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relations in ignorance of his presence. val remained unfilled, and whether it was Again, he has no business to listen, if, Mary, the mason's daughter, or somebody though the tallers do not know him, he in those"

very

old ancient times you've knows them. In either of these cases

heard tell on, » who drank the hemlock, there is a personal relation established be- remained and remains a mystery. Some tween him and the talkers, and it would people would, no doubt, be disappointed be a betrayal of the courtesies of life to at anything so incomplete as this. These take advantage of the fact that the talkers will prefer the scenes of genteel comedy had forgotten his presence. It is only one gets in a first-class railway-carriage.

when a man can feel that the people to The present writer has no hesitation in whose words he is listening are total saying that the very best piece of acting strangers whom he has never seen before, for vivacity, naturalness, and good taste and whom he will never see again—who that he has ever witnessed, he saw as a are, in fact, as far as he is concerned, corner seat spectator on the London and mere shadows on the screen-that the de- South-Western. The dramatis persone lights of accidental conversation can be were an elderly but handsome and wellfreely indulged in. Fortunately, these bred man of the world, anxious to amuse are the conditions which usually prevail himself by a flirtation, but even more anxin public conveyances in London. " Come ious not to commit himself, and a clever like sladows, so depart," is the rule of and exceedingly good-looking old young the knife-board. As a concrete example lady of about nine and twenty. A better of the manner in which the line must be acted or more finished little comedy it is drawn between assisting at a comedy of impossible to imagine. Every point was real life and mere eavesdropping, we may taken up and given its proper value, and give the experiences of an inveterate prac- not a gesture or a tono was overdone. tiser of the art of listening. The person But, it may be said, this must be an im. in question had taken possession of a new aginary case, people never talk before a house a day earlier than he intended. stranger. Not, perhaps, if you look ag. Strolling round his garden he heard be- gressive. If, however, you retire bebind hind the fence the voices of two country- your paper and make it quite clear that men : When do the folks come in ?" you have no sort of intention of trying to

* To-morrow." " What sort be they ?" join in the conversation, and are, in fact, llere it was obvious that to listen further a person of no account, they will be pretty would be to act a very dishonorable part ; sure to take you at your word, and treat and accordingly the householder in ques. you as part of the carriage furniture. In tion had nothing to do but to sigh as a order to assume this carriage-furniture lover of accidental conversations, and de- status, however, it is imperative not to part like a man of honor. When, how- speak. Do not say, “May I move this ever, he found himself sketching under bag ?” “ Allow me, " - May I open this one side of a high hedge, while a couple window a little ?” Such phrases at once of unknown hedgers were trimming on break the spell, and put out the actors. the other, he could listen with a perfectly The only way to secure a good represeneasy conscience. What he heard on the tation is to sit like a log, and either look occasion in question was well worth hear- out of the window or into your newsing. “So they did take the hemlock and

paper.

In third-class carriages such preboiled it, and gave it to the 'oman ; and cautions are, however, hardly necessary. the 'oman died." Did er, now !” The poorer classes are accustomed to pubWas it some new tale of rustic poisoning licity, and perform in public without any that was being related, or some ancient sense of uneasiness. The most thrilling fable, old perhaps as the Odyssey, which scene will sometimes take place with five was being re-dished by one of the hedgers on each side. It was once the good forfor the other's benefit ? Who shall say ? tune of the present writer to be in a thirdThe sketcher heard no more. Not be- class Underground carriage, when a recause he was seen, or because the men spectably dressed woman and a man, who were called away, but simply because can best be described by saying that he there then occurred one of those long- looked like what is described in the serdr wn pauses which are so remarkable a vants' advertisement columns as a “ thorfeature of real country talk. The inter- ough indoor,” got in. The woman's first

a

words were as good as any ever invented old peasant in a third-class carriage begin by novelist or playwright to open a sensa- to give a friend a chapter of autobiographitional story :-“ He never knew till the cal reminiscences which was worth going day he followed her to the grave that she a bundred miles to hear. “ Yes," he wasn't his mother.Then followed a began, or rather went on,

" And I can very exciting but very tangled conversa- mind seeing four men hung in a very tional web, from which one could dimly rustic manner. It was back in the rick gather that somebody was keeping some- burnings. I was a lad ; but they were body else-apparently the " thorough in- hung just opposite our door for a warning. door”-out of a great deal of money, and Thes was tried in Wells, and they brought that there was a great deal of oppression 'em down to the country where I was, in and knavery going on, again apparently a wagon, sitting on their own coffins, and against the thorough indoor," who sat every village they passed through they all the time deeply interested, as well he tolled the bells. They was to be hung might be, and asking an occasional and opposite their own cottages. They put usually irrelevant question. Above every- up a gallows with four ropes, and they thing, the

thorough indoor” was to see stood one of these big wagons boarded a third person before he was seen by the over, underneath, and when they had other side, and “ put it to him." There fastened the men up, they put in the was just a chance that he might do right, horses and drew the wagon away from unbut a still stronger one that it would all der their feet. Law bless you, they be no good. At this melancholy conclu- kicked there for more nor half an hour, sion the train stopped, the respectable and their polls was drawn out half a foot, woman in black got out, followed by the and all as red as fire. It was just against “thorough indoor," and

and the

where we lived, and I saw 'em banging closed in," leaving the spectators with there till it was dark. They'd set the an intense, but unfortunately unassuagable, ricks on fire, you see. There used to be thirst for more light. Told barely, the a lot of it, and they wanted to stop it and story sounds comic, but at the time the to make these I am speaking of a warnearnestness of the speakers left no doubt ing." ... Whether this hideous“ rustic that it was a real tragedy they were dis- manner” of hanging was ever really purcussing, -one of those •

strange things” sued we do not know, but certainly the of English middle-class life which Mr. old man spoke as if he were speaking the Wilkie Collins loved to dissect.

truth ; and when he turned to give an acOccasionally, the people who train count of the bull-baiting on Mendip, and themselves to listen in railway-carriages how the young chaps used to run in and will do more than merely witness “litile catch hold of the rope, and then run out comedies” enacted before their eyes, or again before the bull could get at them, see odd characteristics exhibited. If they it was clear that he was not romancing, are lucky, they may hear some really good for such displays of village cruelty and

yarn” spun, as poor people spin them prowess have often been described. But, to each other. Try to get a laboring-man true or false, accidental conversations certo tell you a story, and he will make it as tainly form no small part for many people colorless and bald as an affidavit. Hear of the charm of town life. They are not him, however, in the ale-bouse, among better than the woods and fields, but they his own people, and it is a very different are a considerable compensation.--Spectastory. The present writer once heard an

tor.

scene

SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN THE FIFTIES.

BY MRS. ANDREW CROSSE.

а

The experimental philosopher, as Germans would probably seek to explain rule, is blessed with a love of fun and this condition of mind, as due to the inhumor, and possesses perhaps in a higher termittance of objective, in distinction to degree than his brethren of the pen, a the continuity of subjective trains of happy facility for mental relaxation. The thought; but these are hard words, and des Bishop Berkalov rays, metaphysicians philosopher in his most vivacious manner, bus suite dure, and then complain they and his ever cheery voice, welcomed is, Autowe, It is a fuet, and that is not forgetting however to place a mark in kwyl forum, that scientific men are his book. He woully cheerful minded, and can take These were winter days, a busy time plane' w. wholesome frivolity; they, with “lectures" and laboratory work; buone mwily than scholars or poets, can but we wanted to engage the Faradays to

out of their sphere of work, can more pay us a visit at Fyne Court, in the late curily unbread the bow, and restore there. summer, when they would be able to get by the balance of their physical well- away from London. Mr. Crosse, who

fully shared in Faraday's delight in a This is certainly the case witli Faraday thunder-storm, said laughingly, that he

Though not perhaps conspicuously to hoped we might have a “rattling good the worlat at large, with whom, his rela- storm, to welcome them to the Quantock House were thouse of a solemn teacher of hills ;"' adding “ but I am sorry to say mature's miseries, a grave exponent of that we are not unfrequently disappointed, her laws, and above all a man of such ab- owing to tbat abominable Bridgwater ***u eniginality that he seemed a dweller river which carries off some of our best in the intraprean of thought,

storms,” Wool the earliest visits we paid in This remark led to a discussion upon Tomomstier our marriage in 1950,-- the electric attraction of river systems, and ****** woman call on alr, and Mrs. the consequent distribution of rain.

** the Real Institution, My Schönbein's recent researches on ozone huminto son terms of intimacy with were touched upon, in reference to its exhow *** kumritum, being himself an en. cess in the atmosphere, or its absence, ****** in the xwe biela tield being possibly in some way connected

13**** ****** pura then known to be with induenza and other epidemic dis****** xris

onden Dr. Faraday ihen asked Mr. and what is a list. A feel Chase about his experiments upon “ihe har vi x ********* Hotell ** *** **ae carrying and transiering power of elec$$ MB ***w.ding to the trair 1. caession de remarked, on

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and she foresaw that Faraday, instead of bis “old master, that truly great man," resting his brains, would be talking sci- in terins of reverence, that showed the ence all day long.

largeness of his own nature. I did not fail to vindicate

my
husband's

The readers of Faraday's Biography character as not being one of the Dryas- will remember, that when in the capacity dust school; assuriny Mrs. Faraday that of private secretary he accompanied Sir he had at times, the ebullient spirits of a llumpbry Davy in his travels on the Conschoolboy, could play practical jokes-- tinent, he suffered not a little from the talk most excellent nonsense, on the prin- unsuitable impositions of service made ciple that he who is not a fool sometimes, upon him, and from the temper of Lady is a fool always, and lastly that he bad Davy; and what was far worse, in 1824, been convicted times out of mind, of per- when Faraday sought the distinction of petrating the most execrable puns ! adding F.R.S. to bis name, his election

Faraday himself had been known to in- was strongly opposed by Sir Humphry. dulge in bad puns ; there is a story told I knew nothing of these circumstances at of his being terribly bored by a long- the time of the visit I am describing ; but winded friend, who went on prosing about I have often thought since in reference to a misadventure, he had bad on one occa- the words I then heard, that certainly, sion, when driving across country after few men could so gratefully remember, dark. This friend's coachman, who we and still fewer, could so nobly forget as may suppose was not a total abstainer, Faraday. lost his

way

and wandered about and Coleridge who had been Davy's friend, about ; the narrator did the like in verbal when the raw Cornish lad first entered description, which was most tiresome ; upon scientific work, in Beddoe's Pneu" at length” said he “ the fellow set me inatic Institution, in the far-off Bristol down in a miry road, where I was plunging days -complained in later years-of Davy about half the night in a perfect morass. “moulding himself to the world,” be“More ass you” rapped out the philos- coming in short “ a Theo-mammorist.” opher, glad to finish boredom with a laugh, Coleridge, unconventional to a fault, anti

To return to the incidents of a visit, mundane in the extreme, frankly preferred which to me so memorable ; we “ little i against a whole alphabet of pubwere about to take our leave, when to my lic opinion.' great delight, Dr. Faraday, offered to Before we left the "old" laboratory, show us over the “ workshops," as he Faraday let us have a peep into the called them, of the Royal Institution. ' froggery,” a dismal sort of oubliette in

Descending to the basement, we passed this castle of science. Here, tradition through several rooms, but made our first says, those hapless creatures were kept for halt in the old laboratory, where Davy repeating Galvani's experiments on animal bad, with the marvellous insight of true electricity. genius, worked out bis philosophical in- Passing to the new laboratory we found ductions, and given experimental proof of Anderson busy with his furnaces. Every their accuracy. Here in this very spot,

one who recollects the Royal Institution the principles of electro-chemistry took in the Augustan age of Faraday, will retangible form and significance ; to the member the familiar figure of Anderson, unreflecting mind, a scientific fact may the assistant at the lectures, who never perchance seem small and isolated, one failed to bring the right thing, at the may even be tempted to say with that right moment. As once said of a greater foolish person, who with a sneer remarked personage, “ he was never in the way, to Franklin " What's the use of it ?” if and never out of the way.” Anderson, one did not remember the philosopher's who was an old soldier, had been selected rejoinder “ What's the use of a baby?

' as specially suited to be Faraday's assistSpeaking of Davy's great scientific ant, from his military habits of strict achievements Mr. Crosse remarked. that obedience The experimental scientist the Swedish chemist Berzelius, jealously requires his helpers “ not to reason why?' endeavored to detract from his inerits say- but to do as they are bid. The story is ing, “It was I, Berzelius, who opened told, * that on one occasion Faraday had the door and Davy walked in." . This gave Faraday, the occasion to speak of * In Dr. Gladstone's “ Michael Faraday.'

were

Philip, unfortunately for himself, paid mended to the Lord. Tents were set up no attention to Recalde's suggestion, but on an island in the harbor, with an altar only urged them to begone at their best in each and friars in sufficient number to speed. The ships were laid on shore to officiate. The ships' companies were be scraped and tallowed. The gaps in landed and brought up man by man till the crews were filled up with fresh re- the whole of them had again confessed cruits. Another ship was added, and at and again received the Sacrament. the final muster there were a hundred and This,” said the Duke, “is great thirty-one vessels, between seven and riches, and the most precious jewel which eight thousand sailors and seventeen thou. I carry with me. They are now all well, sand infantry, two thousand slaves, and and content, and cheerful.”—Longman's fourteen hundred officers, priests, gentle- Magazine. men, and servants. With restored health and good-humor they were again com

((To be continued.)

RUSSIA UNDER ALEXANDER III.

BY PROFESSOR GEFFCKEN.

THE recent barbarous proceedings The dead pall which during his long against the Russian Jews, and the failure reign covered Russia, and stitled every inof the last Conversion Loan, have again tellectual movement, was lifted by his succalled general attention to the state of the cessor, and a series of apparently hopeful great Eastern Empire, and therefore it reforms began with the abolition of serfmay be worth while to point out briefly dom, the introduction of local self-governwhat is its real condition.

ment, trial by jury, etc. But the conAfter the death of Alexander I., Prince dition of Russia is not that of Western Metternich wrote (Memoirs, IV., p. 267): countries ; the people were not ripe for “ Russia resembles a festival room on the the bastily enacted change, which, in fact, morning after the feast ; what seemed to had the result of giving free scope to the be in the evening before solid and lasting wild temper of the great majority, which now appears as coarse canvas, false dia- had been kept under by despotism, but monds, and worthless decoration, The had never been subdued. There were no Russia of old no more exists, Nicolas is materials for building up free institucalled to create a new one, and my sin- tions ; the masses of the peasants were cere wishes accompany him in this great entirely ignorant, and only made use of and noble enterprise." Metternich's their new-gained liberty to plunge into judgment on Russia was right, but he was dissipation and idleness; the aristocracy, mistaken in his opinion of the new sov- the merchants and tradesmen were comereign. He believed him peacefully in- pletely lost to all sense of honesty and clined, yet the Czar's foreign policy was honor, the corruption in the army and in one of constant aggression.

In Russia the Civil Service was terrible, the Orthoherself he re-established order, after dox Church was without any moral influcrushing the insurrection which broke out ence : in short, the governing classes were at his brother's death, by the harshest utterly bad ; the governed, who form despotism. He was a man of very nar- nine-tenths of the nation, reduced to virrow intelligence and culture, but brave and tual starvation. With all this the Governsimple minded, and he had the advantage ment followed constantly an aggressive of believing in himself and his divine vo- foreign policy : according to Stepniak* it cation. Although not a great man, in was forced to do so, in order to acquire reality he exercised a paramount influence new external markets; for the people, by in European affairs, and, favored by for- their poverty, were excluded from becomtune, acquired a powerful position, until, ing buyers, and the Government were carried away by the feeling of his infalli- obliged to procure other outlets for the ble omnipotence, he drifted into the Crimean war, the results of which broke

* The Russian Storm Cloud, or, Russia in Her his proud heart.

Relations to Neighboring Countries, 1886.

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