Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ARTS.

1841

No. 1.

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 2,

success.

ADDRESS.

As a healthy mind is cheerful, its pages will seek THE PROPRIETOR of this JOURNAL begs leave to amuse as well as instruct; and if the intellect and to present a short Address to the inhabitants of judgment are exclusively 'addressed at times, at LIVERPOOL and its neighbourhood, explaining the others, the heart will be invited to be merry, and the object, and stating the grounds on which he relies for

lip to smile, Those who survey the present active The LITERARY DEPARTMENT will be open tointellectual progress, the number of Institutions for

1. Original Dissertations, Criticisms, with their scope of the advancement of Literature and Science, and the

subject, the Belles Lettres, Philosophy, Poetry, &c. increase and zeal of their members, acknowledge 2. Original Tales, Biography, History, Travels. the project of establishing a LITERARY JOURNAL seems 3. Valuable extracts from published works. justified by reasons substantial and available: and as 4. Notices and Reviews of new works of interest,

5. Drara::tic Literature, the Stage, and Public Amuseone of its principal features will be to record the

ments, local and national. labours of various Institutions, and bring what is now

6. Such notices, as may be permitted, of the periodical separate into one centre, it must prove the means of

meetings and lectures at thelocal societies of value viz: greatly aiding the cause of knowledge.

1. The Literary and Philosophical-meeting in the The wish has been expressed in Liverpool, that a

Royal Institution, Colquitt-street. Periodical, of Literary character, would enter the

2. Natural History Society,

ditto. field of Local publication. The London Journals,

3. The Philomathic Society,

do. 4. The Polytechnic Society,

do. of the above nature, are numerous and ably conduct

5. The Literary, Scientific, and Commercial Instied ;—but they are of too general an interest to serve

tution, St. Anne-street. the purposes of local Magazines.

6. The Mechanics’ Institution, Mount-street. Liverpool is the native town of the merc

clesia

7. The Northern Mechanics’ Institution. Roscoe, yet it does not possess a single Literary For the youth of both sexes the Journal will be organ. Liverpool and Manchester proudly introduced especially adapted, as its pages will contain many railways, and all the concomitant sciences, to the amusing anecdotes and moral tales, calculated to world, yet the former has not one Scientific Journal. excite interest and emulate to good deeds. Liverpool gave birth to Gibson, Deare, and other The proceedings of Temperance Societies will be eminent artists, and has an annual exhibition of the reported and the cause strongly advocated. beautiful specimens of native talent, yet it possesses In the department of SCIENCE, authenticated no periodical giving reports of the progress of the communications as to facts, discoveries, valuable proFine Arts. It is therefore confidently believed that a

cesses, &c. will be cordially invited. Journal appealing to the increasing mental activity,

As one of the class of cheap Periodical Literature, scientific acquirement, and refinement of taste, in

this Journal will be a substitute for those which this great and influential town, will meet with exten

are objectionable and dangerous to morality. Readsive support.

ing is now so general, that something will be supported GAWTHROP'S JOURNAL by the public, and if good is not offered, the worse will admit light and agreeable literature, as well as

will be devoured.

5

severe argument; will open its columns freely to the As nothing leading to conflict

, offending prejudices

fair statement of opinions, and will endeavour to or wounding opinion on religion or politics-nothing win a welcome from all orders of thinking readers. attacking the property of private character will be Its purpose will be to put forward and support pro- permitted, but, on the contrary, every effort directed vincial talent, whether in literature or in art; to pro- to the peaceful spread of knowledge, and diffusing mote mental, moral, and social improvement-not the taste for, and pleasure in, literary and scientific social hostility; to elicit truth-not to stir up factious recreations, the Proprietor of this Journal trusts feeling; to interest in investigation—not lay down that his honest labours will be encouraged, and that dogmas.

the result will prove to the satisfaction of all parties.

ADDRESSED TO THOSE DESIROUS OF SPEAKING AT PUBLIC

scorn:

REMARKS ON ORATORY;

orator to make his speech impressive, and to work upon bis auditors, but before this can be effected it will be

necessary that he should become acquainted with the affecASSEMBLES, AND TO THE MEMBERS OF DISCUSSION CLASSES.

tions of men, in order to excite or soothe their passions: he

should have an insinuating address, and polished manners, HAVING had frequent opportunities of judging of the

and a liberality, inseparable from a cultivated mind; his different effects produced on an audience, by speeches de

sentences should be so constructed as to flow on with diglivered with a graceful management of voice and gesture,

nity and ease: the speaker should have some end in view, and speeches which have been delivered without the slight- of which he must never for a moment lose sight; he ought est attention to these, I have been induced to commit to

never to deviate into abstruse" expressions, for this is only paper hints which have at various times been suggested calculated to bewilder bis hearers; and, above all, he must to me by the striking defects or beauties of the speakers to

never wander out of the beaten track of common sense. whom I have been accustomed to listen, together with a

These are the requsites for a good speaker. But to few observations on the art of Oratory.

attain them-Hic labor, hoc opus est. They are not to be Oratory is an art, which has almost always been held

bad by merely wishing for them; it is necessary that one by mankind in the highest esteem—is an art, which, when

should study, and study hard. He should make himself employed in the cause of virtue, or in stimulating men on

well acquainted with the writings of those who have disto noble actions—in implanting within their bosoms a sense

tinguished themselves for their elevated style of composition; of justice, a love of their country, and love of liberty—is

he should attentively puruse the works of the most reworthy of the greatest admiration—is of the utmost possible

nowned poets, that he may from them gain lofty conceptions, value and importance. By its aid nations have been saved

he should read History and Biography, that he may befrom ruin, and enemies been routed; by its aid tyrants

come acquainted with mankind, and lay in a store of usehave trembled, and their thrones have tottered-innocence

ful facts; he must thoroughly understand that branch of has been rescued from the malicious designs of villany,

pbilosophy which treats of the conduct and morals of manand held up to popular admiration and applause; while on

kind; and lastly, he must frequently read the splendid, the other band villany has received its just reward, and

the immortal productions of the Greek and Roman orators: been pointed to as the object of popular indignation and

from the examples which these illustrious men have left to

posterity, the student cannot but derive the greatest posJosephus tells us that by its aid Moses animated bis ex- sible benefit and assistance; he must learn to distinguish hausted, and almost famished followers, onward through

the genius of each,-observe the method they have chosendifficulties apparently insurmountable; and from the time

where they abound in figures, and where they assume a of Moses down to the present day, in every age, in every

plain dress. But this is not all. The most important part, country-among the most polished and among the most

and the one without which the other goes for nothing, is rude-eloquence has been employed as the surest means

Practice. As exercise improves and strengthens the body, of producing any desirable effect.

Since then its power is

so practice, the mind. It was by constant practice that so irresistible-since it is capable of effecting that which no

the celebrated Fox became one of the most brilliant and thing else can—isit not worthy of having the time and labour

powerful debaters that ever sat in Parliament. Mr. Fox bestowed on it which are necessary to acquire it?

himself attributed bis own success to the resolution which It is requisite, before any one can be eloquent upon a be formed, of speaking, well or ill, at least once every night. subject in debate, that he should be possessed of a fund of “ During five whole sessions,” he used to say, “ I spoke information regarding it: indeed it was the opinion of

every night except one; and I regret only that I did not Socrates that every man can speak with sufficient eloquence speak on that night too.” The exceptions indeed are very upon any subject with which he is perfectly acquainted, rare of a man's not having made himself a good speaker but on this sentence Cicero remarks “He would have been

at the expense of his audience. nearer the truth bad he said ' As no man can be eloquent

By some it may be thought that as the only end of a on a subject of wbich he is ignorant, so also none, how- wise man's speaking is to produce conviction; and thereever conversant he is with it, can ever speak eloquently, fore the only thing necessary to be observed would be to unless he is acquainted with the mode of forming and

offer bis arguments. clearly and methodically, that the polishing his discourse.” The mere stringing together a more plainly and shortly this was done, the better, and the number of facts, without attending to the order of arrang- paying so much attention to the cadence, and what is called ing them and putting them into a shape at once striking the ornament of a speech is entirely superfluous. Now, in and pleasing, will produce comparatively but little effect. common conversation, or in plain argument, perhaps all I have heard a person speak at considerable length on a sub

that is necessary is that your language be such as not to ject, and even though the substance of his speech was very offend; but the case stands different in a speech delivered good, and the information he possessed very extensive, yet, before an assembly of persons; it is then necessary that in consequence of not having studied the best mode of cap

the language should be harmonious and pleasing. It must tivating the attention, and swaying bis audience round by be remembered that men have natural prejudices, which degrees to consent to the justness of his views it only made have to be overcome. It is undoubtedly true that instruction him an object of ridicule. It is of course the desire of an and conviction are the great ends of speaking; but how

[blocks in formation]

are the attentions of men to be roused? how are they to be awakened from a state of lethargy? Plain straightforward truth is not sufficient; it must be set off and beautified. Cool reasoning is not sufficient; their curiosity must be excited—their good-will gained—their passions appealed to.

Both the Greek and Roman orators took very great pains in arranging their words in a manner to produce the most agreeable sounds. Dionysius of Halicarnassus has left a treatise on this subject. Cicero, in his Art of Oratory, dwells at considerable length on its importance. He cautions a speaker to beware of bringing too many consonants or vowels together, as in this case the words and sentences would not flow smoothly; and he prescribes four hexameter lines as usually the utmost length for a period. He should avoid bringing too many monosyllables together, and be should shun also the frequent hissings of plural nouns and verbs ending in s. I will not dwell longer upon this subject, as any departure from harmony of sound is easily perceptible to one who has been accustomed to either hearing or reading sentences which are well constructed.

This part of the essay I shall now conclude with the following obsevations. Sound should be conformable to sense. Every passion has its peculiar style; and one should be very careful in not attributing to one passion the language and expression belonging to another, for this is au error against reason and nature. Grief speaks in broken and disjointed accents;—Anger bursts out into a torrent of words-impetuous, quick, ready, rapid, redundant;-Joy expresses itself in numbers light and flowing, full of cheerfulness and vivacity. Entreaty is best made submissively, in an earnest tone of voice and with a countenance expressive of anxiety.

Action next demands our consideration a's next only in importance to the composition of the speech. The great necessity there is for paying strict attention to this very material part in the delivery of an oration, has been very strongly urged by every writer on Rhetoric, ancient and modern. Its importance was better understood by the orators of old than it is now; they knew hy actual observations, and by personal experience, the decidedly superior effect a speech produced, when accompanied by good action. How mortifying it is, to see a splendid oration, so far as composition goes, rendered almost painful to an audience by the want of proper expression and action in the delivery of it! It is strange, that while every one acknowledges the necessity of action; it should so rarely be carried into practice. Never, I think, was advice so often repeated-never was phrase so much hackneyed—as the definition given by Demosthenes of the chief requisite for a speaker ; and yet so seldom put into execution, or slight attention paid to it. How is it possible for any one to seem to feel what he says, if all the time he stands as motionless as a statue ? No fixed rules can be given for Action. The few following hints are all that can be said on this subject. When the speaker first rises up, let him stand in an easy posture, his arms hanging loosely down by his side; and as he proceeds in his speech, and the subject requires it, let him raise one or both arms; and follow the advice given by Hamlet to

the players. When he grows warm on the subject, then his action and expression must be full of life and energy; full of emotion and spirit; exactly after the dictates of nature.

More than these few observations is scarcely necessarydry and lengthened rules for the composition of an oration only serve as impediments, and are only calculated to damp the ardour of the youthful orator; for I do maintain that not all the rules which were ever written, for acquiring a correct elocution; nor all the works on rhetoric together, would be of any use to one whose own genius, with the models of antiquity, of our British senators, and frequent practice did not make a good orator.

I shall now conclude by mentioning few of those works which, on account of the excellent style in which they are composed, every student of oratory ought to read with particular care.

Besides all the most celebrated ancient and modern orations, which of course ought to be studied, he should carefully read Thucydides, who through his being elaborate deep, sublime, and having interwoven many speeches in his history, admirable for their majesticness, brevity, and force, was considered by Demosthenes so excellent a model, that he even copied them seven or eigbt times. His clear, lively and concise description of the plague of Athens is a good example for the narration in a speech; -Livy, who excels in the language of the passions: bis history is exceedingly interesting; he conducts us step by step in the retinue of his hearers; he makes us alternately experience the sensations of pity, horror, and admiration, and excites in us the spirit of patriotism. His account of the sacking of Alba, and journey of Hannibal over the Alps, is also a good specimen of narrative;—Tacitus, who is famous for his sensible and profound reflections: he employs the force of Rhetoric to connect historical events: his relation of the mutiny of the Roman Army, upon the Rhine, and the murder of Nero's mother, are particularly worthy of notice. Homer, Euripides, Æschylus, Sophocles, and Terence should be read for their lively images of manhis greatness, and meaness; his passions and caprices; in their works the heart beholds the picture of itself. By studying these, and similar books, and by frequent practice, a person of moderate abilities will learn to speak with copiousness, accuracy, variety, and force, and will have the very best models for the construction of the four ingredients of an oration :—The Exordium, Narration, Proof, and Peroration.

THE AMERICAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY is engaged in the great and benevolent work of extending the principle of abstinence from the use of ardent spirit, till it shall become universal. By means of the press and of living agents, a strong impression has already been made, and a great change effected with regard to this subject. More than a million of persons in the United States now abstain from the use of ardent spirit. Among them are those of all ages, and in all kinds of lawful business. Many, who for years used it habitually, and thought it needful, have found by experience that they were mistaken, and that they are in all respects, better without it. Temperance Advocate.

REVIEWS,

TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES.

MASTER HUMPHREY'S CLOCK.

In the address, we have mentioned our intention of advocating the cause of Temperance. We hoped this could not possibly give offence to any, and that to many of our Subscribers it would prove gratifying and advantageous. Our expectations however are disappointed. There are many it seems so hostile, we might say prejudiced, against Temperance Societies and Advocates of Temperance, that they even positively refuse to subscribe to any work in which the good object of these Societies is encouraged. With such persons we wish calmly to reason :

In all ages since intoxicating liquors were first made, and in all countries where they have been introduced, a certain number of men and women, from perhaps the peculiarity of their constitutions, kave found them so gratifying to their palates, and of so exhilerating a nature, that they have gained a habit of taking them to such excess as to cause intoxication. No one will attempt to deny that while the liquor operates upon the brain, such persons are incapable of fulfilling their duties as members of society; that they are generally guilty of acts of great foolishness, that they annoy those in whose company they happen to be; and that when they become habitually so, they loose their characters, spend their fortunes, and ruin the health. If they are men with families dependant upon them for subsistence, the consequences are frightfulwretched looking homes, and more wretched looking inmatesdisease and crime. Surely no one who has come to the age of discretion, is ignorant of the fact just stated, and no one with a head to think or heart to feel would refuse to encourage any measures which could be adopted to lessen the evil, to persuade the drunkard to abandon his evil ways, to remove from him all temptations, to destroy his grovelling appetite, and induce him to return to domestic peace and those innocent pleasures even yet remembered, with regret that they were exchanged for other so exceedingly pernicious. Now what is the object of Temperance Societies but to do all this? and who dares blame them for exerting themselves in so benevolent a cause? It is one of the failings of human nature to ridicule and censure without first making any enquiry. Few who now raise their voices against these Societies can, from their consciences, say that they do so with praiseworthy motive, and few there are who, were they acquainted with thegreat amount of misery lessened, with the wonderful good they have done and are daily doing-few of those even who make their livelihood by selling spirits could find in their hearts to attempt any opposition. When men unite together for a good purpose, many may, from various reasons, refuse to co-operate; but let no one having the welfare of his fellow-men and his country at heart display a narrow-minded prejudice against those who do; it is our desire to please all parties who suggest what is proper and rational, but in endeavouring to do so we shall bear in mind the fable of the man and his ass, and cautiously avoid too readily listening to every fresh opinion.

The triumph of Boz's genius has been singular and great. The fame of the author of the PICKWICK PAPERS was earned entirely, in the first instance, by the striking novelty — the life-like characters, and the humourous scenes with which the work abounds. Unaided by the powerful advocacy of Reviews, brought before the notice of the public only by extracts inserted in the newspapers, it worked its way by its own merit and gained a popularity but rarely precedented.

OLIVER Twist, by the same author, was not so popular because not so generally known. Appearing as it did in the pages of an expensive monthly magazine, it was not accessible to so many readers; but those who were fortunate enough to procure a copy will never forget the powerful descriptions the novel contains. The scenes are principally dark and terrific--yet truthful. They appal, and even almost disgust, but the interest in the story is so wonderfully worked up that the most fastidious reader could not lay the book aside. The fiendish Sykes and Monks—the worse than fiendish Fagin, are masterly portraits of the most revolting characters that could disgrace the human form. The brief-authority-clad Bumble is cuttingly satirical; he bears too striking a likeness to many of his brother officers; like the schoolmaster of Dotheboys Hall, many may think themselves the injured subject of the satire. In contrast with deep shade we turn with delight to the contemplations of innocence and beauty. Who does not feel for the poor little persecuted Oliver, and often try to check the sympatetic tear from overflowing the eye ? and how amiable and lovely in our eyes appear his friends, benefactors, and kind gentle young mistress.

NICHOLAS NICKLEBY is much better known than the former, for who that can read has not read his history. The powers of Dickens' pen are all displayed in this work to great advantage, his lively portraiture, humour, pathetic touches, fine language, and interesting story-telling. The faults of the work are few, and such as no eye ought to see: absolute perfection is not attainable, and where excellencies greatly preponderate, curse the critic who disgraces his craft by bringing blemishes into relief.

HUMPHREY's Clock is the last work which the genius of Dickens has produced. Unequal to his former as it certainly is, it possesses sufficient merit to gain popularity. The first few numbers alarmed his friends, for though here and there he wrote cleverly, and like himself, such touches were like gleams of sunshine on a cloudy day, they were particularly gratifying because they relieved the general dullness. The completed tale of the Old CURIOSITY SHOP is interesting, but unlike his other tales it leaves only a few scenes indelibly fixed in the memory. The heroine is naturally a prodigy of virtue—she is rather too exalted a character to win our sympathies and affections, our feeling towards her is something like Kit's, it is that of admiration and respect rather than love. The character of Kit is well drawn, his situation when accused of theft is highly dramatic, the reader feels a thrilling interest in his fate. Quilp is a little deformed devil, a caricature of some with whom we may occasionally unfortunately "meet, his patient, enduring, ill-used, yet loving wife, is a rara avis. The taller Showman is a specimen of meaness and selfishness often to be met with. We never knew a character at all like the old weak-headed Grandfather, but are not prepared to say such does not exist; there is but little doubt that the excite.

“Opposition to custom," it has been well observed, " which fallacy has long tolerated, is generally met in the outset in the most determined manner.” The remark, however, is a severe

We will hope no one will presume to censure any one's conduct, when proof is given of excellence and consciencious

one.

ness.

« AnteriorContinuar »