on humanity at large. The men and not natural ; they are against nature. women in La Terre are satyrs, not human They may be the cause of beauty indirectbeings. Mr. Symonds quotes a passage ly and accidentally. A pearl is beautiful, from Haydon on the Elgin marbles, which and it is the product of disease. Love is strikingly illustrates the fidelity to Nature, beautiful, and it manifests its beauty most combined with idealism, which distin. where sin abounds. But neither the disguishes Greek art :
ease which caused the pearl, nor the sin “ The first thing I fixed my eyes on was the
which exercised the ministry of love, is wrist in one of the female groups, in which
beautiful. Beauty always gives pleasure : were visible, though in a feminine form, the the hectic flush of disease does not, because, like a painted cheek, it suggests a of her morals." But these blemishes, and falsehood—the bloom of health ; and the a few more that might be pointed out, are false is never beautiful.
trifles when compared with the sterling The style of “The Wages of Sin” is merits of a work which, in my humble unequal. It is in some parts far below the judgment, surpasses in psychological inauthor's capacity-a flaw which is proba- sight any English novel published since bly due to hurry in composition. The the death of George Eliot. But while I story too, it seems to me, would have end- insist that “ The Wages of Sin” is a book ed more artistically without the "Epi- which makes for righteousness, I admit we logue.” What followed the death of Col- may have too much of the pathology of thurst had better have been left to the evil. We may, perhaps, concede to Bourimagination. To marry Mary Crockenden get the high moral purpose which he claims to her cousin Lancelot after the mutual for “Le Disciple,” yet deprecate the gran rifiuto by the death-bed of Jenny shocking details and unhealthy atmosphere Parris is surely a descent from the ideal to of that powerful story. It is possible to the prosaic. It is probably what would give honest praise to Lucas Malet's last have happened in ordinary life ; but it is novel, while hoping that she may have no the prerogative of tragedy to lift humanity feeble imitators in a style of fiction which above its ordinary level—to paint it, as requires purity of heart and delicate tact Sophocles said, " as it ought to be, not as to prevent it from degenerating, as French it actually is." Nor do I feel reconciled fiction has so largely degenerated, into a to the career of pantomime dancer assigned morbid and bastard realism. - Contemto Dot by the author's assurance that
Review. “Mrs. Prust will prove a capable guardian
CAPTAIN KITTY: A SALVATIONIST SKETCH.
BY LILLIAS WASSERMANN.
In human love I claim no part : exalté sort of temperament of which saints
and martyrs are an outcome ; although
there was both human passion and feeling By this last kiss of mine on earth
in her dark eyes.
When she prayed, as
against the powers of evil-an agony, a Every-day. Verses.
battering as it were at the gates of Heaven.
One could hear the human beart-throbs CHAPTER 1.
through the eager words. Her cultured,
exquisitely modulated voice rang through Hex face, under the shadow of the ugly the great hall like a silver bell, and set the bonnet, was one of extreme refinement and chords of many a long buried feeling beauty. She looked -as indeed she was vibrating. - thoroughbred. Katherine Villiers, in “That's right, Captain Kitty! Have fact, belonged to one of the oldest families it out with the Devil ! Give him a bloody in England.
nose! Land him one in the eye !" Nevertheless, she was one of the most The expressions of applause that were popular and successful captains in the echoed about from one enthusiast to anArmy ; and, amid all the coarseness and other were perhaps not very choice or eleapparent profanity of the stormy meeting gant, but they were certainly evoked by then progressing, she held her head high genuine feeling, undeniable emotion. and never flinched for a moment, though One man upon the platform commenced some of the language used both by orators to spar wildly in the air, as though he and sinners must have been a revelation to were fighting with some invisible opponent her.
who was bent upon overthrowing him. A But Captain Kitty bad that enthusiastic, woman—whose eye was black and her face