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of him with the serpent of Paradise ; and these religions were employed pro tanto in further, there is no distinct intimation that the counsels of Divine Providence, for he came to be what he was through a re- purposes reaching beyond and above the bellion against God followed by a fall froin consciousness of those who proclaimed and heaven. The magnificent description by practised them. Isaiah * of the fall of Lucifer from above, Let us now proceed to take a somewhat though it may well serve for a description higher flight.It will be admitted on all of such a rebellion, is primarily referable hands that the doctrine of a life beyond to the king of Babylon. It is only pas- the grave is an article essential, to speak sages of the New Testament, and these moderately, for the completeness of renot systematically combined in its text, ligion. Locke, in his famous Essay, exwhich inform us that he was a fallen spirit, cluded from toleration those who did not once in conflict with the servants of the believe in a future state, because without Most High. We hear nothing, in fact, such belief, as he held, they could give no from the Old Testament of the War in sufficient guarantee for their conduct as heaven. But while this awful tradition good citizens. No one perbaps would act was waiting for its sanction from the pens upon such an opinion now. There is a of Apostles, and was apparently unknown law written in our nature itself, apart both to the Hebrews, there was sufficient recol- from temporal sanctions and from the lection of it in the heathen religions. We prolongation of existence after death, are told of it as late as by Horace.f which of itself imposes upon sound minds Homer gives it us in various forms--of a real obligation to good conduct. But the Titans punished in Tartaros, f of the there are several things which may be fairGiants, & and perhaps also in the attempt ly urged. First, all men have not sound of Otos and Ephialtes to scale the heavens. minds; and secondly, that the doctrine Still, we had not until recently had easy of a future life not only harmonizes with, means of carrying the tradition further but very greatly strengthens that obligaback into remote antiquity. But the tion. And moreover, that any power, Assyrian monuments, though as yet but which society now possesses to dispense partially unveiled, furnish a tablet, with this powerful sanction, and yet enjoy thought by Mr. Smith to be one of those comparative impunity, is largely due to an about which Berosus states that they were elevation in the social standard of right buried before the Deluge, and disinterred and wrong, both public and private, due after it had subsided. This tablet con- to the long reign of Christianity in the tains the story of the seven wicked gods manners, policy, and belief of civilized or spirits, who conspired together to make man. war against Hea. And Hea sends his son We have seen that the doctrine of a Merodach to put them down, even as Hor- future life was not among the sanctions of ace in his fine ode assigns to Apollo a the Mosaic law. It is not necessary for capital share in quelling the attack of the my purpose to endeavor to track it through Giants. ** Probably much more evidence all the non-Mosaic religions of antiquity. could be collected to the same effect. But It will be enough to dwell upon two of what has been said is sufficient as an in- them, in which it appears to have attained, stance in support of my general proposi- at a very early date, a remarkable develop. tion, namely, there may be cases where ment. And it is noteworthy that, wbile the independent religions of antiquity have the recipients of special religioue light in enshrined in very pointed forms traditions prehistoric times were Semites, neither of justly to be cailed primeval, which have these cases is found among members of obtained no clear notice in the Old Testa- that family : the one being Aryan or ment, but which snbsequently appear as Japhetic, and the other what is commonly anthorized portions of the New. If this called Turanian. They are respectively be true, then it is surely also true that the cases of Iranians or Persians, and of
Egypt. And there is a certain amount of * Isaiah xiv. 4.-19.
resemblance between the two forms of de| Hor. Od. b. iii. 1 ; v. 49. Iliad, x. 429. velopment, which tends to favor the pre$ Hom. Od, vii. 59, 206. Ibid. xi. 307. sumption of a common origin.
1 G. Smith's ssyrian Discoveries, pp. 398-402.
The“ strain to faith,” which Professor ** Hor, Od, iii, iv, 60-4,
Cheyne regards as unsuited to an early stage in the existence of the race, seems were the punishments of the bad, who to have been put upon the Egyptians and were doomed to a transmigration into the the Iranians at a very early stage indeed. forms of the most detested animals. The Perbaps the case of Egypt carries us nearer evidence of their belief is to be found to the fountainhead of historic time by its amply recorded upon the oldest among certified antiquity. But the date of Zara- their monuments.* In later times, the thustra, or, according to the Latin corrup- features of ritual and presentation were tion of the name, Zoroaster, is thrown perhaps less strongly impressed upon the back by many beyond the reputed age masses, but the tenet continued to be aceven of the Egyptian remains. The mod- knowledged by the Egyptians, and it ern Parsees bring him down to about 550 seems sufficiently clear that from them the B.C. ; but Drs. Haug and West point out doctrine of immortality was learned by that the movement, which he led, is no- Pythagoras and Plato. ticed in the earlier Vedas, and conceive it Let us now turn to the testimony, pernot unreasonable to place him as a con. haps less remarkable, of the Zoroastrian temporary of Moses,
religion. In the person of its great teachThe great work of Sir J. Gardner Wil. er, it was mainly based, says Haug, on kinson, published in 1837-41, made us Monotheism, I although the motor, or evil familiar with the belief of the Egyptians, principle, was present with that of good not only in a future life, but in a life of in Ahuramasda, or Ormuzd, himself.Ş future retribution. Their funerals seem He taught a future life which was to sucto have been celebrated with the utmost ceed the present one : nor did he hold pomp of religious rites. * It is a well- survival only, but retribution, and likewise known and at least plausible opinion, that the resurrection of the body. On the the skilled preservation of the mummy was third night after death, the soul of the intended to conserve the remains in a con. dead man approaches the bridge of Chindition fit for renewed occupation by their vat (or assembling), and is contended for former owner. On the Monuments, a pro- by Deities on one side, and Devas on the cession of boats cross, from Thebes, the other, while he is examined by Ormuzd Lake of the Dead, and at the necropolis himself as to his conduct in the flesh. the body is set up in the ancestral sepul- The pare soul passes the bridge, with a chre. The final judgment is held before company of its fellows, and an escort of Osiris, no sinecurist like Aïdoneus in the blessed ones, into heaven. Homer, but the real working sovereign of
But the souls, which come to the bridge full the Underworld and its inhabitants ; who of terror and sick, find no friend there : the governs as well as rules.
Before him jus- evil spirits, Vizaresha by name, lead them tice was administered, without the law's bound down into the place of the dead ; into delay ; administered there and then. The the darkness, the dwelling of the Draj. I actions of the dead man were weighed in Thus the Persian religion had a develthe scales of Truth, and recorded by oped doctrine of immortality, like that of Thoth.t Horos then conducted him into Egypt; though they were shut out by the presence of Osiris, Anubis also tak- their rejection, in the early stages, of im. ing a share, and the four Genii of Amenti agery and ritual from using those means waiting to do their part. It was not of stamping it on the general rind, which dread of disgrace, says Wilkinson, which were so freely employed by the Egyptians the Egyptians were taught to look upon as on their monuments. Nor can we doubt the principal inducement to virtue, but that the belief in immortality continued to the fear of that final judgment, which hold its place in the authoritative standawaited them in a future state, and which ards of the religion, for we understand was to deal with their omissions as well as that it is cherished by the Parsees at the with their crimes. The all-scrutinizing present day as a practical tenet. Whether cye of the Deity penetrated into the secrets of the heart; and, as the rewards
* Wilkinson, i. 211. of the good were beyond conception, so + Wilkinson in Rawlinson's Herodotos, at
ii. 123. * Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyp- | Haug, p. 301.
SP. 303 tians, by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, Second | Pp. 217, 311-13. Series, vol. iii. plates 83-8.
Duncker, History of Antiquity, b. ii. ch. † Wilkinson, iii, ix-xi. [1 Ibid. ii. 438. vii. : from the Vendidad.
it had not lapsed long ago from its posi- simply presided, like a moderator in a tion of influence may be doubtful. At presbytery. Under the sacerdotal and any rate, a passage which we find in ritualistic system of the Magi, as Duncker * Herodotos seems to suggest a change of assures us, Ormuzd himself was representthat character under the Achæmenid sov- ed as offering sacrifices to Mithra and ereigns of Persia. Cambyses, absent from others; actual images of the deities were bis capital, had put to death his brother fashioned under the first Artaxerxes ; † and Smerdis. The murdered man was per. Artaxerxes II., falsifying the account of sonated by an impostor, who proclaimed Herodotos, f erected a temple, as well as himself king, and sent a herald to make statues, to Anakita at Ecbatana. the proclamation in the camp. Cambyses To conclude. Both the conservation at once challenged on the subject the per- of the belief through so many centuries, son whoin he had sent to commit the mur- and the immense force with which it seems der. This was Prexaspes, who replied by to have acted on the public mind at the saying : “ If the dead rise again, then in- earliest epochs, stand in singular contrast, deed you may expect also to meet Astyages as to this great article, with the Mosaic the Mede ; but if things continue as they system : nor do I see how we can refuse have been, you need have no anticipation to recognize a sublime agency for the of trouble from that quarter.
preservation of truth in the one case, as Prexaspes spoke with the object of re- well as in the other. The God of revelamoving alarm from the mind of the king. tion is the God of nature.
The means This speech indicates a decline ; and de- employed may be different, but the aim terioration had also been manifested in is the same. And when the Redeemer, other great articles of the religion of Zo- standing in Judea, brings life and immorroaster. First, it had been developed into tality fully into light, He propounds a an absolute dualism. Each of the two doctrine already not without venerable contending powers was surrounded with witness in the conscience and tradition of a council of six members, over which he mankind.-Nineteenth Century.
THE WORLD IN A NUTSHELL.
to their causes and the principles which underTHE HISTORY OF MODERN CIVILIZATION. A lie and instigate external movements has
Handbook based on M. Gustave Ducoudray's grown with a wonderful impulse. To meet “Histoire Sommaire de la Civilization.' the new needs demanded by this change of With Illustrations. New York : D. Apple- purpose, adaptation and revision have enton & Co.
tered as largely into the work as translation, The first section of this convenient sum
till the original can be regarded as little more mary, the “ History of Ancient Civilization,”
than a basis. While, perhaps, the changes, edited by Rev. J. Verschoyle, was published effected by wider as well as by more exact and two years ago. The two parts of course be
detailed instruments and methods of research, long to each other, and fit into a well-ordered
have not played as great a part in the reconplan, though each one may be profitably used
struction of modern as of ancient history, by itself. The new and concluding section they have still been useful in enlarging our follows the same general method as its prede- conceptions of the growth of society since the cessor, in being something more than a trans
Christian era began. Jation. Views of history and theories of his
The order of arrangement in the present torical investigation have changed mucb since
volume follows the same plan as that which M Ducoudray's masterly digest was written. governed the first section. The text is thorThe tendency to study events with reference oughly classified with reference to subjects,
and disentangled from all that confusion * Herod. iji. 62, misquoted, as I conceive, which naturally arises from the treatment of by Duncker (vol. v. p. 181, Abbott's translation). The text runs : εί μέν νυν οι τεθνεώτες
* Book vii. ch. vii. Abbott's translation, p. ανεστίασι... ει δ' έστι ώσπερ προ του, κ.τ.λ. Ι 161 of vol. V. note the tone and spirit, as well as the words. # Ibid. p. 176.
| 1bid. p. 177. | Hang, p. 305.
§ Herod, i, 131.
material into which so many complex ele. to duty to lift it up fto an educational place. ments enter as into that of history. This The book before us, if it does not quite reach order enables the reader to grasp bis theme the artistic level of Little Jarvis," which easily, and gives special pedagogic value to the was in its way quite a masterpiece, travels in book. Of course in its raison d'etre, as a sum. the same direction. As the name indicates, mary, such a work misses everything like con. it is based on an incident in the life of the crete fulness. No one need expect a vivid late Commodore Paulding, who died not many picture of life, for the conception of life means years ago in the fulness of years and of repugrasp of detail. The digest involves desiccat- tation, though his advanced years precluded ed treatment. But within its scope, and a him from taking any active part in the splen. very useful scope such a work must always did naval feats of our late civil war. Hiram have, as making an easy lodgment within the Paulding was a son of one of the captors of memory of the student and furnishing nuclei Major André, and vas fully worthy of his for the classification of the wider detail ac. patriotic antecedents. He became a midshipquired by other historical reading, the book man at the age of fourteen, and shortly after before us is one of notable excellence. In a his appointment, when merely what we should busy age, too, when nine tenths of those who now regard as a schoolboy, took part in the read care only for salient facts, the outline battle of Lake Champlain in the War of 1812, and skeleton of knowledge, and have neither where Commodore MacDonough won a notable time nor inclination for the fruits of scholar- victory with a rudely and hastily built tiotilla ship, such a work helps to fill a great func. which he and his men had constructed out of tion. It need only be said further of the the forest. These clumsy floating batteries,
History of Modern Civilizaton," that, like hardly fit to withstand even the gales of a its predecessor, it is edited with scholarly skill. small inland lake, were made the agencies of In illustration, care has been taken to enliven a naval skill and courage that compare favor. and expand the value of the text, and the pub- ably with like qualities which have emblazoned lishers have made its mechanical execution some of the most splendid p ges of modern worthy of its purpose and of the reputation of history. The marvellous evolution of naval their great house.
warfare, with its steel-armored ships and bigh
power guns, tends to belittle the exploits of RECENT FICTION.
an earlier age in the thoughts of careless MIDSHIPMAN PAULDING. By Molly Elliot Sea. minds. But it is surely true that with the
well, author of “ Little Jarvis,'' " Throck achievement of science in perfecting the in. morton," Maid Marian," etc. With Illus.
struments of war, much of the romance of bat. trations. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
tle has fled alike on land and sea, No mod. STEPHEN Ellicott's Daughter A Novel. By tunities, will ever be able to stir the imagina
ern naval commander, whatever be his oppor. Mrs. J. H. Needell, author of “The Story tion as do the exploits of Nelson, Rodney, of Philip Methuen," etc. (Appleton's Town
Cochrane, and Porter (not the late Admiral and Country Library, No. 80.) New York :
Porter, but his father). D. Appleton & Co.
Commander MacDonough's exploit on Lake ONE REASON Why. By Beatrice Whitby, au
Champlain played an important part in deterthor of “ The Awakening of Mary Fenwick,” mining the War of 1812, and it was the good “Part of the Property,” etc. (Appleton's luck of young Midshipman Paulding to perform Town and Country Library, No. 81.) New
an important minor part in the battle. He was York : D. Appleton & Co.
in command of the boats which repelled the RECALLED TO LIFE. By Grant Allen. (Leisure enemy's cutters sent to capture one of our
Moment Series.) New York : Henry Holl & stranded gunboats, and his gallantry saved Co.
the vessel. For this the brave lad received a A second book by Miss Seawell, who wrote sword of honor from Congress. The narrative that charming and inspiring story of youthful under our notice of course includes much heroism. “Little Jarvis," written, too, in a which is fictitious with its woof of fact. The similar vein, will naturally excite interest in a story is simply and vividly told, with a bright wide circle of youthful readers. The story of play of humor mingled with its more heroio adventure, which inevitably appeals to the elements. Old bo'sons mate, Danny Dixon, first place in the boy's affection, only needs with his sailor's yarns of Captain Paul Jones the fine spirit of noble ambition and devotion and other naval heroes, is a clever piece of
portraiture, and is an amusing picture of the turf, hatred of his cousin, and fear of detecold man o' war's man, a type of character tion, till he plunges headlong into the abyss which has contributed to the attractiveness of that awaits him. A contrast of character, well 80 many novels from the time of Smollett to devised, is that of Dr. Anthony Glynne, alias that of Clark Russell, Young people will find Anthony Henderson, Lancelot's cousin, who a chunk of solid satisfaction in reading such refuses to accept his own name, strong, resoa book as Miss Seawell has again given us. lute of purpose, austere in honor, and inspired It is a pleasant promise that it belongs to a by high ideals, who is master of circumstance series —“ Young Heroes of Our Navy”—full and not its slave. The antithesis is worked of potentiality, if the hereafter is justified by out with great art and effect. Dr. Glynne what is already accomplished.
saves his cousin's life by his skill and self
devotion in operating on him for diphtheria, Mrs. Needell's realistic study of life in and when he becomes master of the secret “ Stephen Ellicott's Daughter” must be dis. which restores him to his rights, and brands tinctly classed as superior workmanship. The Lancelot as a scoundrel, acts with habitual motive which determines the story is the ab. nobility. Mrs. Henderson, the daughter of sorbing passion for wealth and what wealth the sturdy Stephen Ellicott, half gentleman, brings, and its power over a weak but not half yeoman, is almost too perfect for frail radically wicked man to debase, and finally humanity : and to our notion there is far more destroy everything in him which works for lifelikeness in the figure of Winifred, the sishonor and uprightness. In another novel ter of the wretched hero, whose charm of lying on our study table for review occurs this character is not less alluring because she is aphorism : “For a deadener of feeling, for a very human and defective—all true woman blunter of sensibility, for a destroyer of the and not the least an angel. Another capitally higher and more delicate emotions, the want drawn character is that of the Hon, and Rev. of money is an unparalleled agent." For the Maurice Acland, the rector of Thorpe-Bredy, phrase want of money in this sentence a scholarly, somewhat narrow man, prond, might be substituted with no less truth“ the high-minded, shy, and full of the finest in. deterınination to make and keep money at stincts of tbe English gentleman, who dever any hazard."' Lancelot Henderson, in Mrs. can get away from his university instincts, Needell’s povel, falls heir to an estate dishon. and preaches over the heads of his rural paestly represented by his father, who had from rishioners. The story is very genuine and his father received a will leaving the property sincere, and is a bowshot beyond the mark of to an elder brother, previously fallen in dis- the average English novel alike in strength of favor. Lancelot's father transmits to his son conception and art of narrative. the injunction, disregarded by himself, to restore a wrongfully held property, and the son Miss Whitby has shown conscience and tal. disregards the trust as the father had done. ent in her art, and “One Reason Why" is very The rightful heir, Lancelot's cousin, who, readable, though we scarcely think equal to under another name, becomes known to his either of its predecessors in those qualities relations, is suspicious of the true fact, but which appeal to the better class of novel read. proof is concealed in the document held by The novel is not distinguished by any the usurper. This paper is finally discovered element of freshness or originality in its plot, by Lancelot's wife, who has been won from nor does it touch any of the deeper reaches of the wortbier cousin by a cunning trick, and feeling or emotion. It shows, nevertheless, the husband's knowledge of his wife's ac- good sound workmanship, and suffices to atquaintance with his baseness is followed by tract the reader agreeably, if he does not expect her getting possession of the will and conceal. too much. A charming young woman, who, ing it from him, with the demand that he driven by family stress, becomes a governess shall make restitution within a given period, in a wealthy and aristocratic family, and draws under penalty of exposure.
Lancelot is the heir of the title and estates to fall desperdriven by his own mad passion and base in ately in love with her, is always an interesting stincts from one subterfuge to another, to the personage, if the author does her half justice. final commission of suicide. The author There is no shortcoming in Miss Whitby in shows us a picture, composed with great psy. this case, as she endows her heroine with even chological skill, of the swift decadence of the more pride and hauteur than suffice to justify unhappy man, spurred alike by losses on the her self-respect and dignity in the most